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Full text of "Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society"

^ c IVI. L 

973.006 

Am35p 
v. 25 
1915 
2013267 

REYNOLDS HISTORICAL. 

GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



3 1833 00824 60 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2012 



http://archive.org/details/proceedingsofamev25amer 



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PROCEEDINGS 



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NEW SERIES, VOL. 25. \J , £ 5* 



/ ■ - 

APK1L 14, 1915— OCTOBER 20, 1915. 




WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS, U.S.A. 
PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY 
1915. 



. 



1 030 
78 6865 11 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

American Antiquarian 
Society 

V I 

K 

N 

/ 

h 



COMMITTEE OF PUBLICATION 



FRANKLIN P. RICE 
GEORGE H. HAYNES 



CHARLES L. NICHOLS 
JULIUS H. TUTTLE 



t* 



THE DAVIS PRESS 
Worcester, M\b8achubhttb 



u . . ... c 



CONTENTS 



Note op Committee of Publication vii 
Officers and Members of the Society .... ix-xxvi 

SEMI-ANNUAL MEETING, APRIL 14, 1915. 

Proceedings of the Meeting 1 

Report of the Council 3 

Obituaries 12 

Check List of Rhode Island Almanacs Howard Millar Chapin 19 

Justus Fox, A German Printer of the Eighteenth Century 

Charles Lemuel Nichols 55 

Connecticut's Ratification of the Federal Constitution 

Bernard Christian Steiner 70 

Bibliography of American Newspapers, Part III 

Clarence Saunders Brigham 128 

ANNUAL MEETING, OCTOBER 20, 1915. 

Proceedings of the Meeting 295 

Report of the Council 299 

Obituaries - . 308 

Report of the Treasurer . . . . . 312 

Report of the Librarian 320 

Donors 336 

Franklin and the Rule of Free Ships, Free Goods 

Simeon Eben Baldwin 345 

Virginia's Contribution to Science . Lyon Gardiner Tyler 358 

Indian Myths of the Northwest William Denison Lyman 375 

Bibliography of American Newspapers, Part IV 

^-' Clarence Saunders Brigham 39G 

- t 



NOTE 



The twenty -fifth volume of the present series contains the records of 
the Proceedings of April 14 and October 20, 1915. 

The reports of the Council have been presented by George Parker 
Winship and Waldo Lincoln. 

Papers have been received from Howard Millar Chapin, Charles Lem- 
uel Nichols, Bernard Christian Steiner, Simeon Eben Baldwin, Lyon 
Gardiner Tyler, and William Denison Lyman. 

The volume also contains the third and fourth installments of the 
Bibliography of American Newspapers, 1690-1820, covering the States 
alphabetically from Maryland through Massachusetts, prepared by 
Clarence Saunders Brigham. Obituary notices of the following deceased 
members appear in this volume: Charles Francis Adams, Lucien Carr, 
Luther Samuel Livingston, Henry Alexander Marsh, Ezra Scollay Stearns, 
David Casares, Albert Harrison Hoyt, George Emery Littlelield, and 
Frederic Ward Putnam. 



COUNCIL 

OF THE 

pmerican Jtnftjjitartan Jtocteftj 

Elected October 20, 1915. 

president. 
WALDO LINCOLN, A.B., of Worcester, Mass. 

Wce^ipresloents. 
SAMUEL ABBOTT GREEN, LL.D., of Boston, Mass. 
ANDREW McFARLAND DAVIS, A.M., of Cambridge, 

Mass. 

Councillors. 

NATHANIEL PAINE, A.M., of Worcester, Mass. 

SAMUEL SWETT GREEN, A.M., of Worcester, Mass. 

GRANVILLE STANLEY HALL, LL.D., of Worcester, Mass. 

SAMUEL UTLEY, LL.D., of Worcester, Mass. 

ARTHUR PRENTICE RUGG, LL.D., of Worcester, Mass. 

CHARLES GRENFILL WASHBURN, A.B., of Worcester, 
Mass. 

FRANCIS HENSHAW DEWEY, A.M., of Worcester, Mass. 

HENRY WINCHESTER CUNNINGHAM, A.B., of Man- 
chester, Mass. 

CLARENCE WINTHROP BOWEN, Ph.D., of New York, 
N. Y. 

GEORGE PARKER WINSHIP, A.M., of Cambridge, Mass. 

Secretary for jforelon Correspondence. 
JAMES PHINNEY BAXTER, Litt.D., of Portland, Me. 

Secretary tor 2)omesttc correspondence. 
WORTHINGTON CHAUNCEY FORD, A.M., of Boston, 

Mass. 

IRecoroins Secretary. 

CHARLES LEMUEL NICHOLS, M.D., of Worcester, Mass. 

(Treasurer. 

AUGUSTUS GEORGE BULLOCK, A.M., of Worcester,Mass. 



OTHER OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

Elected October 20, 1915. 



Committee of publication. 

FRANKLIN PIERCE RICE, of Worcester, Mass. 
GEORGE HENRY HAYNES, Ph.D., of Worcester, Mass. 
CHARLES LEMUEL NICHOLS, M.D., of Worcester, Mass. 
JULIUS HERBERT TUTTLE, of Dedham, Mass. 

Buoitors. 
BENJAMIN THOMAS HILL, A.B., of Worcester, Mass. 
HOMER GAGE, M.D., of Worcester, Mass. 



finance Committee. 
WALDO LINCOLN, A.B., of Worcester, Mass. 
FRANCIS HENSHAW DEWEY, A.M., of Worcester, Mass. 
CHARLES GRENFILL WASHBURN, A.B., of Worcester, Mass. 

Utbrarg Committee. 
WALDO LINCOLN, A.B., of Worcester, Mass. 
FRANKLIN PIERCE RICE, of Worcester, Mass. 
T. HOVEY GAGE, of Worcester, Mass. 

Committee on tbe IKalL 

WALDO LINCOLN, A.B., of Worcester, Mass. 
SAMUEL UTLEY, LL.B., of Worcester, Mass. 
CHARLES LEMUEL NICHOLS, M.D., of Worcester, Mass. 

JBtoorapber. 

SAMUEL UTLEY, LL.B., of Worcester, Mass. 

librarian. 
CLARENCE SAUNDERS BRIGHAM, A.M., of Worcester, Mass. 

librarian JEmerltua. 
EDMUND MILLS BARTON, of Worcester, Mass. 

assistants. 

Mrs. MARY ROBINSON REYNOLDS. 

Miss LOUISE COLEGROVE. 

Mr. CURTIS HUGH MORROW. 



XI 



RESIDENT MEMBERS 

IN THE ORDER OF THEIR ELECTION. 



October, 1860. 

NAME RESIDENCE 

Nathaniel Paine, A.M., .... Worcester, Mass. 

April, 1862. 
Horace Davis, LL.D., . . . . San Francisco, Cal. 

October, 1865. 

Samuel Abbott Green, LL.D., . Boston, Mass. 

April, 1875. 
Hubert Howe Bancroft, A.M., . San Francisco, Cal. 

April, 1876. 
Charles Card Smith, A.M., . . . Boston, Mass. 

October, 1878. 
Edmund Mills Barton, .... Worcester, Mass. 

April, 1879. 
Franklin Bowditch Dexter, Litt.D., New Haven, Conn. 

April, 1880. 
Samuel Swett Green, A.M., . . . Worcester, Mass. 

October, 1881. 
Henry Cabot Lodge, LL.D., . . . Nahant, Mass. 



XII 
April, 1882. 

Andrew McFarland Davis, A.M., . Cambridge, Mass. 
Stephen Denison Peet, Ph.D., . . Salem, Mass. 

April, 1884. 
John Bach McMaster, LL.D., . . Philadelphia, Pa. 

October, 1884. 

Henry Adams, LL.D., Washington, D. C. 

William Harden, Savannah, Ga. 

Andrew Dickson White, D.C.L., Ithaca, N. Y. 

April, 1885. 

Rev. Joseph Anderson, D.D., . Woodmont, Conn. 

Reuben Colton, A.B., Boston, Mass. 

Theodore Frelinghuysen Dwight, . Boston, Mass. 

Henry Herbert Edes, A.M., . . . Cambridge, Mass. 

October, 1885. 
Edward Channing, Ph.D., . . . Cambridge, Mass. 

April, 1887. 
James Phinney Baxter, Litt.D., . Portland, Me. 

April, 1888. 
Augustus George Bullock, A.M., . Worcester, Mass. 

October, 1888. 

Granville Stanley Hall, LL.D., . Worcester, Mass. 
John McKinstry Merriam, A.B., Framingham,Mass. 

October, 1889. 
William Eaton Foster, Litt.D., Providence, R. I. 

April, 1890. 

Hannis Taylor, LL.D., .... Washington, D. C. 
Thomas Lindall Winthrop, . . . Boston, Mass. 






XIII 



October, 1890. 
James Burrill Angell, LL.D., . 
John Franklin Jameson, LL.D., . 

April, 1891. 

Charles Pickering Bowditch, A.M., 
Charles Pelham Greenough, LL.B., 
Edwin Doak Mead, A.M., 

October, 1891. 

Francis Henshaw Dewey, A.M., 
Rev. Calvin Stebbins, A.B., . 

October, 1892. 
Eugene Frederick Bliss, A.M., . . 

April, 1893. 
WlLBERFORCE EAMES, A.M., 



Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Washington, D. C. 



Boston, Mass. 
Brookline, Mass. 
Boston, Mass. 



Worcester, Mass. 
Framingham,Mass. 



Cincinnati, Ohio. 



New York, N. Y. 



October, 1893. 

Simeon Eben Baldwin, LL.D., . 
Henry Phelps Johnston, A.M., . 
Albert Shaw, LL.D., .... 



New Haven, Conn. 
New York, N : Y. 
New York, N. Y. 



April, 1894. 

Rev. William DeLoss Love, Ph.D., 

April, 1895. 

Thomas Corwin Mendenhall, LL.D., 
Clarence Bloomfield Moore, A.B. : 



Hartford, Conn. 



Ravenna, Ohio. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



April, 1896. 

William Trowbridge Forbes, A.B., 
Edwin Augustus Grosvenor, LL.D., 

October, 1896. 

George Henry Haynes, Ph.D., . 
Arthur Lord, A.B., 



Worcester, Mass. 
Amherst, Mass. 



Worcester, Mass. 
Plymouth, Mass. 



XIV 



April, 1897. 

Joseph Florimond Loubat, LL.D., . 
Charles Lemuel Nichols, M.D., 

October, 1897. 
William Roscoe Livermore. . 

April, 1898. 

Lewis Winters Gunckel, Ph.B., 

Waldo Lincoln, A.B., 

Edward Sylvester Morse, Ph.D., . 

April, 1899. 

George Burton Adams, Litt.D., 
Alexander Graham Bell, LL.D., 
Abbott Lawrence Lowell, LL.D., . 
George Parker Winship, A.M., . 

October, 1899. , 

Rev. Austin Samuel Garver, A.M., 
Rt. Rev. William Lawrence, LL.D., 

April, 1900. 
Samuel Utley, LL.B., . . 

October, 1900. 

Edward Hooker Gilbert, A.B., . 

James Ford Rhodes, LL.D., 

Elias Harlow Russell, .... 

April, 1901. 

Benjamin Thomas Hill, A.B., . . 
Rev. Henry Fitch Jenks, A.M., 
Allen Clapp Thomas, A.M., . 
Rev. Charles Stuart Vedder, LL.D., 
Rev. Williston Walker, Litt.D., . 

October, 1901. 

Edmund Arthur Engler, LL.D., 
George Lyman Kittredge, LL.D., . 



Paris, France. 
Worcester, Mass. 



Boston, Mass. 



Dayton, Ohio. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Salem, Mass. 



New Haven, Conn. 
Washington, D. C. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Providence, R. I. 



Worcester, Mass. 
Boston, Mass. 



Worcester, Mass. 



Ware, Mass. 
Boston, Mass. 
Tilton, N. H. 



Worcester, Mass. 
Canton, Mass. 
Haverford, Pa. 
Charleston, S. C. 
New Haven, Conn. 



St. Louis, Mo. 
Cambridge, Mass 



XV 



Samuel Walker McCall, LL.D., Winchester, Mass. 

Albert Matthews, A.B., .... Boston, Mass. 

April, 1902. 
William Denison Lyman, A.M., . Walla Walla, Wash. 

October, 1902. 

William MacDonald, LL.D., . Providence, R. I. 

Roger Bigelow Merriman, Ph.D., . Cambridge, Mass. 

April, 1903. 
Anson Daniel Morse, LL.D., Amherst, Mass. 

April, 1904. 

Clarence Winthrop Bowen, Ph.D., New York, N. Y. 
Victor Hugo Paltsits, .... New York, N. Y. 

October, 1904. 
Daniel Berkeley Updike, A.M., Boston, Mass. 

October, 1905. 

Clarence Saunders Brigham, A.M., Worcester, Mass. 
William Henry Holmes, .... Washington, D. C. 

April, 1906. 
Frederick Lewis Gay, A.B., . Brookline, Mass. 

October, 1906. 

William Keeney Bixby, LL.D., . St. Louis, Mo. 

Lincoln Newton Kinnicutt, . . Worcester, Mass. 

Franklin Pierce Rice, .... Worcester, Mass. 

April, 1907. 
Worthington Chauncey Ford, A.M., Boston, Mass. 

October, 1907. 

Charles McLean Andrews, Ph.D., . New Haven, Conn. 
Clarence Monroe Burton, A.M., Detroit, Mich*. 



XVI 



Thomas McAdory Owen, LL.D., Montgomery, Ala. 

Herbert Putnam, LL.D., .... Washington, D. C. 

James Schouler, LL.D., .... Intervale, N. H. 

Frederick Jackson Turner, LL.D., Cambridge, Mass. 

Henry Ernest Woods, A.M., . . Boston, Mass. 



April, 1908. 

William Beer, 

Franz Boas, Ph.D., 

George Lincoln Burr, LL.D., 
Peter Joseph Hamilton, A.M., . 
Charles Henry Hull, Ph.D., 
William Coolidge Lane, A.B., . 
Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin, A 
Herbert Levi Osgood, Ph.D., 
Edward Luther Stevenson, Ph.D., 
Julius Herbert Tuttle, . 
Charles Grenfill Washburn, A.B., 
Samuel Bayard Woodward, M.D., 



New Orleans, La 
. New York, N. Y. 
. Ithaca, N. Y. 
San Juan, Porto Rico 
. Ithaca, N. Y. 

Cambridge; Mass. 
.M., Chicago, 111. 
. New York, N. Y. 

New York, N. Y. 

Dedham, Mass. 

Worcester, Mass. 

Worcester, Mass. 



October, 1908. 

George Hubbard Blakeslee, Ph.D., 
Clyde Augustus Duniway, Ph.D. 
Max Farrand, Ph.D., . 
Frederick Webb Hodge, . 
William Vail Kellen, LL.D., 
Alfred L. Kroeber, Ph.D., 
Arthur Prentice Rugg, LL.D., 
Marshall Howard Saville, . 
Alfred Marston Tozzer, Ph.D., 

April, 1909. 

Samuel Morris Con ant, 
Wilfred Harold Munro, L.H.D., 
Justin Harvey Smith, LL.D., 

October, 1909. 

Herman Vandenburg Ames, Ph.D., 
Edward Everett Ayer, . . 



Worcester, Mass. 
Laramie, Wyo. 
New Haven, Conn. 
Washington, D. C. 
Boston, Mass. 
San Francisco, Cal. 
Worcester, Mass. 
New York, N. Y. 
Cambridge, Mass. 



Pawtucket, R. I. 
Providence, R. I. 
Boston, Mass. 



Philadelphia, 
Chicago, 111. 



Pa. 






XVII 



Hiram Bingham, Ph.D., .... New Haven, Conn. 
Henry Winchester Cunningham, A.B., Manchester, Mass. 

Roland Burrage Dixon, Ph.D., . Cambridge, Mass. 

Frank Farnum Dresser, A.M., . Worcester, Mass. 

Albert Bushnell Hart, LL.D., . Cambridge, Mass. 

Rev. Shepherd Knapp, D.D., . Worcester, Mass. 

April, 1910. 

Gaillard Hunt, Washington, D. C. 

Archer Milton Huntington, A.M., New York, N. Y. 

Barrett Wendell, Litt.D., . . . Boston, Mass. 

Albert Henry Whitin, .... Whitinsville, Mass. 
October, 1910. 

Albert Carlos Bates, Hartford, Conn. 

George Francis Dow, Salem, Mass. 

Charles Evans, ■ . Chicago, 111. 

Homer Gage, M.D., Worcester, Mass. 

Samuel Verplanck Hoffmann, New York, N. Y. 
Rev. Henry Ainsworth Parker, A.M., Cambridge, Mass. 

William Milligan Sloane, LL.D., . Princeton, N. J. 

April, 1911. 

Thomas Willing Balch, LL.B., . Philadelphia, Pa. 

John Spencer Bassett, Ph.D., . Northampton,Mass. 

Archibald Cary Coolidge, Ph.D., Boston, Mass. 

Carl Russell Fish, Ph.D., . . Madison, Wis. 

John Holladay Latane, Ph.D., . . Baltimore, Md. 

April. 1912. 

Clarence Walworth Alvord, Ph.D., Urbana, 111. 

Livingston Davis, A.B., Milton, Mass. 

Archer Butler Hulbert, A.M., . Marietta, Ohio. 

Charles Henry Taylor, Jr., . . . Boston, Mass. 

October, 1912. 

William Archibald Dunning, LL.D., New York, N. Y. 
Samuel Whitaker Pennypacker, LL.D., 

Pennypacker's Mills, Pa. 

William Howard Taft, LL.D., . . New Haven, Conn. 

Lyon Gardiner Tyler, LL.D., . Williamsburg, Va. 



XVIII 



October, 1913. 

Herbert Eugene Bolton, Ph. D., . Berkeley, Cal. 

Rev. Herbert Edwin Lombard, . Worcester, Mass. 

Bernard Christian Steiner, Ph. D., Baltimore, Md. 

Woodrow Wilson, LL.D., .... Washington, D. C. 



April, 1914. 

♦Howard Millar Chapin, A.B., . 
*Samuel Eliot Morison, Ph.D., . 
*Grenville Rowland Norcross, LL 
George Arthur Plimpton, LL.D., 
Alexander Samuel Salle y, Jr., 



Providence, R. I. 
Boston, Mass. 
B., Boston, Mass. 
New York, N. Y. 
Columbia, S. C. 



October, 1914. 

Jesse Walter Fewkes, Ph.D., 
*Thomas Hovey Gage, LL.B., 
Otis Grant Hammond, .... 
Charles Francis Jenney, LL.B., 
William Pendleton Palmer, . 

MlLO MfLTON QUAIPB, Ph.D., . 



Washington, D. C. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Concord, N. H. 
Hyde Park, Mass. 
Cleveland, Ohio. 
Madison, Wis. 



April, 1915. 



*John Whittemore Farwell, 

*Rev. Samuel Hart, LL.D 

Ira Nelson Hollis, Sc.D., 

Henry Edwards Huntington, 

♦Lawrence Waters Jenkins, A.B., 

Rev. Henry Bradford Washburn, S.T.B., , 

Cambridge, Mass. 
Leonard Wheeler, M.D., . . . . Worcester, Mass. 



Boston, Mass. 
Middletown, Conn. 
Worcester, Mass. 
New York, N. Y. 
Salem, Mass. 



October, 1915. 

John Woolf Jordan, LL.D., 
Alexander George McAide, A.M., 



Philadelphia, Pa. 
Milton, Mass. 



ifo members. 



XIX 



FOREIGN MEMBERS. 



ARGENTINA. 

April, 1910. 
NAME 

Juan B. Ambrosetti, 

Samuel A. Lafone Quevedo, M.A., . 

BOLIVIA. 

April, 1910. 
Manuel Vicente Ballivian, . 

BRAZIL. 

April, 1910. 
Jose Carlos Rodriguez, LL.B., . 

CANADA. 

April, 1908. 

Narcisse-Eutrope Dionne, LL.D., 

April, 1910. 

Arthur George Doughty, Litt.D., . 
William Lawson Grant, A.M., . 
William Wood, D.C.L., . 

October, 1910. 
George McKinnon Wrong, A.M., . 

CHILE. 

April, 1909. 
Jose Toribio Medina, 

ECUADOR. 

April, 1910. 
Federico Gonzalez Suarez, . 



residence 
Buenos Aires. 
La Plata. 



La Paz. 



Rio de Janeiro. 



Quebec. 

Ottawa. 

Kingston. 

Quebec. 

Toronto. 



Santiago de Chile. 



Quito. 



XX 

FRANCE. 

October, 1896. 
Henry Vignaud, Bagneux, Seine. 

GERMAN EMPIRE. 

April, 1875. 
Otto Keller, Ph.D., Stuttgart. 

April, 1893. 
Johannes Conrad, LL.D., .... Halle. 

April, 1910. 
Eduard Seler, Ph.D., Berlin. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

April, 1882. 

Rt. Hon. James Bryce, D.C.L., . Sussex. 

October, 1892. 

Charles Harding Firth, Litt.D., Oxford. 

Paul Vinogradoff, LL.D., . Oxford. 

October, 1894. 

Hubert Hall, London. 

October, 1901. 

Sir Arthur Herbert Church, D.Sc, Shelsley, 

Kew Gardens. 

October, 1910. 
Alfred Percival Maudslay, . . London. 

October, 1913. 
Vere Langford Oliver, .... Sunninghill. 

October, 1915. 
Sir George Otto Trevelyan, London. 

HOLLAND. 

October, 1895. 

Johann Christoph Vollgraff, L.H.D., Utrecht. 






XXI 

MEXICO. 

April, 1887. 
Edward Herbert Thompson, . . Merida, Yucatan. 

October, 1890. 
Nicolas Leon, Ph.D., Mexico. 

April, 1907. 
Genaro Garcia, Mexico. 

April, 1910. 
Antonio Penafiel, ...... Mexico. 

NORWAY. 

October, 1906. 
Roald Amundsen, Christiania. 

PERU. 

October, 1912. 
Federico Alfonso Pezet, LL.D., Washington, D. C. 

PORTUGAL. 

October, 1906. 
Bernardino Machado, Lisbon. 

WEST INDIES. 
April, 1912. 
Frank Ctjndall, Kingston, Jamaica. 






xxn 



RESIDENT MEMBERS 

ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED. 



NAME. RESIDENCE. 

George Burton Adams, Litt.D., New Haven, Conii. 

Henry Adams, LL.D., . . . . Washington, D. C. 

Clarence Walworth Alvord, Ph.D., Urbana, III. 

Herman Vandenburg Ames, Ph.D., . Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rev. Joseph Anderson, D.D., Woodmont, Conn. 

Charles McLean Andrews, Ph.D., . New Haven, Conn. 

James Burrill Angell, LL.D., . . Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Edward Everett Ayer, . . . Chicago, 111. 

Thomas Willing Balch, LL.B., . Philadelphia, Pa. 

♦Simeon Eben Baldwin, LL.D., . New Haven, Conn. 

Hubert Howe Bancroft, A.M., . San Francisco, Cal. 

*Edmund Mills Barton, .... Worcester, Mass. 

John Spencer Bassett, Ph.D., . Northampton,Mass. 

♦Albert Carlos Bates, .... Hartford, Conn. 

James Phinney Baxter, Litt.D., . Portland, Me. 

William Beer, ....... New Orleans, La. 

Alexander Graham Bell, LL.D., Washington, D. C. 

Hiram Bingham, Ph.D., .... New Haven, Conn. 

*William Keeney Bixby, LL.D., . St. Louis, Mo. 

George Hubbard Blakeslee, Ph.D., Worcester, Mass. 

Eugene Frederick Bliss, A.M., . Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Franz Boas, Ph.D., New York, N. Y. 

Herbert Eugene Bolton, Ph.D., Berkeley, Cal. 

♦Charles Pickering Bowditch, A.M., Boston, Mass. 

♦Clarence Winthrop Bowen, Ph.D., New York, N. Y. 

Clarence Saunders Brigham, A.M., Worcester, Mass. 

Augustus George Bullock, A.M., . Worcester, Mass. 

George Lincoln Burr, LL.D., . Ithaca, N. Y. 

Clarence Monroe Burton, A.M., Detroit, Mich. 

♦Edward Channing, Ph.D., . . . Cambridge, Mass. 

* life members. 



XXIII 



♦Howard Millak Chapin, A.B., . . Providence, R. I. 

Reuben Colton, A.B., .... Boston, Mass. 

Samuel Morris Conant, .... Pawtucket, R. I. 

♦Archibald Gary Coolidge, Ph.D., . Boston, Mass. 
♦Henry Winchester Cunningham, A.B., Manchester, Mass. 

♦Andrew McFarland Davis, A.M., . Cambridge, Mass. 

Horace Davis, LL.D., San Francisco, Cal. 

♦Livingston Davis, A.B., .... Milton, Mass. 

♦Francis Henshaw Dewey, A.M., . Worcester, Mass. 

♦Franklin Bowditch Dexter, Litt.D., New Haven, Conn. 

Roland Burrage Dixon, Ph.D., . Cambridge, Mass. 

George Francis Dow, Salem, Mass. 

Frank Farnum Dresser, A.M., . . Worcester, Mass. 

Clyde Augustus Duniway, Ph.D., . Laramie, Wyo. 

William Archibald Dunning, LL.D., New York, N. Y. 

Theodore Frelinghuysen D wight, . Boston, Mass. 

Wilberforce Eames, A.M., . New York, N. Y. 

♦Henry Herbert Edes, A.M., Cambridge, Mass. 

Edmund Arthur Engler, LL.D., . St. Louis, Mo. 

Charles Evans, Chicago, 111. 

Max Farrand, Ph.D., . . . . New Haven, Conn. 

♦John Whittemoiie Farwell, . . Boston, Mass. 

Jesse Walter Fewkes, Ph.D., . Washington, D. C. 

Carl Russell Fish, Ph.D., . . . Madison, Wis. 

William Trowbridge Forbes, A.B., Worcester, Mass. 

Worthington Chauncey Ford, A.M., Boston, Mass. 

♦William Eaton Foster, Litt.D., . Providence, 11. I. 

Homer Gage, M.D., Worcester, Mass. 

♦Thomas Hovey Gage, LL.B., Worcester, Mass. 

Rev. Austin Samuel Garver, A.M., Worcester, Mass. 

♦Frederick Lewis Gay, A.B., . . Brookline, Mass. 

Edward Hooker Gilbert, A.B., . Ware, Mass. 

♦Samuel Abbott Green, LL.D., . Boston, Mass. 

♦Samuel Swett Green, A.M., . . Worcester, Mass. 

Charles Pelham Greenough, LL.B., Brookline, Mass. 

Edwin Augustus Grosvenor, LL.D., Amherst, Mass. 

Lewis Winters Gunckel, Ph.B., . Dayton, Ohio. 

Granville Stanley Hall, LL.D., . Worcester, Mass. 

* Life members. 



XXIV 



Peter Joseph Hamilton, A.M., 
Otis Grant Hammond, . 
William Harden, .... 
Albert Bushnell Hart, LL.D., 
*Rev. Samuel Hart, LL.D., 
♦George Henry Haynes, Ph.D., 
Benjamin Thomas Hill, A.B., 
Frederick Webb Hodge, 
*Samuel Verplanck Hoffman, 
Ira Nelson Hollis, Sc.D., 
William Henry Holmes, . 
Archer Butler Hulbert, A.M., 
Charles Henry Hull, Ph.D., 
Gaillard Hunt, LL.D., 
Archer Milton Huntington, A.M., 
Henry Edwards Huntington, 
John Franklin Jameson, LL.D. 
♦Lawrence Waters Jenkins, A.B., 
Rev. Henry Fitch Jenks, A.M., 
Charles Francis Jenney, LL.B., 
Henry Phelps Johnston, A.M., . 
John Woolf Jordan, LL.D., . 
William Vail Kellen, LL.D., 
♦Lincoln Newton Kinnicutt, 
George Lyman Kittredge, LL.D., 



San Juan, Porto Rico. 

Concord, N. H. 

Savannah, Ga. 

Cambridge, Mass. 

Middletown, Conn. 

Worcester, Mass. 

Worcester, Mass. 

Washington, D. C. 
. New York, N. Y. 

New York, N. Y. 

Washington, D. C. 
. Marietta, Ohio. 
. Ithaca, N. Y. 

Washington, D. C. 

New York, N. Y. 

New York, N. Y. 

Washington, D. C. 

Salem, Mass. 

Canton, Mass. 

Hyde Park, Mass. 
. New York, N. Y. 
. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Boston, Mass. 

Worcester, Mass. 

Cambridge, Mass. 
. Worcester, Mass. 



Rev. Shepherd Knapp, D.D., 

Alfred L. Kroeber, Ph.D., San Francisco, Cal 

William Coolidge Lane, A.B., Cambridge, Mass. 

John Holladay Latane, Ph.D., . Baltimore, Md. 

*Rt. Rev. William Lawrence, LL.D., Boston, Mass. 

*Waldo Lincoln, A.B., .... Worcester, Mass. 

William Roscoe Livermore, . . Boston, Mass. 

♦Henry Cabot Lodge, LL.D., Nahant, Mass. 

Rev. Herbert Edwin Lombard, . Worcester, Mass. 

Arthur Lord, A.B., Plymouth, Mass. 

♦Joseph Florimond Loubat, LL.D., Paris, France. 

Rev. William DeLoss Love, Ph.D., Hartford, Conn. 

♦Abbott Lawrence Lowell, LL.D., Cambridge, Mass. 



* Life members. 



XXV 

William Denison Lyman, A.M., . . Walla Walla, Wash. 

Alexander Geouge McAide, A.M., . Milton, Mass. 

Samuel Walker McCall, LL.D., Winchester, Mass. 

William MacDonald, LL.D., . Providence, R. I. 
Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin, A.M., Chicago, 111. 

John Bach McMaster, LL.D., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Albert Matthews, A.B., .... Boston, Mass. 

Edwin Doak Mead, A. M., Boston, Mass. 

Thomas Corwin Mendenhall, LL.D., Ravenna, Ohio. 

John McKinstry Merriam, A.B., . Framingham,Mass. 

*Roger Bigelow Merriman, Ph.D., Cambridge, Mass. 

Clarence Bloomfield Moore, A.B., Philadelphia, Pa. 

*Samuel Eliot Morison, Ph.D. , Boton, Mass. 

Anson Daniel Morse, LL.D., . . Amherst, Mass. 

Edward Sylvester Morse, Ph.D., . Salem, Mass. 

Wilfred Harold Munro, L.H.D., Providence, R. 1. 

*Charles Lemuel Nichols, M.D., . Worcester, Mass. 

*Grenville Howland Norcross, LL.B. Boston, Mass. 

Herbert Levi Osgood, Ph.D., . New York, N. Y. 

Thomas McAdory Owen, LL.D., Montgomery, Ala. 

Nathaniel Paine, A.M., . . . . Worcester, Mass. 

William Pendleton Palmer, . Cleveland, Ohio. 

Victor Hugo Paltsits, . . ... New York, N. Y. 
Rev. Henry Ainsworth Parker, A.M., Cambridge, Mass. 

Stephen Denison Peet, Ph.D., . . Salem, Mass. 
Samuel Whitaker Pennypacker, LL.D., 

Pennypacker's Mills, Pa. 

George Arthur Plimpton, LL.D., . New York, N. Y. 

Herbert Putnam, LL.D., .... Washington, D. C. 

Milo Milton Quaife, Ph.D., . Madison, Wis. 

* James Ford Rhodes, LL.D., . Boston, Mass. 

*Franklin Pierce Rice. .... Worcester, Mass. 

*Arthur Prentice Rugg, LL.D., Worcester, Mass. 

*Elias Harlow Russell, .... Til ton, N. H. 

Alexander Samuel S alley, Jr., . Columbia, S. C. 

Marshall Howard Savtlle, . . . New York, N. Y. 

James Schouler, LL.D., .... Intervale, N. H. 

Albert Shaw, LL.D., New York, N. Y. 

* Life members. 



XXVI 



William Milligan Sloane, LL.D., . 
Charles Card Smith, A.M., . 
Justin Harvey Smith, LL.D., 
*Rev. Calvin Stebbins, A.B., 
Bernard Christian Steiner, Ph.D. . 
Edward Luther Stevenson, Ph.D., . 
William Howard Taft, LL.D., 
*Charles Henry Taylor, Jr., 
Hannis Taylor, LL.D., .... 
Allen Clapp Thomas, A.M., . 
Alfred Marston Tozzer, Ph.D., 
Frederick Jackson Turner, LL.D., 
Julius Herbert Tuttle, . . 
Lyon Gardiner Tyler, LL.D., 
Daniel Berkeley Updike, A.M., 
*Samuel Utley, LL.B., .... 
Rev. Charles Stuart Vedder, LL.D. 
Rev. Williston Walker, Litt.D., . 
Charles Grenfill Washburn, A.B., 
Rev. Henry Bradford Washburn, S. 

Barrett Wendell, Litt.D., . 
Leonard Wheeler, M.D., 
Andrew Dickson White, D.C.L., 
Albert Henry Whitin, 
Woodrow Wilson, LL.D. 
*George Parker Winship, A.M., 
Thomas Lindall Winthrop, 
Henry Ernest Woods, A.M., 
Samuel Bayard Woodward, M.D., 



Princeton, N. J. 

Boston, Mass. 

Boston, Mass. 

Framingham,Mas3. 

Baltimore, Md. 

New York, N. Y. 

New Haven, Conn. 

Boston, Mass. 

Washington, D. C. 

Haverford, Pa. 

Cambridge, Mass. 

Cambridge, Mass. 

Dedham, Mass. 

Williamsburg, Va. 

Boston, Mass. 

Worcester, Mass. 
, Charleston, S. C. 

New Haven, Conn. 

Worcester, Mass. 
T.B. 

Cambridge, Mass. 

Boston, Mass. 

Worcester, Mass. 

Ithaca, N. Y. 

Whitinsville, Mass. 

Washington, D. C. 

Providence, R. I. 

Boston, Mass. 

Boston, Mass. 

Worcester, Mass. 



* Life members. 



1915.] Proceedings. 



PROCEEDINGS. 

The semi-annual meeting of the Society was called 
to order by President Lincoln in Ellis Hall in the 
building of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 
Boston, at 10.30 A. M. 

The following members were present: 

Samuel Abbott Green, Charles Card Smith, Edmund 
Mills Barton, Samuel Swett Green, Andrew McFarland 
Davis, Reuben Colton, Henry Herbert Edes, John 
McKinstry Merriam, Charles Pickering Bowditch, 
Francis Henshaw Dewey, Rev. Calvin Stebbins, 
William Trowbridge Forbes, George Henry Haynes, 
Arthur Lord, Charles Lemuel Nichols, William Roscoe 
Liver more, Waldo Lincoln, George Parker Winship, 
Samuel Utley, George Lyman Kittredge, Albert 
Matthews, William MacDonald, Clarence Winthrop 
Bowen, Clarence Saunders Brigham, Frederick Lewis 
Gay, Lincoln Newton Kinnicutt, Franklin Pierce 
Rice, Worthington Chauncey Ford, Herbert Putnam, 
Frederick Jackson Turner, Henry Ernest Woods, 
William Coolidge Lane, Julius Herbert Tuttle, Samuel 
Bayard Woodward, William Vail Kellen, Arthur 
Prentice Rugg, Wilfred Harold Munro, Justin Harvey 
Smith, Henry Winchester Cunningham, Frank 
Farnum Dresser, Barrett Wendell, George Francis 
Dow, Rev. Henry Ainsworth Parker, George Emery 
Littlefield, Rev. Herbert Edwin Lombard, Bernard 
Christian Steiner, Howard Millar Chapin, Grenville 
Howland Norcross, Otis Grant Hammond. 

The call for the meeting being read, Mr. Samuel S. 
Green moved that the reading of the records of the 



2 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

last meeting be dispensed with. The Report of the 
Council was read by Mr. Winship and it was moved 
by Judge Forbes that the Report be accepted and 
referred to the Committee of Publication. 

The Secretary reported a list of persons recom- 
mended by the Council for election to resident 
membership. Messrs. Norcross and Dresser were 
appointed a committee to distribute and count the 
ballots and the following persons were elected: 

John Whittemore Farwell, of Boston, Mass. 

Samuel Hart, of Middletown, Conn. 

Ira Nelson Hollis, of Worcester, Mass. 

Henry Edwards Huntington, of New York, N. Y. 

Lawrence Waters Jenkins, of Salem, Mass. 

Henry Bradford Washburn, of Cambridge, Mass. 

Leonard Wheeler, of Worcester, Mass. 

There being no further business, the following papers 
were read: " Notes on Rhode Island Almanacs," 
by Howard M. Chapin, of Providence, R. I.; " Justus 
Fox, a German printer of the Last Century," by 
Charles L. Nichols, of Worcester, Mass.; " Connecti- 
cut's Ratification of the Federal Constitution," by 
Bernard C. Steiner, of Baltimore, Md. 

After discussion it was moved that the papers be 
referred to the Committee of Publication. The 
meeting was then dissolved. 

CHARLES LEMUEL NICHOLS, 

Recording Secretary. 

At the close of the meeting the members of the 
Society were entertained at luncheon, at the Harvard 
Club, by the members residing in Boston and vicinity. 



1915.] Report of the Council. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



The past winter has been a busy one at the Society's 
building, and in some respects a discouraging one. 
When the building was constructed, the sum of 
$185,000 was taken, with the approval of the Society, 
from the invested funds to pay for the cost of land, 
construction, and equipment. This was, in the opinion 
of most of the members who were consulted, the wisest 
use of this money, without which the Society would 
not have been able to secure a building very nearly 
perfect for its purposes, and one which anticipated a 
long period of future growth. This use of invested 
funds, however, seriously reduced the amount of the 
annual income which could be used for the general 
expenses of administration, for the development of the 
Library and for the other current activities of the 
Society. During the past two years this income has 
been still further reduced by the failure of certain 
railway companies to make their accustomed pay- 
ments. The loss is about a thousand dollars a year. 

This Society has never been expensively adminis- 
tered, and the Council has not seen any practicable 
economies by which an appreciable amount could be 
saved out of the ordinary operating expenses. The 
loss of income must therefore be taken directly out 
of the money used by the Library Committee for the 
purchase of books. This means that there has been 
an interruption in the normal growth of the library, 
which is profoundly to be regretted. It is measured 
not so much by the smaller number of titles added to 
the collection, which include gifts as well as purchases, 
as by a greater change in the character of the acces- 
sions. 



4 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Since 1908, when Mr. Brigham became Librarian 
of the Society a steadily increasing number of books 
have been bought each year. The books purchased 
are those which supplement or help toward completing 
the collection. Valuable as are the books and manu- 
scripts which come to the Society as gifts, -they almost 
always have, and sometimes create, gaps which it is 
important to fill in order that students may find here 
the material for their investigations. The Librarian 
has been fortunate in reducing many of the most 
obvious of these gaps, and in making this collection 
more broadly representative of colonial American 
literature and political publications. He has been 
enabled to do this through the establishment of 
friendly relations with a widely extended group of 
antiquarian booksellers, who have become familiar 
with the work which this Society has undertaken to do, 
and who have on many occasions shown a generous 
desire to assist it by offering desirable volumes at a 
reasonable price. It is through these dealers that 
the most useful additions to the collection, year in 
and year out, must come. Even a temporary and 
partial interruption of this active co-operation is 
certain to lose the Society much of the impetus which 
it has gained during the years of the present adminis- 
tration. 

One advantage has resulted from the fact that the 
Librarian has been reluctantly constrained to take 
less time than heretofore for reading the catalogues of 
auction sales and looking over the offerings from 
dealers. He has been able to devote this much more 
of his attention to the most important undertaking 
in which the Society is now involved, the list of Ameri- 
can Newspapers, published prior to 1820. The mem- 
bers have already received two portions of this list, 
containing the notes on the papers which appeared in 
the several states in alphabetical order as far as Maine. 
Maryland is also in type and the Committee of Pub- 
lication had expected to include it in the volume of 



1915.] Report of the Council. 5 

Proceedings recently distributed. The number of 
separate entries is proving to be so much larger than 
had been estimated, however, that it seemed wiser 
to hold back this portion, so as to issue the volume in 
a more convenient size. Maryland and the Boston 
papers will be listed in the next installment and the 
rest of the Massachusetts papers will follow six months 
later. 

At the present rate of progress, the list will be com- 
pleted in eight more semi-annual installments, or ten 
in all. If the money were available for assistance and 
travelling expenses, as well as, for printing, this period 
could be shortened considerably. There are advan- 
tages, however, in continuing the work at the present 
rate. Mr. Brigham can give much more of his personal 
attention to the many details of the work, to examining 
widely scattered files and seeking for stray issues in 
unsuspected hiding places, which add largely to the 
completeness of the published results. The publica- 
tion by sections makes it easier for other libraries to 
compare the printed lists with the files of papers which 
they chance to possess, and report to the Society any 
unrecorded issues or errors such as inevitably find their 
way into work of this character. These corrections 
and additions will be embodied in the revised list 
which will be issued after the sectional publication is 
completed. 

The present Newspaper List ought to be followed by 
two series of publications, for which this Society's 
Proceedings are the most suitable place. One of these, 
and the more interesting, will put on record the story 
of each important newspaper and newspaper publish- 
ing house that has flourished in the United States. 
The other, of greater potential value to historical 
investigators, will provide a census of extant copies of 
each paper that is mentioned in the list, of which files 
are hard to locate. 

The model for such a census is Miss Ayer's Check 
List of Boston Newspapers, printed by the Colonial 



6 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Society of Massachusetts. Another census, of the 
Newport Mercury, was printed in the Bulletin of the 
Newport Historical Society for October, 1914. The 
condensed form adopted for this publication makes it 
difficult for the occasional user to locate the desired 
information, but it may suggest a possible means for 
placing such information on record at a lower cost 
than a thoroughly satisfactory work inevitably 
requires. 

The Newport Mercury illustrates the need of such a 
census. Established in June, 1758, about one thou- 
sand regular, supplementary or extraordinary issues 
are known to have appeared prior to November, 1776, 
when the arrival of the British fleet in Narragansett 
Bay forced the editor to remove to the interior of 
Massachusetts. Three hundred of those issues are 
not now known to be in existence. Of the 700 existing 
papers, the largest number in any one place is 287, t in 
the Library of Congress. Of these, only 26 exist in 
the Rhode Island libraries. The Redwood Library 
at Newport has 227 issues, of which 90 are to be found 
nowhere else, and there are 157 at the Newport His- 
torical Society, about half of these not in the neighbor- 
ing Redwood Library. The Rhode Island Historical 
Society at Providence has 215, of which less than half 
have been found elsewhere. The Boston Public Libra- 
ry, Yale University, Massachusetts Historical Society, 
and British Museum, each possess one or more issues 
not found in any other place. To some investigators 
it will be only an irritation to know that the things 
which they ought to examine are in half a dozen differ- 
ent cities. To others it will be a slight satisfaction to 
learn that what they want either is or is not known to 
be somewhere. 

The early issues of the Newport Mercury had a 
struggle for existence, owing to the British occupation 
of that naval base during the Revolutionary War. 
This fact does not entirely explain their disappearance, 
however, for the issues of that paper published during 



1915.] Report of the Council 7 

the decade following the Peace of 1783 are almost 
equally hard to locate. The longest file of the Newport 
Mercury for the years of the Confederation belongs to 
the New York Historical Society, which possesses 
none of the issues of earlier date. 

There are many other papers, as is shown by the 
Newspaper List, the extant copies of which are scat- 
tered in almost as many widely separated libraries. 

This Society and the libraries with which it is most 
closely in touch seem to be, as is usually the case with 
institutions of an academic character, more or less 
behind the times. Just at the period when it has come 
to be politically and commercially bad form to be on 
good terms with rival organizations, and to attempt 
to work together for mutual advantages, a number of 
libraries are beginning to take up these now, perhaps 
temporarily, antiquated notions. There is a very 
general tendency among library administrators to 
enter upon schemes for co-operation in all possible 
ways. This Society has recently received about 
32,000 issues of Bolivian and other South American 
newspapers as its share from the purchases made by 
an agent who spent over a year in South America as the 
representative of several institutions in different parts 
of the United States. The Society is also actively 
co-operating with other libraries to reduce the cost of 
reproducing historical material, and thereby increase 
the amount accessible for the use of investigators. 

The accumulation of original publications is going 
on steadily in the several lines in which the Society's 
collections are strongest: newspapers, almanacs, and 
American imprints prior to 1820. In each of these 
fields the library at Worcester is superior to any other. 
Each of these departments has now grown to the point 
where it has become evident that there are certain 
things without which the collection must be incom- 
plete for the purposes of systematic historical investi- 
gation, and which there is only the slightest probability 
of securing in the original form. An absolutely 



8 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

complete file of a colonial newspaper is exceedingly 
difficult to find. There are only one or two surviving 
copies of a majority of the seventeenth century Ameri- 
can almanacs. The broadsides of the colonial and 
the Revolutionary periods are equally hard to secure, 
and many of the most important ones are hidden 
uncatalogued in city or state archives. Most of the 
earlier tracts of political or economic, rather than 
religious, significance exist in only two or three libra- 
ries, usually near the locality where they were wr. 

Unless an investigator is unusually well endowed 
with zeal or other resources he cannot hope to complete 
his researches by going to all the places in whic:. 
preserved the different original publications which he 
ought to consult. Yet his work must remain uncom- 
pleted and his conclusions unsatisfactory until he has 
seen all the material which affects his opinion. The 
recent development of mechanical photographing 
devices has reduced the cost and the time required for 
accurate copying, and has made possible an entirely 
new attitude toward historical material on the part 
of the principal depositories. The experience of this 
Society's library is typical of what is taking place 
wherever there is a considerable collection of such 
material. 

The colonial almanacs are not as important as the 
newspapers, nor do they occasion librarians or students 
so many difficult problems. They do embody, never- 
theless, a large amount of extremely significant infor- 
mation. The fact that the Society has been enabled, 
through the zeal of one of its members, to secure more 
of these early almanacs than any other library, gives 
it a standing which it should be easy to maintain. This 
carries an equal obligation to make the utmost use of 
the advantageous position. Much has already been 
done, and the well-tilled field promises fruitful har 
Mr. Chapin's paper on the Rhode Island almanacs 
supplements those contributed by Dr. Nichols and 
Mr. Bates on the ?achusetts and Connecticut 



1915.] Report of the Council 9 

issues. Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, are 
now being listed for publication by the Society. 
South Carolina has been done recently for the His- 
torical Society of that State, and it is expected that 
arrangements can be made for the intervening states. 

The bibliographical lists of almanacs ought to be 
followed by another series of studies of the work of 
the individual almanac-makers. Mr. Paltsits began 
such a series in the Society's Proceedings by his paper 
on Roger Sherman. Nathaniel Ames and Robert 
B. Thomas are the subjects of published volumes. 

Hidden within these old almanacs is a long chapter, 
as yet unwritten, of the history of American science, 
an almost unknown but very illuminating story of 
the commercial development of colonial printing, and 
as Professor Kittredge has shown, more entertaining 
and not less important contributions to what is known 
about the extension of folk-lore and popular super- 
stitions in this country, and the spread of reli- 
gious ideas. The Proceedings of this Society should 
be the most natural place in which to look for informa- 
tion upon these and every other subject associated 
with the early almanacs. 

The foresight of Dr. Nichols placed the Society 
some years ago in the leading position among collectors 
of American almanacs. He has strengthened this 
position whenever opportunity offered, and it is now 
so secure that it will be easy to maintain its pre-emi- 
nence. Strong as it is, the Library contains only 
forty-two of the sixty-five almanacs which are known 
to have been issued in Massachusetts before the year 
1700. A few of the remaining twenty-three will 
undoubtedly find their way into this collection in the 
course of time, but students who want to consult 
them in Worcester cannot wait upon this chance 
possibility. Dr. Nichols has, therefore, undertaken 
to secure photographic copies of each of the issues 
needed to make the Society's set complete. Thirteen 
of these have already been obtained, and arrangements 



10 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

are being made which it is expected will eventually 
secure the facsimiles of the others. 

The photographic reproduction of colonial news- 
papers is a much more difficult undertaking. A begin- 
ning was made in 1898 by the Colonial Society of 
Pennsylvania, which published the first three volumes 
of the American Weekly Mercury, for 1719-21. 

Within the past year the John Carter Brown Library 
and the Massachusetts Historical Society have under- 
taken to reproduce by the photostat machine the 
earliest Newport and Boston newspapers. The eleven 
issues of the Rhode Island Gazette of 1732 were easily 
handled, but the copying of 700 numbers, usually of 
four pages each, of the Newport Mercury, dated be- 
tween 1758 and 1776, was a difficult undertaking, 
which has been very nearly completed. 

The Massachusetts Historical Society has likewise 
supplied a set of reproductions of the Boston News- 
Letter for the years 1704-08, made from the nearly 
complete file belonging to the New York Historical 
Society. Two issues of these years, which were not 
to be found in that or any other library, were supplied 
from the collections of this Society, which will also 
be able to supply twelve other numbers not known to 
exist elsewhere, to complete the facsimile files of the 
ensuing ten years. 

The Antiquarian Society benefits more than the 
other subscribing libraries which secure these fac- 
simile newspaper files, in proportion as it has more 
newspapers altogether than the other institutions. It 
ought to benefit more than it does. If it is to secure 
the utmost advantage from the remarkable collections 
made by Isaiah Thomas and his successors, the Society 
must not let any other institution take the lead in any 
movement for utilizing newspaper material. The 
library building at Worcester ought to become the 
recognized center, the clearing house for every sort 
of information regarding American newspapers. The 
work of making photographic reproductions must be 



1915.] Report of the Council. 11 

done in most cases in the place where the papers belong. 
This Society might very properly and advantageously 
offer to undertake the task of distribution, and the 
general business management of every co-operative 
scheme of this character. 

A number of plans for reproducing files of colonial 
papers are now under consideration. In each case 
the idea is that from six to ten libraries will agree to 
share the expense, paying a price for the reproductions 
based upon the actual cost to the library doing the 
work. A certain amount of conflict, and very likely 
a production in excess of the financial convenience of 
the supporting institutions, is likely to result unless 
someone, somewhere, will undertake to assume a 
general advisory control over these various schemes. 
It belongs to this Society to do this. There is more 
information concerning the location of individual issues 
in the Society's possession than anywhere else and 
all such information ought to be centralized at its 
building. If this work is not taken up actively, it 
will either be done haphazard, and in a dozen different 
centers, or some other institution will undertake to do 
it, and secure the credit to which the Antiquarian 
Society has properly a first claim. 

GEORGE PARKER WINSHIP, 

For the Council. 



12 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 



OBITUARIES. 



CHARLES FRANCIS ADAMS. 

Charles Francis Adams was born in Quincy, Mass- 
achusetts, on May 27, 1835, was elected a member of 
the American Antiquarian Society in October, 1891, 
and was elected Secretary for Domestic Correspon- 
dence in 1895. He has made the following contri- 
butions to the Proceedings: "Battle of Bunker Hill 
from a Strategic Point of View," October, 1895, 
"The Confederacy and the Transvaal, a People's 
Obligation to Robert E. Lee, (1865-1900), " October, 
1901, "Address upon the laying of the Corner Stone of 
the new building, ,, October, 1909. "Correspondence 
of John Quincy Adams, 181 1-14," edited by C. F. 
Adams, April, 1913. 

Mr. Adams died at his house in Washington, March 
20, 1915, in the eightieth year of his age. Funeral 
services were held at the Stone Church, Quincy, on 
Tuesday, March 23, where his great grandfather and 
grandfather are buried. 

He was graduated from Harvard College in 1856; 
spent two years in the Harvard Law School, and was 
for some time in the office of Rufus Choate. He was 
admitted to the bar in 1858, but never practiced. 
At the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, he obtained 
a commission in the First Massachusetts Cavalry. 
In the last year of the War, he was commissioned 
lieutenant-colonel of the Fifth Massachusetts Cavalry, 
and entered Richmond at the head of his regiment on 
April 9, 1865. He was subsequently brevetted Brig- 



1915.] Obituaries. 13 

adier-General. After the War, he devoted himself 
to the study of railroading and published many papers 
on this subject, among them " Chapters on Erie" in 
which he recommended government supervision of 
railroads. Among other things he said: "Finally, 
a responsible department of the Executive should have 
charge of the subject, and should be empowered to 
decide as to the amounts of private capital directly 
or indirectly paid into construction, and authorize 
the issue of securities accordingly." This was twenty 
years before the establishment of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, which does not yet possess the 
power which Mr. Adams thought it should exercise. 
From 1869 to 1879, Mr. Adams served on the Mass- 
achusetts Railroad Commission, the first in the United 
States, and was its chairman for seven years. He 
became president of the Union Pacific Railroad in 
1884, and continued in that office for six years. 

He was always a student of history, particularly 
that of New England, and has written many essays 
and monographs on historical and economic subjects; 
also a biography of his father and of Richard H. Dana. 

He served as Overseer of Harvard University from 
1882 to 1894, and from 1895 to 1907. In 1895 he 
received the degree of LL. D., and in 1899 he was 
President of the Alumni Association. 

Of his characteristics, President Eliot said: 

"Charles Francis Adams was not naturally inclined 
to respect precedents, or to imitate in his own mental 
processes the methods of other men. He was always 
independent, and sometimes recalcitrant. No wisdom 
of the ages, or of the multitude, necessarily commanded 
his respect. He was by nature inclined to believe 
that long-established practices of governments, insti- 
tutions of education, and financial or industrial organ- 
izations were likely to be wrong, or at least capable 
of great improvement. Thus, he testified in his Phi 
Beta Kappa address of 1883, twenty-seven years 
after his graduation at Harvard College, that he should 



14 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

never be able to overcome, no matter how long he 
might live, some serious disadvantages which the 
superstitions, wrong theories, and worse practices 
of his alma mater inflicted upon him. The educa- 
tional wisdom of five hundred years went for nothing 
with him. In the same famous address, entitled 'A 
College Fetich' — the fetich was the prescribed study 
of dead languages and particularly of Greek — he 
described the world for which the College ought to 
have fitted its graduates of 1856, but had not, as an 
'active, bustling, hard-hitting, many-tongued world, 
caring nothing for authority and little for the past, 
but full of its living thought and living issues.' It 
was that kind of a world in which Adams rejoiced to 
live, and did live, intellectually and morally." 

Mr. Adams was President of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society from April, 1895, until his death, 
the second longest term in the history of the Society. 
Governor Long spoke of him as "the most inspiring 
and contributory man that ever sat in its presidential 
chair." His communications to the Society were 
more voluminous than those of any other member. 

His last publication was of a course of four lectures 
on American History delivered at Oxford University 
during the Easter and Trinity terms of 1913, pub- 
lished under the title " Trans- Atlantic Historical 
Solidarity." At this time Oxford conferred upon 
him the degree of Doctor of Letters. 

Mr. Adams was a great grandson of John Adams, 
delegate to the Continental Congress, Diplomatic 
Agent in France, Minister to the Court of St. James, 
Second President of the United States, member of 
this Society from 1813 until his death in 1826. He 
was a grandson of John Quincy Adams, United States 
Senator, Minister to Russia, one of the negotiators of 
the Treaty of Ghent, Minister to England, Secretary 
of State, sixth President of the United States, Rep- 
resentative in Congress, member of this Society from 
1839 until his death in 1848. He was the son of 



1915.] Obituaries. 15 

Charles Francis Adams, member of the Massachusetts 
Legislature, leader of the " Conscience Whigs," "Free 
Soil" leader, member of Congress, Minister to Eng- 
land during the Civil War, Arbitrator for the United 
States at the Geneva Conference. Since Colonial 
times members of the Adams family have occupied 
positions of great distinction and have a record of 
public service unequaled in this country and in Eng- 
land, c. g. w. 

LUCIEN CARR. 

Lucien Carr was born in Troy, Mo., December 
15, 1829, and died in Cambridge, Mass., January 27, 
1915. He was graduated from St. Louis University 
in 1846, receiving the degree of A. B. which was fol- 
lowed by that of A. M. For many years he was occu- 
pied with historical studies and in 1877 was made 
assistant curator of the Peabody Museum of American 
Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard, remaining 
there till 1894, when he resigned and has since been 
engaged in writing on scientific subjects. He was 
author of "The Mounds of the Mississippi Valley, 
Historically Considered, " "Missouri, M in the Ameri- 
can Commonwealth's series and "Prehistoric Remains 
of Kentucky" (with the late Prof. N. S. Shaler). ' He 
was a member of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences, of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 
of the Missouri Historical Society, and of the Anthro- 
pological Societies of Paris, London, Moscow and 
Washington. He was elected to this Society in 1880, 
and contributed to its Proceedings these papers: 
"The Food of Certain American Indians and. their 
Methods of Preparing It" (April, 1895), "Dress and 
Ornaments of Certain American Indians" (April, 
1897), and "The Mascoutins" (April, 1900). He also 
made many gifts to the Library. He married Miss 
Cornelia L. Crow, who with two children survives him. 

s. u. 



16 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

LUTHER S. LIVINGSTON. 

Luther Samuel Livingston died in Cambridge, 
December 24, 1914. He was born in Grand Rapids, 
Mich., on July 7, 1864, and very early in life became 
interested in the book- trade. In 1887 he was engaged 
by Dodd, Mead & Co., and except for certain intervals 
spent in botanical research, was connected with that 
firm until 1910, when Robert H. Dodd joined with 
him in separate partnership under the firm name of 
Dodd & Livingston. In 1914 he was appointed 
Librarian of the Widener collection in the Harvard 
College Library. His unfortunate death, after an 
illness extending over two years, came within four 
weeks after the time of his appointment. In 1898 he 
married Flora V. Milner, who survived him. 

Mr. Livingston was one of the leading bibliograph- 
ical authorities in the country and was a frequent 
contributor on literary subjects to "The Nation" and 
other periodicals. He compiled the series of " Ameri- 
can Book Prices Current'' from 1895 to 1914, and the 
four volume " Auction Prices of Books" in 1905. 
Among his numerous other publications were the 
" Bibliography of Charles and Mary Lamb," and 
"Franklin and his Press at Passy," which latter 
volume appeared only a few days before his death. 
Mr. Livingston was elected a member of this Society 
in October, 1914, in recognition of which he presented 
to the Library a number of valuable works relating 
to Spanish America. His death was a great loss to 
this Society as well as to the book- world in general. 

s. u. 
HENRY A. MARSH. 

Henry Alexander Marsh was born in Southborough, 
Mass., September 7, 1836, and died in Worcester, 
Mass., November 6, 1914. He came to Worcester 
in 1849 and since then resided here. In 1853 he 
entered the Central Bank and continued with that 
institution, holding the offices of cashier and president 
until 1892, when it was absorbed by the Worcester 



1915.] 



Obituaries, 



17 



Trust Company, of which he became vice-president. 
He was a prominent figure in the financial circles of 
the city, noted for his integrity and wisdom, was 
treasurer of many philanthropic societies and trustee 
of numerous public and private funds. Mr. Marsh 
was elected mayor of Worcester in 1892, and served 
with conspicuous fidelity until 1896. He was elected 
a member of this Society in 1893, and was constant 
in his attendance at its meetings and showed his 
interest by frequent contributions to its collections. 
He served as auditor from 1907 until his death. On 
September 7, 1864, he married Emily W. Mason of 
Worcester who with two daughters survived him. 

s. u. 
EZRA SCOLLAY STEARNS. 

Ezra Scollay Stearns died in Fitchburg, Mass., 
March 9, 1915, having been a member of this Society 
since 1895. He was born in Rindge, N. H., September 
1, 1838, and resided in that State many years. From 
1864 to 1867 he served as a member of the New Hamp- 
shire House of Representatives, and from 1886 to 
1890 as a member of the State Senate. In 1891 he 
was elected Secretary of State, and served for nine 
years. In this position he was very active in securing 
the adoption of the Australian ballot and himself 
devised for the State the system of printing the ballots 
and checking the votes. After his removal to Fitch- 
burg, he took great interest in the Fitchburg library, 
being regarded as one of the most valuable members 
of the board of trustees. In the organization of the 
Fitchburg Historical Society he was prominent and 
aided in securing its handsome building, contributing 
liberally both money and service, and was its presi- 
dent at the time of his death. He was author of 
histories of Ashburnham, Mass., Plymouth, N. H., 
and also of Rindge, N. H., his native town, a revised 
edition of which was being prepared by him when he 
died. He made many genealogical researches and 
contributed numerous articles to magazines devoted 
to that subject. The degree of A. M. was conferred 



18 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

upon him by Dartmouth in 1887. He was a member 
of the New England Historic-Genealogical Society, the 
New Hampshire Historical Society, and the Minnesota 
Historical Society. This Society is indebted to him 
for much valuable material contributed to its Library. 

s. u. 
DAVID CAS ARES. 

David Casares, of Merida, Yucatan, a corresponding 
member, died on December 5, 1914. He was elected 
in October, 1904. Sr. Casares was born at Merida on 
July 3, 1835. At the age of fourteen he was sent to the 
United States, to Mr. Weld's school at Jamaica Plain, 
to be fitted for college. He graduated from Harvard 
in 1856, in the class of our late president, the last 
Stephen Salisbury, who acquired his deep and heart- 
felt interest in Yucatan during a visit to hie chum- 
mate's home shortly after their graduation. Casares 
completed his education at the Ecole Centrale des 
Arts et Manufactures in Paris, and then returned to 
Merida where he devoted himself to local education. 
In 1862 he was made Rector of the reorganized college 
which became the head of the state school system. 
He served on the local governing bodies of the city 
and state, and as the executive of the city. In 1880 
he was appointed director of the public works of Yuca- 
tan, and four years later became inspecting engineer 
of the state railroads, He superintended the building 
of the local Young Ladies' Seminary, the State 
Government Palace, the Juarez State Penitentiary, 
and the Merida street railway system. Two of his 
sons were educated in Worcester. He read one paper, 
on "A Notice of Yucatan, with some Remarks on its 
Water Supply," at the October meeting of 1905, and 
contributed to the Proceedings for the ensuing meet- 
ing a translation from the Spanish of Professor Rodolf 
Mendez's biographical notice of Joaquin Hubbe. 

The members of this Society who have been privi- 
leged to visit Me>ida retain a keen recollection of his 
genial welcome and his earnest endeavors to give 
them a pleasant impression of the country, g. p. w. 



1915.] List of Rhode Island Almanacs. 19 



CHECK LIST 

OF RHODE ISLAND ALMANACS 

1643-1850 

With Introduction and Notes. 

BY HOWARD If. CHAPIN 

While Massachusetts boasts of an almanac in 1639, 
the year in which Glover established the first printing 
press in that colony, Rhode Island, according to 
Isaiah Thomas, closely followed her with one in 1643, 
eighty-nine years before a printing press was estab- 
lished within her borders. Gregory Dexter, who 
produced this first almanac for Rhode Island on his 
press at London, settled in Providence and later, 
" about the year 1646, " according to Morgan Edwards, 
in his History of the Baptists, Dexter "was sent for to 
Boston to set in order the printing press there, for 
which he desired no other reward than that one of their 
almanacks should be sent to him every year." Ezra 
Stiles corroborates Edwards with the statement that 
"It is said that after Samuel Green began printing 
at Cambridge, Dexter went there annually, for several 
years, to assist him in printing an Almanac." 1 A 
considerable improvement occurs about 1646 in the 
work which Daye produced. This was noticed by 
Littlefield and may well be accounted for by the 
employment of Dexter at that time. 

It would seem then that Dexter continued for 
several years to assist Matthew Daye, who was only 
an apprentice, and Samuel Green who had even less, 
knowledge of printing, in the rather difficult task of 



Thomas'a History of Printing in America, Worcester, 1874, vol. 1, p. 194 . 



20 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

making up the form for the almanacs. This work 
would naturally require the oversight of a master 
printer, such as Dexter is known to have been. Roger 
Williams, in a letter to Governor Winthrop in 16G9, 
wrote, "Sir, I have encouraged Mr. Dexter to send 
you a limestone, and to salute you with this enclosed. 
He is an intelligent man, a master printer of London 
and conscionable (though a Baptist)." Additional 
light is thrown upon Dexter's life in London by Arber 
in A Transcript of the Registers of the Company of 
Stationers of London, 2 where Gregory Dexter's name 
appears under the date of December 18, 1639, in a list 
of men who took up their freedom as stationers, or in 
other words, were admitted as Master-Printers at 
Stationers Hall. 

An agreement dated at Providence, 27th of 5th 
month 1640, was signed by Gregory Dexter, but 
Mr. Henry R. Chace believes that this, like some 
of the other early agreements, was not signed when it 
was dated, but received its signatures from time to 
time as opportunity offered, during a period of perhaps 
several years. In 1643, as the title page states, 
Gregory Dexter printed at London A Key into the 
Language of America , which Roger Williams had 
written during his sea voyage to England that sum- 
mer. Thomas says that Dexter printed the almanac 
in the same year. Morgan Edwards in his History 
of the Baptists writes that Gregory Dexter "is/said 
to have been born in London and to have followed the 
stationery business there in company with one Cole- 
man; and to have been obliged to fly for printing a 
piece that was offensive to the then reigning power. " 
Edwards adds that this was the Coleman "who be- 
came the subject of a farce called The Cutter of Cole- 
man Street." Dexter continued to reside at Provi- 
dence, where he became pastor of the (first) Baptist 
Church, Town Clerk, Deputy, and in 1655 Governor 
of the Colony. 

a Vol. 3, p. 688, 



1915.] List of Rhode Island Almanacs. 21 

The Cambridge almanacs, as in fact many of the 
later Massachusetts almanacs, had a large circulation 
in Rhode Island and Nichols tells us that in 1724 
Whittemore's almanacs were used as far west as New 
York. Likewise New York almanacs were circulated 
in New England, for we find a copy of Daniel Leed's 
Almanac for 1713 imprinted with the name of a New- 
port bookseller, Elkana Pembrook. Usually the 
almanacs printed in Rhode Island give the Court Cal- 
endar for the neighboring colonies. 

It was not until 1728 that a real Rhode Island alma- 
nac was produced. This was Poor Robin's Almanac, 
which was printed at Newport by James Franklin, 
the brother of Benjamin. This 1728 almanac was the 
first of that series, sometimes by Poor Robin and 
sometimes by itinerant astrologers, as Maxwell and 
Stafford, which was continued annually by James 
Franklin, and after his death by his widow, until 1741. 

In his Poor Robin's Almanac for 1730 Franklin 
says, referring to the author of the almanac for 1729, 
"My advice to him, is, That he take a Trip to Jerico, 
and tarry there till his Beard be grown, before he 
attempt any further Adventure of this kind." In 
1731 Franklin published an almanac by Samuel Max- 
well, a young man from remote parts, then but 
twenty- two years of age as is shown by the entry " The 
Author's Birthday 1708," which appears against the 
thirtieth of May. In speaking of himself in his 
preface Maxwell says, "Although I be young in Years, 
yet I give not my Pen a Latitude beyond my Beard; 
for I always keep one parallel with the other: And 
my Almanack is in such an easy plain Form, and 
regular Method, that I hope there will be no Fault 
found by any of my Antagonists." The fault was 
evidently found, for Poor Robin reappears as the 
author in 1732 and continues to 1735. James Frank- 
lin died Feb. 4, 1735 and no almanac was issued for 
1736. In the following year his widow, Ann Frank- 
lin, obtained the services of Joseph Stafford who edited 



22 



American Antiquarian Society. 



[April, 



her almanacs for 1737 and 1738. He went to Boston 
and published an almanac there in 1739, thus making 
it necessary for Widow Franklin to revive Poor Robin 
for her 1739 almanac, as she explained in her preface. 

A noticeable peculiarity of the early Franklin alma- 
nacs is that the astronomical calculations are contained 
in a ruled box of about the size of a pocket almanac, 
and on the outer and lower margins have texts in 
poetry and prose which thus increase the size of the 
page to that of the contemporary almanacs such as 
Leeds. James Franklin was the first American printer 
to use this make-up in his almanacs. 

The eighteenth century almanacs may roughly be 
divided into four groups according to size. The 
smallest were called pocket almanacs and their pages 
were about 4 inches by 2% inches. None of these 
seemed to have been published in Rhode Island during 
this period although the boxes of the early Franklin 
almanacs, were the size of the contemporary pocket 
almanacs. This peculiarity of the Franklin almanacs 
increased the dimensions of their pages so that they 
would fall into the second class, with pages 53^ inches 
by 3 inches. The Whitefield almanac, the last 
published by Franklin as well as almost all of the later 
Providence and Newport almanacs, were of larger 
size being 6 inches by 3^ inches. The sheet almanacs 
were, of course, large folio broadside. 

There was a gap in the issuance of Rhode Island 
almanacs from 1741 to 1750 when Franklin's son, 
James, who had rejoined his mother after serving an 
apprenticeship in Philadelphia with his uncle Benja- 
min, began to publish Poor Job's almanac under the 
pseudonym of Job Shepherd. In the preface to his 
1751 almanac Job Shepherd says "And now, Reader, 
after having made this Publick Appearance, it must, 
on mature Consideration, appear very odd, what 
some think, and others affirm, that there is not, nor 
ever was, such a Person as I am living." In 17G0 
Franklin published an almanac by Nathaniel White- 



1915.] List of Rhode Island Almanacs. 23 

field. This is the last of the Franklin almanacs. In 
his preface Whitefield says, "It is expected, and the 
Public is never satisfied, 'till they receive an Account 
of the Life and Writings of an Author, when and where 
he was born, and who was his Patron, with many 
other Particulars. I shall only say in general, that 
I was born in the Reign of George King of England, 
and am a near relative of George Whitefield." The 
vagueness of these autobiographies, together with the 
fact that no such persons are recorded at Newport, 
seems to point strongly to the probability that both 
Shepherd and Whitefield were fictitious persons. 

Two years later the first of Benjamin West's Rhode 
Island almanacs made its appearance, being published 
at Providence by William Goddard, for the year 1763. 
Providence now takes the lead over Newport in 
almanacs. The New-England Almanack or Lady's 
and Gentleman's Diary, at first by West and later 
by the fictitious Bickerstaff continued until 1881, 
having an existence of 118 years. 

The title, the author, and the name of the publishers 
of this almanac varied from time to time. Its first 
issue was entitled An Almanack for 1763, but this was 
increased to The New England Almanack in 1764 and 
so remained, with the exception of 1769, when it was 
entitled The New-England town and Country Almanack, 
until 1781, when it became Bicker staff' s New-England 
Almanack, continuing so until 1814. In 1815 it became 
The Rhode Island Almanack, the "k" being dropped 
from Almanac in 1833. In 1871 the title was changed 
to The old Rhode Island Farmer's Almanac. 

From 1763 to 1781 Benjamin West was the author, 
with the exception of the year 1769 when " Abraham 
Weatherwise" took his place. From 1781 to 1881 
" Isaac Bickerstaff" was given as the author, except in 
1833, when the name of R. T. Paine appeared on the 
title page. 

The first almanac of this series was printed by 
William Goddard. He continued to do the printing 



24 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

until he turned the business over to his mother, the 
1766 almanac being issued by Sarah and William 
Goddard. In 1767 the almanac was printed by Sarah 
Goddard and Company, in 1768 and 1769 by Sarah 
Goddard and John Carter, and from 1770 to 1793 
by John Carter. The firm was Carter and Wilkinson 
from 1794 to 1799. John Carter again appears as 
the printer in 1800 and so continues until 1814. The 
1815 almanac was published by Brown and Wilson, 
but Wilson's name is dropped after 1816, the work 
being done from 1817 to 1820, and from 1828 to 1861 
by H. H. Brown. From 1821 to 1825 the firm was 
Brown and Danforth, and in 1826 and 1827 Carlisle 
and Brown. In 1861 A. Crawford Greene took over 
the work, becoming A. Crawford Greene and Son with 
the almanac for 1878. 

In 1769 the firm, then Sarah Goddard and John 
Carter, published The New-England Town and Country 
Almanack by " Abraham Weatherwise. " This pseu- 
donym was copied by Carter from Dunlap's Weather- 
wise's Almanac, which was printed in Philadelphia 
ten years earlier, at a time when Carter was living 
in that city. The preface states that this almanac 
was printed upon paper made within the colony of 
Rhode Island. This almanac evidently did not meet 
with much success, although they advertised a third 
edition of it, for it was not continued the next year as 
promised in the text. Weatherwise almanacs were 
issued throughout New England by various printers 
during the latter half of the 18th century. 

In 1772 an edition of West's New-England Alman- 
ack was issued by Ebenezer Campbell in Newport. 
This may have been a pirated edition, or it may have 
been one of those cases in which West sold his calcu- 
lations to two printers, of which proceeding Carter 
so strongly complained. 

In 1781 John Carter issued two almanacs from the 
same type, the only difference being two changes on 
the title page. One was entitled The New-England 



1915.] List of Rhode Island Almanacs. 25 

Almanack, "By Benjamin West, " while the other was 
entitled Bicker staff' s New-England Almanack, "By 
Isaac Bickerstaff, Esq. " After Carter had issued the 
West almanac for 1781, the old disagreement broke 
out again between him and West, which resulted in 
Carter's reissuing the same almanac under the pseu- 
donym of "Isaac Bickerstaff, " adopting the name of 
a successful Boston series started in 1768 by West 
himself. This dispute of 1781 was the culmination 
of a long series of business misunderstandings between 
Carter and West. Carter in the Providence Gazette 
for October 18, 1766, states that he had purchased 
the sole right to publish West's almanac for 1767, 
notwithstanding the fact that some Boston publishers 
were using the same almanac. As Carter quaintly 
words it: "Charity bids us hope, that those Gentle- 
men of Boston have more Virtue and Honor, than to 
persue under-handed measures to obtain the Property 
of others, and that Mr. West could not be deluded by 
any Consideration, to deviate from the Paths of 
Rectitude, and risque the Loss of his Credit, by selling 
a second Time what he had already disposed of." 

A reconciliation evidently occurred, for the West 
almanac for 1768 was published by Goddard and 
Carter. Another disagreement broke out the follow- 
ing year. Goddard and Carter published the Weath- 
erwise almanac for 1769 while the West almanac was 
printed by Mein and Fleeming in Boston, the imprint 
stating that the almanac was "Sold by Benjamin 
West (the author) in .Providence." From 1770 to 
1780 Carter published West's almanacs, and had many 
quarrels with the author over the sale of his astron- 
omical calculations to other printers. This series 
started in 1763 was continued after 1781 under the 
name of Bickerstaff. 

West then became the author of the series of North 
American Calendars published by Bennett Wheeler. 
Nichols tells us that in Isaiah Thomas's almanac for 
1784 it says "that West was the original Bickerstaff 



26 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

and had ceased to publish his annuals in 1779 because 
of those persons who had brought the name into 
disrepute. ,, West was professor of mathematics at 
Brown University, and wrote a well known account of 
the transit of Venus which he observed from Transit 
Street in Providence which thus derived its name. 
His astronomical calculations were in use throughout 
New England. 

Let us now return to Newport where beginning with 
1764, we find Ames' almanacs reprinted by Samuel 
Hall, the successor of the Franklins. In 1766 both 
the regular Ames' and the pirated edition bear Hall's 
name. In 1772 John Anderson's first almanac was 
issued by Solomon South wick at Newport. The 
Anderson almanacs continued until 1777 when the 
war with England brought them to an end. From the 
fact that no John Anderson was living at Newport 
and that in the preface of his 1773 almanac appear 
the following words : " As I find there is much Inquiry 
about the real Author, or, 'Who is this John Ander- 
son?,'" it seems probable that the name, like Poor 
Robin and Job Shepherd was a pseudonym. The 
name originating with Solomon South wick, was revived 
by Bennett Wheeler in 1780, and by Southwick's son 
in 1795. 

Southwick and Wheeler appear to have been on 
very friendly terms in 1780 which- may account for 
Wheeler's reviving "Anderson" for his almanac for 
that year. Wheeler states in the American Journal 
that he used West's calculations in this almanac. 
The following year West's name appears on Wheeler's 
almanac as a result of the dispute between Carter 
and West. This North American Calendar became 
a prosperous rival of Carter's Bickerstaff and continued 
to be published until 1803. West's name was dropped 
in 1788, and the same year the title was changed to 
Wheeler's North American Calendar. Amos Perry 
in his article on New England Almanacs states that 
this series continued until 1805, but no copies for 1804 



1915.] List of Rhode Island Almanacs. 27 

or 1805 have been located. In 1785 and 1786 Wheeler, 
evidently quarrelling with West, issued his North 
American Calendar under the pseudonym of Coperni- 
cus Partridge as well as under West's name. The 
Partridge almanac for 1786 ran through three editions. 

In 1781 a French almanac, entitled Calendrier 
Francais, was published at Newport. This almanac 
was printed from the French type which was brought 
over from France by de Ternay's fleet which was sent 
to help the Colonies. The fleet lay at Newport during 
the winter of 1780-81 and their press was set up on 
shore as is stated in the Calendrier, "pres le Pare de 
la Marine. " The first 26 pages contain the astron- 
omical calculations, the saint's names appearing after 
each day, for this almanac was the first Roman Cath- 
olic as well as the first French almanac printed in 
New England. Pages 26 and 31 contain a list of the 
French vessels, the number of their cannon, and the 
roll of their officers. Pages 31 and 32 contain a list 
of the officers under Rochambeau. After the names 
of many of the officers are manuscript notes in ink, 
in the Rhode Island Historical Society copy, evidently 
contemporary, such as: "mort", "Tue* a Chesapeak, " 
"blesse* au jambe, " etc. 

The year 1788 saw two almanacs published at New- 
port by Peter Edes. The one by Daniel Freebetter, 
a pseudonym previously popular in Connecticut, was 
not again issued; the other, by Thornton, was continued 
for a decade. The following year, 1789, Edes pub- 
lished an almanac purporting to be by the fabulous 
Poor Richard. This also did not meet with success 
and was not repeated the next year. Elisha Thornton, 
born in Smithfield, Rhode Island, in 1748, was the 
first native Rhode Island almanac maker. He ceased 
to publish his almanac with the issue of 1792 and 
thereafter sold his calculations to various printers. 

In 1793 Nathaniel Phillips, who had recently 
established a press at Warren, started his United 
States Diary which lasted until 1798. 



28 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

In 1800 Oliver Farnsworth issued his first Newport 
almanac, the title being changed later to Rhode Island 
almanac. It lasted until 1806, Benjamin West being 
the author during the last three years of its existence. 

Remington South wick, styling himself "of Mendon" 
in 1800, was the author of The Columbian Calendar 
for 1801 which was published at Dedham in Massa- 
chusetts. Later he became Teacher of Mathematics 
in Washington Academy at Wickford , R. I., and is 
so described on the title page of the Columbian Cal- 
endar of Newport for 1806. He probably did the 
astronomical work for Oliver Farnsworth's almanacs 
for 1800 and 1801 and appears as author of those 
published by Farnsworth for 1802 and 1803. 

Sheet almanacs were issued by both Carter and 
Wheeler. They were usually issued during the first 
part of January as is shown by the advertisements 
in the newspapers, while the regular almanacs were 
issued in October or November. These sheet alman- 
acs, according to the advertisements, were " Convenient 
for Compting-Houses, Stores, public Houses &c." 
The earliest Rhode Island sheet almanac that has 
been recorded was for 1771. Such almanacs were, by 
nature, rather ephemeral and only two existing ex- 
amples of them have survived. 

The Poor Job almanac for 1751 is the earliest known 
Rhode Island almanac to contain an illustration. 
Thereafter the man of signs and cuts explaining eclipses 
became quite common. A portrait of Wilkes appears 
as the cover design of the Weatherwise almanac, and 
a fanciful cover design is used on the early Andersons. 
Armorial cuts of the state and national arms are used 
on the title pages of the Phillips and the contemporary 
Wheeler almanacs. 

After 1800 fewer issues of Rhode Island almanacs 
appeared. Bickerslaff's New-England Almanac, 
called after 1815 The Rhode Island Almanac, 
continued the standard, practically without a rival. 
In 1806 Moses Lopez at Newport issued a Hebrew 



1915.] List of Rhode Island Almanacs. 29 

almanac known as A Lunar Calendar for A. M. 5566. 
From 1825 to 1832 H. H. Brown issued The Rhode- 
Island Register and United States Calendar as well 
as the Rhode Island Almanac and in 1843 Moore 
instituted his Providence Almanac. This, as time went 
on, became less and less of an almanac and more and 
more of a business directory until in 1896 the title 
Providence Almanac was dropped. 

During the last quarter of the century various comic 
and advertising almanacs were issued in Providence, 
Pawtucket, and Westerly, a series of French Catholic 
almanacs was published in Woonsocket from 1882 
to 1893, and a Swedish almanac in Providence in 1894. 

The success of the New York World's almanac set 
the example for our local papers so that today our 
two most successful almanacs are the Providence 
Journal Almanac in Providence and the Newport 
Mercury Almanac in Newport. 

Beside lift bona-fide Rhode Island almanacs, there 
have beeijr number of Massachusetts almanacs which, 
regulai^ as Thomas's, or irregularly as Weatherwise's, 
Bickeretaffs and Pope's, used Rhode Island as part 
of their title although not published within the state. 
These doubtless circulated considerably in Rhode 
Island. Robert B. Thomas's Old Farmer's Almanac 
has for over half a century been sold extensively in 
Rhode Island by local dealers, who have, as a general 
rule, had their names stamped or printed on the cover. 



30 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Key to Location of Copies. 

A. — American Antiquarian Society. 

B. M. — British Museum. 

B. U. — Brown University. 

L. C. — Library of Congress. 

N. H. S. — Newport Historical Society. 

N. Y. P. L.— New York Public Library. 

R. — Rhode Island Historical Society. 

W. — George Hnile Free Library at Warren. 

Nom In the locating of copies, preference has been given to the two largest col- 
lections, those of the Rhode Island Historical Society and the American Antiquarian 
Society. Where no copy was possessed by either of these two libraries, a reference to 
a copy in some other collection has been made. 

Check List. 

1643 [Almanack for Rhode Island and Providence Planta- 
tions in New England for 1644. London: Gregory 
Dexter.] 
No copy located. In his "History of Printing in America," 
Isaiah Thomas states that this was the first almanac for 
Rhode Island. 

1713 Leed's, 1713. The American Almanack for the Year 
of Christian Account, 1713. [New ^rk: William 
Bradford.] Sold by Elkana Pembrook in Newport. 

12 11. * H. 

Daniel Leed's almanacs had been printed annually by William 
Bradford at Philadelphia or New York from 1(589 to 1713. 
On some of the 1713 edition the imprint was omitted and the 
name of the bookseller was put in its place. Pembrook was 
perhaps one of the common class of itinerant booksellers who 
moved about from town to town at that time. At any rate 
I have not found his name in any contemporary list of Newport 
inhabitants. This 1713 almanac was the last one by Daniel 
Leeds. His son, Titan Leeds, continued the series annually 
from 1714 to 1744. 

1728 mdccxxviii. The Rhode-Island Almanack, For the 
Year, 1728. By Poor Robin. Newport: J. Frank- 
lin. 

8 11. l. c. 

Only copy located. In 1911 a fac-simile reprint of this almanac 
was issued at Providence by George Parker Winship. There 
were 2 editions of this fac-simile with notes and additions, 
the one "without the Sensible Alteration," being limited to 
sixty copies. 

The only items of local interest that are given are the Baptist 
and Quaker meetings. 



1915.] List of Rhode Island Almanacs. 31 

1729 The Rhode-Island Almanack For the Year, 1729. 

Newport: J. Franklin. 
8 11. 
A copy recently sold by Dodd, Mead & Co. has not been located. 
A statement in the almanac of 1730 seems to show that this 
one was not by Poor Robin. 

1730 mdccxxx. The Rhode-Island Almanack For the Year, 

1730. By Poor Robin. Newport: J.Franklin. 

8 11. K. 

1731 Newport 1731. An Almanack For the Year of our 

Lord, 1731. By Samuel Maxwell, Newport: J. 
Franklin. 

8 11. A., R. 

This is the first Rhode Island almanac to add the court sessions 
to its local items. 

1732 mdccxxxii. The Rhode-Island Almanack For the 

Year, 1732. By Poor Robin. Newport: James 
Franklin. 

8 11. A., R. 

1733 mdccxxxiii. The Rhode Island Almanack For the 

Year, 1733. By Poor Robin. Newport: J. Franklin. 

8 11. A., R. 

1734 mdccxxxiv. The Rhode-Island Almanack For the 

Year, 1734. By Poor Rubin. Newport: J. Franklin. 
8 11. r. 

1735 mdccxxxv. The Rhode-Island Almanack For the 

Year, 1735. By Poor Robin. Newport: J.Franklin. 

8 11. A., R. 

The copy in the Library of Congress is interleaved with manu- 
script notes. It belonged to Daniel Rogers, a tutor at Har- 
vard in 1732. 

1737 mdccxxxvii. The Rhode-Island Almanack For the 

Year, 1737. By Joseph Stafford, Newport: Widow 
Franklin. 
. 8 11. 4* R- 

1738 mdccxxxviii. The Rhode-Island Almanack For the 

Year, 1738. By Joseph Stafford. Newport: Widow 

Franklin. 

8 11. l- c. 



32 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

1739 mdccxxxix. The Rhode-Island Almanack For the 

Year, 1739. By Poor Robin. Newport: Widow 
Franklin. 

8 11. R. 

James Franklin having died in 1735, and Stafford having moved 
to Boston, Widow Franklin issued the almanac this year and 
subsequently, under the pseudonym formerly used by her 
husband. 

1740 mdccxl. The Rhode-Island Almanack For the Year, 

1740. By Poor Robin. Newport: Widow Franklin. 
8 11. L . c. 

1741 mdccxli. The Rhode-Island Almanack For the Year, 

1741. By Poor Robin. Newport: Widow Franklin. 
8 11. R . 

1750 [Poor Job, 1750. An Almanack For the Year of our 

Lord 1750. By Job Shepherd. Newport: James 

Franklin.] 

12 11. R. 

This is the first of the second series of Franklin almanacs. They 
were issued by James Franklin's son James under the pen name 
of Job Shepherd. The only known copy lacks six leaves. 

1751 Poor Job, 1751. An Almanack For the Year of our 

Lord 1751. By Job Shepherd. Newport: James 

Franklin. 

12 11. A., R. 

This almanac contains a cut of the man of signs, a geographical 
description of the world, a list of the Kings of England, and 
an ephemeris. This is the first almanac printed in Rhode 
Island that contains these things as far as we actually know, 
but it is probable that they were on the missing pages of the 
1750 almanac which has only come down to us in a mutilated 
condition. 

1752 Poor Job, 1752. An Almanack For the Year of our 

Lord 1752. By Job Shepherd. Newport: James 
Franklin. 

12 11. A., R. 

A new cut of the man of signs appears in this almanac, and also 
an account of the change of the calendar from old to new. style 
and the omission of 19 days in September. The copy of the 
Library of Congress is interleaved with the manuscript diary 
of Jacob Gushing. 



1915.] List of Rhode Island Almanacs. 33 

1753 Poor Job, 1753. An Almanack For the Year of our 

Lord 1753 by Job Shepherd. Newport: James 

Franklin. 

12 11. R . 

1754 Poor Job, 1754. An Almanack For the Year of our 

Lord 1754. By Job Shepherd. Newport: James 
Franklin. 

12 11. R . 

Many local items appear as for instance against May 2. "G. 
Elect. Newport." 

1755 Poor Job, 1755. An Almanack For the Year of our 

Lord 1755. By Job Shepherd. Newport: James 
Franklin. 

12 U. A, R. 

This almanac contains a curious tide table calculated for Rhode 
Island, but with variations given for other places, sailing 
directions for entering the harbor of Newport and the bearing 
of the Rhode Island Lighthouse on Beaver-Tail. 
1758 Poor Job's country and townsman's Almanack for 1758. 
By Job Shepherd. Newport: J. Franklin. 

8 11. B.M., E. S. PHELPS. 

1760 Whitefield's Almanack for 1760. By Nathaniel White- 
field. Newport: James Franklin. 
12 11. , A., R. 

This almanac is of larger size than the earlier Franklin almanacs, 
being over 6* x Z l A'. It contains a table for calculating 
interest upon the Lawful Money of the Colonies of Rhode- 
Island and Connecticut, and many medical remedies. This 
is the last almanac published by the Franklins. 

1763 An Almanack, For the Year of our Lord Christ, 1763. 

By Benjamin West. Providence: William Goddard. 

12 11. A., R. 

This is the first of the Providence series of West almanacs, which 
continued until 1781. The title was enlarged in 1764. The 
Almanac contains an ephemeris and gives the time of high tide. 
The court holdings and church meetings are given under the 
respective months. A table of the value and weight of coins 
and a table of Post Roads are included. This makeup becomes 
the rule for subsequent West almanacs. 

1764 The New-England Almanack, For the Year of our Lord 

Christ, 1764. By Benjamin West. Providence: 

William Goddard. 

12 11. r. 



34 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

1764 An Astronomical Diary: Or Almanack for 1764. By 

Nathaniel Ames. Newport: Re-printed and sold 
by Samuel Hall. 

12 U. A, R. 

A reprint of Ames' Boston Almanac. This Newport series of 
Ames continued several years. 

1765 The New England Almanack for 1765. By Benjamin 

West. Providence: William Goddard. 

12 11. A., Ii. 

It contains an advertisement about paper manufacturing in 
Rhode Island, as do some of the subsequent almanacs. 

1765 An Astronomical Diary: Or, Almanack for 1765. By 

Nathaniel Ames. Boston: R. & S. Draper, etc. 

Sold also by S. Hall at Newport. 

12 ll. R. 

Hammett gives the imprint "Newport: Samuel Hall" but 
doubtless intended to describe this almanac. 

1766 The New-England Almanack for 1766. By Benjamin 

West. Providence: Sarah and William Goddard. 

12 11. A., R. 

Contains chronology of French and Indian War, and "a short 
view of the present State of the American Colonies. " 

1766 An Astronomical Diary: Or Almanac for 1766 by 
Nathaniel Ames. Newport: Reprinted and sold 
by Samuel Hall. 

12 11. A., R. 

1766 Ames's Almanack revived and improved: Or, An 

Astronomical Diary for 1766. By a late Student at 
Harvard College. Boston: R. & S. Draper; Edes 
& Gill; Green & Russell; T. & J. Fleet; S. Hall in 
Rhode Island. 

A., R. 

A pirated edition because of failure of Ames to agree with printers. 
(Nichols) Printed in Boston, not in Newport. 

1767 The New-England Almanack for 1767. By Benjamin 

West. Providence: Sarah Goddard and Company. 
12 11. a., R. 

The first Rhode Island Almanac to have a cut on the title page 
and the first of West's Providence Almanacs to contain a cut. 



1915.] List of Rhode Island Almanacs. 35 

1768 The New-England Almanack for 1768. By Benjamin 
West. Providence: Sarah Goddard and John 
Carter. 

12 li. A., K. 

It contains a cut explaining the eclipse. 

1768 An Astronomical Diary: Or, Almanack for 1768. By 

Nathaniel Ames. Newport: Reprinted and sold 

by Samuel Hall. /-* -^4 ^O^f* 

12 11. ^Uld/Qb7 R . 

1769 The New-England Almanack for 1769. By Benjamin 

West. Boston: Mein and Fleeming. Sold by Ben- 
jamin West, (the author) in Providence. 
12 11. a., u. 

Owing to a disagreement, West had his almanac published in 
Boston, and Goddard and Carter published one under the 
pseudonym of Abraham Weatherwise. 

1769 The New-England Town and Country Almanack for 

1769. By Abraham Weatherwise. Providence: 
Sarah Goddard and John Carter. 

16 11. A., R. 

See note to previous entry. A portrait of John Wilkes appears 
on the front page, and the title page is the fifth page. Second 
and Third Editions were issued, according to advertisements 
in the Providence Gazette. This almanac contains an account 
of the Stage coach and Passage Boat owners and time tables, 
and also the bearings from Rhode Island Lighthouse. Com- 
pare 1755 Almanac. 

1770 The New-England Almanack for 1770. By Benjamin 

West. Providence: John Carter. 
1611. A., R. 

"This Year two Things are added: one is a new table, by which 
the Interest of any Sum of Money; for any time, and at any 
Rate per Cent may readily be computed. This Table will 
be esteemed a great Curiosity: — The second is the Rising, 
Setting and Southing of the Pleiades. . ." 

1771 The New-England Almanack for 1771. By Benjamin 

West. Providence: John Carter. 

12 11. A., R. 

1771 West's Sheet Almanack, For the Year 1771. 

Broadside. No copy located, Advertised in Providence Gazette, 
The earliest sheet almanac for Rhode Island. 



36 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

1771 An Astronomical Diary: Or, Almanack for 1771. 

By Nathaniel Ames. Newport: 

12 U. L . c . 

1772 The New-England Almanack for 1772. By Benjamin 

West. Providence: John Carter. 

12 11. a., b. 

It contains account of the compass variation for Providence and 
a table to calculate the number of days from any day of one 
month to the same day of any other month. 

1772 The New-England Almanack for 1772. By Benjamin 
West. Newport: Ebenezer Campbell. 
12 11. R . 

1772 West's Sheet Almanack, For the Year 1772. 

Broadside. No copy located. Advertised in Providence Gazette, 

1772 The Rhode-Island Almanack, or Astronomical Diary, 

for 1772. By John Anderson. Newport: Solomon 
Southwick. 

12 11. A., R. 

This is the first of the series of Anderson Almanacs. 

1773 The New-England Almanack for 1773. By Benjamin 

West. Providence: John Carter. 

16 11. A., R. 

1773 Anderson improved : being an Almanack and Ephem- 

eris for 1773. By John Anderson. Newport: 
Solomon Southwick. 

1611. A., R. 

There is a large ornamental cut on the front page and the title 
page is page three. The Anderson series are arranged in 
this style. The man of signs also appears. 

1774 The New-England Almanack for 1774. By Benjamin 

West. Providence: John Carter. 

12 11. A., R. 

It contains "A brief Historical Account of the Rise and Settle- 
ment of Rhode Island Government." See also the almanac 
for 1778. 

1774 Anderson improved: being an Almanack and Ephem- 
eris for 1774. By John Anderson. Newport: 
Solomon Southwick. 

16 11. A., R. 



1915.] List of Rhode Island Almanacs. 37 

A new and more elaborate man of signs cut appears, and "the 
Stages from Newport to Hoosuck are inserted this Year, which 
were never in any other Almanack." 

1774 (The same.) The second edition. 

R. 

1775 The New-England Almanack for 1775. By Benjamin 

West. Providence: John Carter. 

12 11. A., R. 

It contains "A brief view of the present controversy between 
Great Britain and America, with some observations thereon." 

1775 Anderson improved : being an Almanack and Ephem- 

eris for 1775. By John Anderson. Newport: 
Solomon Southwick. 

16 11. A., R. 

Notes on importations from England appear in this almanac. 

1776 The New-England Almanack for 1776. By Benjamin 

West. Providence: John Carter. 
16 11. A., R. 

It contains a list of the Public offices of Rhode Island and an 
account of the Post service. 

1776 West's Almanack, for the year 1776. By Benjamin 
West. Providence: John Carter. 
Broadside. n.y.p.l. 

This was issued as a sheet almanac. The only known copy, now 
in the New York Public Library, has been cut up into twelve 
leaves and bound as a book. These leaves are printed on one 
side only. The title at the top and the notes about eclipses 
at the bottom of the original broadside, now continue across 
eight pages (four successive leaves). There is a photostat 
copy in r. 

1776 An Almanack, and Ephemeris for 1776. By John 
Anderson. Newport: Solomon Southwick. 

12 11. A., R. 

1776 (Same) Second edition. 

12 11. A., R. 

1777 The New-England Almanack for 1777. By Benjamin 

West. Providence: John Carter. 

12 11. A., R. 

1777 An Almanack, and Ephemeris for 1777. By John 
Anderson, Newport: Solomon Southwick. 
12 11. 
No copy located. Mentioned by Hammett. 



38 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

1778 The New-England Almanack for 1778. By Benjamin 

West. Providence: John Carter. 

1211. A., R. 

1779 The New-England Almanack for 1779. By Benjamin 

West. Providence: John Carter. 

12 11. , A., R. 

1780 The New-England Almanack for 1780. By Benjamin 

West. Providence: John Carter. 
18 11. a., R. 

A cut showing the eclipse appears in this almanac. 

1780 Anderson revived : The North-American Calendar; or, 
an Almanack for 1780. By John Anderson. Provi- 
dence: Bennett Wheeler. 
12 11. A, R. 

This is the first almanac published by Bennett Wheeler, and 
the first of his series, which continued to 1803. He revived 
the old fictitious Anderson for 1780, but used West's cal- 
culation. The next year he employed West openly. West 
appears as the author from 1781 to 1785 and for 1787. 

1780 (Same) Second Edition. 

No copy located. Mentioned in Evans. 

1781 The New-England Almanack for 1781. By Benjamin 

West. Providence: John Carter. 
16 11. A., R. 

It has a cut showing the eclipse and an elaborate cut of the man 
of signs. It is the last West Almanac published by Carter, 
and with it the West-Carter controversy ended. 

1781 The North-American Calendar; or, an Almanack for 
1781. By Benjamin West. Providence: Bennett 
Wheeler. Newport: Henry Barber. 
12 11. A., R. 

The second almanac of the Wheeler series. Henceforth West 
calculated for Wheeler instead of for Carter. It contains cut 
of the eclipse. 

1781 Bickerstaffs New-England Almanack for 1781. By 
Isaac Bickerstaff. Providence: John Carter. 

9 16 11. A., R. 

According to the Providence Gazette four impressions were issued. 
In the second edition there is a change in the tide tables. After 
the final disagreement between West and Carter, the latter 
re-issued the almanac under this pseudonym. It contains the 
man of signs cut and one eclipse cut. 









1915.] List of Rhode Island Almanacs. 39 

1781 Calendrier Francais Pour TAnn^e Commune 1781. 
Newport: De l'lmprimerie de PEscadre. 
17 11. B , 

An account of this almanac together with the other works printed 
on the French Fleet, entitled "The Printing Press of the 
French Fleet," by Howard M. Chapin, was published by 
Preston & Rounds, Providence, 1914. 

1781 [Almanack for 1781.] By John Anderson, Newport. 

N.H.8. 

Imperfect copy. Title page missing. 

1782 The North-American Calendar, and Rhode-Island 

Register for 1782. By Benj amin West. Providence : 

Bennett Wheeler. 

20 11. A ., R . 

It contains three cuts explaining eclipses; and a reprint of the 
Articles of Confederation. 

1782 The North-American Calendar for 1782, Newport. 
No copy located. Mentioned by Hammett. 

1782 The New-England Almanack for 1782. By Isaac 
Bickerstaff. Providence: John Carter. 
12 11. A., R. 

The type used is smaller than that previously used in this Bick- 
erstaff series of almanacs. 

1782 Note. Thomas's Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode 

Island, New Hampshire and Vermont almanack for 
1782, published by Isaiah Thomas at Worcester is 
the first of a series of Massachusetts almanacs that 
bear the name of Rhode Island in their title. These 
continued until 1810. There were also similar series 
by Weatherwise (1791-1799) Bickerstaff (1791-1799) 
and Pope (1797). 

1783 The North-American Calendar: or the Rhode-Island 

Almanack for 1783. By Benjamin West. Provi- 
dence: Bennett Wheeler. 

16 11. A., R. 

Besides three cuts explaining eclipses, it has a reprint of the treaty 
with France. 

1783 'The North-American Calendar: or the Rhode-Island 
Almanack for 1783. By Benjamin West. Providence: 
Bennett Wheeler for Henry Barber, Newport. 
16 11. b. 



40 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

1783 The New-England Almanack for 1783. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: John Carter. 

12 11. A, R. 

Two eclipse cuts are shown. 

1784 The North-American Calendar: or, the Rhode Island 

Almanack for 1784. By Benjamin West. Provi- 
dence: Bennett Wheeler. 

12 11. A., R. 

Second edition. Advertised in the U. S. Chronicle. 
1784 The North-American Calendar; or the Rhode-Island 
Almanack for 1784. By Benjamin West. Provi- 
dence: Bennett Wheeler. Sold by Terrence Reilly. 
12 11. R. 

1784 The North-American Calendar; or, the Rhode-Island 
Almanack for 1784. By Benjamin West. Newport: 
Bennett Wheeler. 

12 11. A., R. 

1784 The North-American Calendar; or, the Rhode-Island 
Almanack for 1784. By Benjamin West. Newport: 
Solomon Southwick. 

12 11. A., R. 

1784 The New-England Almanack for 1784. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: John Carter. 
12 11. a., R. 

It contains eclipse cut. 

1785 The North-American Calendar; or, the Rhode-Island 

Almanack for 1785. By Benjamin West. Provi- 
dence: Bennett Wheeler. 

18 11. a., R. 

The official scale of depreciation of currency is included. 

1785 The New-England Almanack for 1785. By Isaac 
Bickerstaff. Providence: John Carter. 
12 11. a., R. 

1785 The North-American Calendar; or, the Rhode Island 
^ Almanack for 1785. By Copernicus Partridge. 

Providence: Bennett Wheeler. 
Copernicus Partridge is probably a pseudonym of Bennett 
Wheeler. 



y 



1915.] List of Rhode Island Almanacs. 41 

1786 The New-England Almanack for 1786. By Isaac 
Bickerstaff. Providence: John Carter. 
12 U. A, R. 

1786 The North-American Calendar: or, the Rhode Island 
Almanack for 1786. By Benjamin West. Provi- 
dence: Bennett Wheeler. 
No copy located. 
Mentioned by Sabin. 

1786 The North-American Calendar; or, the Rhode-Island 
Almanack for 1786. By Copernicus Partridge. 
Providence: Bennett Wheeler. 
12 11. ii. 

1786 (Same, second issue). Variation on the last page, 
"The Printer requests" etc. is replaced by three 
humorous notes. 
12 11. a., r. 

1786 (Same) second edition. 

12 11. A., R. 

1787 The North-American Calendar: or, the Rhode-Island 

Almanack for 1787. By Benjamin West. Provi- 
dence: Bennett Wheeler. 

12 11. A., R. 

Contains cut of eclipse. 

1787 (Same, a second edition.) On the title-page "Eleventh 
of American Independence" is in Old English type. 

12 11. A., K. 

1787 (Same, a third edition.) There are three scrolls outside 
of the border on the title-page. 

12 11. A., R. 

1787 The New-England Almanack for 1787. By Isaac 
Bickerstaff. Providence: John Carter. 
12 11. A., R. 

1787 The Rhode Island Sheet Almanack for 1787. By 

Benjamin West. Providence: Bennett Wheeler. 
Broadside. R- 

1788 The New-England Almanack for 1788. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: John Carter. 

12 11. A., R. 



42 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

1788 Wheeler's Sheet Almanack for 1788. Providence: 
Bennett Wheeler. 
Broadside. Advertised in the U. S. Chronicle. No copy located. 
1788 The North American Calendar: or, the Rhode- 
Island Almanack for 1788. Providence: Bennett 
Wheeler. 

12 11. a., R. 

This Almanac contains an account of Rhode Island College (now 
Brown University). 

(Same, second impression) Advertised in the U. S. 
Chronicle. 
1788 Wheeler's North-American Calendar, and Rhode- 
Island Almanack for 1788. Providence: Bennett 
Wheeler. 
12 11. A. 

1788 An Astronomical Diary, or Almanack for 1788. By 
Daniel Freebetter. Newport: Peter Edes. 
12 11. A., u. 

1788 An Almanack for 1788. By Elisha Thornton of Smith- 

field. Newport: Peter Edes. 

12 11. A., R. 

1789 Wheeler's North- American Calendar, and Rhode- 

Island Almanack for 1789. Providence: Bennett 
Wheeler. 

12 11. a., R. 

The title page bears cut of Arms of United States and the almanac 
contains a report of the committee to make the channel, with 
directions for entering the harbor of Providence. 

1789 The New-England Almanack for 1789. By Isaac 
BickerstafT. Providence: John Carter. 
12 11. a., R. 

1789 An Almanack for 1789. By Elisha Thornton. New- 
port: Peter Edes. 
12 11. a., R. 

1789 Poor Richard's Rhode-Island Almanack for 1789. By 

Poor Richard. Newport: Peter Edes. 

12 11. R 

1790 Wheeler's North-American Calendar, or an Almanack 

for 1790. Providence: Bennett Wheeler. 

12 11. a., R. 

Cut of eclipse on title page. 



1915.] List of Rhode Island Almanacs. 43 

1790 (Same, second edition.) 

18 11. R . 

The second edition contains an apology for the non-appearance 
of the comet of 1661. 

1790 The New-England Almanack for 1790. By Isaac 
Bickerstaff. Providence: John Carter. 

12 11. A., R. 

Contains two eclipse cuts. This almanac contains "Directions 
for sailing up "Providence River." 

1790 An Almanack for 1790. By Elisha Thornton. New- 
port: Peter Edes. 

12 11. R. 

1790 The Rhode-Island Almanack for 1790. Newport: 

Peter Edes. 
No copy located. Mentioned by Hamrnett. 

1791 Wheeler's North-American Calendar, or an Almanack 

for 1791. Providence: Bennett Wheeler. 

12 11. A., R. 

It has a cut of the eclipse on the title page. 
1791 The New-England Almanack for 1791. By Isaac 
Bickerstaff. Providence, John Carter. 

12 11. A., R. 

A cut of the eclipse is included. 
1791 The Rhode-Island Almanack for 1791. By E. Thornton. 
Newport: P. Edes. 

12 11. A., R. 

1791 The Columbian Almanack, and Magazine of Knowledge 

and Fun, for 1791. By William Lilly Stover. New- 
port: P. Edes. 
12 11. r. 

The type pages of this almanac are wider than those of its con- 
temporary Rhode Island almanacs. The Court Register is 
placed above the astronomical calculation for the month in the 
space formerly filled by poetry. It contains an account of the 
masonic initiation. 

1792 Wheeler's North-American Calendar, or an Almanack 

for 1792. Providence: Bennett Wheeler. 
12 11. k. 

A cut of the eclipse appears on the title page. 



44 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

1792 The New-England Almanack for 1792. By Isaac 
Bickerstaff. Providence: John Carter. 
12 11. A ., b. 

1792 The Rhode-Island Almanack for 1792. By E. Thornton. 

Newport: P. Edes. 

12 H. A., R. 

1793 Wheeler's North-American Calendar, or an Almanack 

for 1793. Providence: B. Wheeler. 
12 11. A ., R . 

A cut of arms of the United States appears on the title page. 
1793 The New-England Almanack for 1793. By Isaac 
Bickerstaff. Providence: John Carter. 

12 11. A., R. 

1793 The Rhode-Island Almanack for 1793. By Elisha 
Thornton. Warren: Nathaniel Phillips. 

12 11. A., R. 

1793 Phillips's United States Diary, or an Almanack for 

1793. Warren: - Nathaniel Phillips. 

12 11. R. 

The first Warren almanac. A cut of the Arms of the United 
States appears on the title page. 

1793 (Same.) 2d edition. 

12 U. B.U. 

1794 Wheeler's North-American Calendar, or an Almanack 

for 1794. Providence: Bennett Wheeler. 

12 11. A., R. 

A cut of eclipse appears on the title page. 

1794 The New-England Almanack for 1794. By Isaac 
Bickerstaff. Providence: Carter and Wilkinson. 

12 11. A., R. 

1794 The Rhode-Island Almanack, with an Ephemeris for 

1794. By Elisha Thornton. Warren: Nathaniel 
Phillips for Jacob Richardson, Newport. 

12 11. r. 

1794 (Thornton's?) Sheet Almanack for 1794. (Provi- 
dence?) 
Broadside. Advertised in Providence Gazette. 

1794 Phillips's United States Diary, or an Almanack for 
1794. Warren: Nathaniel Phillips. 

12 11. A., R- 



1915.] List of Rhode Island Almanacs. 45 

The arms of United States and of Rhode Island appear on title 
page of this and subsequent Phillips almanacs. Also there is 
a cut of the eclipse on page two. 

1795 Wheelers's North-American Calendar, or an Almanack 
for 1795. Providence: Bennett Wheeler. 
12 11. A, R. 

1795 (Same, with variation on last ten pages.) 

12 11. R . 

1795 New-England Almanack for 1795. By Isaac Bick- 
erstaff. Providence: Carter and Wilkinson. 
12 11. A., R. 

1795 The Rhode-Island Register for 1795. 

12 pp. A., R. 

Bartlett ascribes this to Elijah Fenton. It was bound both 
with the Bickerstaff and with the Thornton almanacs for 
1795. 

1795 The New-England Almanack for 1795. By Elisha 
Thornton. Providence: Carter and Wilkinson. 
12 11. A., R. 

1795 Thornton's Sheet Almanack for 1795. Providence: 
Carter and Wilkinson. 

Broadside. Advertised in Providence Gazette. 

1795 Phillips's United States Diary; or an Almanack for 

1795. Warren: Nathaniel Phillips. 

12 11. R. 

1795 Anderson revived : Being an Almanack, and Ephem- 

eris for 1795. By John Anderson. Newport: 
Henry C. Southwick and Co. 

12 11. A., R. 

1796 Wheeler's North-American Calendar, or Almanack for 

1796. Providence: B. Wheeler. 

1011. A., R. 

There is a cut of arms of Rhode Island on the title page. 

1796 The New-England Almanack for 1796. By Isaac 
Bickerstaff. Providence: Carter and Wilkinson. 

12 11. A., R. 

It contains the man of signs cut. 

1796 The New-England Almanack for 1796. By Elisha 
Thornton. Providence: Carter and Wilkinson. 
12 11. A., R. 



46 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

1796 Thornton's Sheet Almanack for 1796. Providence: 
Carter and Wilkinson. 
Broadside. Advertised in Providence Gazette. 

1796 Phillips's United States Diary; or an Almanack for 

1796. Warren: Nathaniel Phillips. 

12 U. A, B. 

R. I. H. S. has a copy sewed with March as the first month. 

1797 Wheeler's North-American Calendar, or an Almanack 

for 1797. Providence: B. Wheeler. 
12 11. a., b. 

The United States arms appear on the title page. 

1797 The New-England Almanack for 1797. By Isaac 
Bickerstaff. Providence: Carter and Wilkinson. 
12 11. R . 

A cut of the eclipse is shown. 

1797 The New-England Almanack for 1797. By Elisha 
Thornton and Eliab Wilkinson. Providence: Carter 
and Wilkinson. 

12 11. A., R. 

It contains two cuts of the eclipse and the man of signs. 

1797 Phillips's United States Diary: or an Almanack for 

1797. Warren: Nathaniel Phillips. 

12 11. A., R. 

1798 Wheeler's North- American Calendar, or an Almanack 

for 1798. Providence: B. Wheeler. 

12 11. . A., r.1 

The United States arms appear on the title page. 

1798 New-England Almanack for 1798. By Isaac Bick- 
erstaff. Providence: Carter and Wilkinson. 

12 11. A., R. 

Cut of man of signs appears. 

1798 Phillips's United States Diary; or an Almanack for 

1798. Warren: Nathaniel Phillips. 

12 11. A., R. 

1798 The Rhode-Island Calendar or Almanack for 1798. 
By Isaac Bickerstaff. Printed for and sold by Joseph 
J. Todd, at his bookstores in Providence and New- 
port. 

12 11. A., R 

There is no ruled border on the text pages. 



1915.] List of Rhode Island Almanacs. 47 

1799 The New-England Almanack for 1799. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: Carter and Wilkinson. 
12 U. a, b. 

It has man of signs cut. 

1800 The New-England Almanack for 1800. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: John Carter. 
12 11, A, R. 

1800 The New-England Calendar, and Ephemeris for 1800. 
By Eliab Wilkinson. Newport: Printed for Jacob 
Richardson. 

12 11. A., a. 

Two pages are used for each month. 

1800 The New-England Calendar, and Ephemeris for 1800. 
By Eliab Wilkinson of Smithfield. Warren: 
Nathaniel Phillips. 

12 11. A. 

Two pages are used for each month. 

1800 The United States Almanack for 1800. By Eliab 
Wilkinson. Warren: Nathaniel Phillips. 

w. 

1800 The Newport Almanack for 1800. Newport: Oliver 

Farns worth. 

12 11. A., R. 

Probably compiled by Remington Southwick as one by him is 
referred to in the American Minerva of Dedham, Oct. 9, 1800. 
There is an ornamental cut on title page and the man of signs 
cut on page two. , 

1801 The New-England Almanack for 1801. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff, Providence: John Carter. 

12 11. A., R. 

1801 The Rhode-Island Almanac for 1801. Newport: Oliver 
Farnsworth. 
12 11. A., R. 

1801 (Same, with "Great Allowance to those who purchase 
quantities ,, on the front page.) 
12 11. ' r. 

1801 The Newport Almanac for 1801. Newport: Oliver 
Farnsworth. 
12 11. a. 



48 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

1801 The New-England Calendar and Ephemeris for 1801. 

Newport: Oliver Farnsworth for Jacob Richardson. 
No copy located. Mentioned by Hammett. 

1802 The New-England Almanack for 1802. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: John Carter. 

12 11. A., ft. 

1802 The North-American Calendar and Rhode-Island 
Almanack for 1802. Providence, Bennett Wheeler. 

12 11. A., ft. 

1802 (Same) Second edition. 

12 11. ». 

1802 Rhode-Island Almanack for 1802. By R. Southwick. 

Newport, Oliver Farnsworth. 

12 11. A., R. 

1803 The New-England Almanack for 1803. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: John Carter. 

12,11. A., R. 

1803 Wheeler's North-American Calendar, and Rhode- 
Island Almanack for 1803. Providence, Bennett 
Wheeler. 

12 11. A., R. 

1803 Rhode-Island Almanac for 1803. By R. Southwick. 
Newport: Oliver Farnsworth. 
12 11. R. 

1803 Almanack for 1803. By R. Thomas. Newport: 

Oliver Farnsworth. 

No copy located. Mentioned by Hammett. 

1804 The New-England Almanack for 1804. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: John Carter. 

12 11. A., R. 

1804 The Rhode-Island Almanac for 1804. By Benjamin 

West. Newport: Oliver Farnsworth. 

12 11. A., R. 

1805 The New-England Almanack for 1805. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: John Carter. 
12 11. a., R. 

1805 The Rhode-Island Almanac for 1805. By Benjamin 
West. Newport: Oliver Farnsworth. 
12 11. a., R. 



1915.] List of Rhode Island Almanacs. 49 

1806 The New-England Almanack for 1806. By Isaac 
Bickerstaff. Providence: John Carter. 

12 11. A., ft. 

1806 The Rhode-Island Almanac for 1806. By Benjamin 
West. Newport Oliver Famsworth. 

12 11. A., ft. 

1806 The Columbian Calendar or Almanac for 1806. By 
Remington Southwick. Newport. Printed for the 
author. 

12 11. A., R. 

1806 A Lunar Calendar for A. M. 5566. (1806) By Moses 

Lopez. Newport: Newport Mercury. 

132 pp. a. 
This Almanac was calculated for the Jews who at this time had 
a very prosperous colony in Newport. 

1807 The New-England Almanack for 1807. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: John Carter. 

12 11. A., it. 

1808 The New-England Almanack for 1808. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: John Carter. 

12 11. a., n. 

1809 The New-England Almanack for 1809. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: John Carter. 

12 11. A., R. 

1810 The New-England Almanack for 1810. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: John Carter. 

1211. a., n. 

1811 The New-England Almanack for 1811. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: John Carter. 

12 11. a., R. 

1812 The New-England Almanack for 1812. By Issac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: John Carter. 

12 11. A., R. 

1813 The New-England Almanack for 1813. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: John Carter. 

12 11. A., R. 

1814 The New-England Almanack for 1814. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: John Carter. 

12 11. a. 



50 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

1814 The New-England Almanack for 1814. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: John Carter. Sold also 

by George Wanton, Newport. 

12 11. , A, B. 

1815 The Rhode-Island Almanack for 1815. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: Brown & Wilson. 
12 11. a., R. 

The old Bickerstaff Almanac appears with a new title this year. 

1816 The Rhode-Island Almanack for 1816. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: Brown & Wilson. 

12.11. A., R. 

1817 The Rhode-Island Almanack for 1817. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: Hugh H. Brown. 

12 11. A., R. 

1818 The Rhode-Island Almanack for 1818. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: Hugh H. Brown. 

12 U. A., R. 

1819 The Rhode-Island Almanack for 1819. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: Hugh H. Brown. 

12 11. + 23 pp. a., r. 

1820 The Rhode-Island Almanack for 1820. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: Hugh H. Brown. 

12 11. + 4 pp. A., R. 

1820 The Rhode-Island Register and United States Calendar 

for 1820. Providence: H. H. Brown. 
108 pp. a., R. 

This new series started by the publishers of the Bickerstaff series 
continued for 12 years. 

1821 The Rhode-Island Almanack for 1821. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: Brown and Danforth. 
12 11. + 4 pp. A., R. 

1821 The Rhode-Island Register and United States Calendar 

for 1821. Providence: Brown & Danforth. 

96 pp. + fold, plate. a., r. 

1822 The Rhode-Island Almanack for 1822. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: Brown and Danforth. 
12 11. + 4 pp. A -> R - 

1822 The Rhode-Island Register and United States Calendar 
by 1822. Providence: Brown and Danforth. 
90 pp. A - R - 



1915.] List of Rhode Island Almanacs. 51 

1823 Rhode-Island Almanack for 1823. By Isaac Bick- 
erstaff. Providence: Brown and Danforth. 
12 11. + 4 pp. A ., R . 

1823 Rhode-Island Register and United States Calendar for 

1823. Providence: Brown and Danforth. 

96 pp. a., R. 

1824 Rhode-Island Almanack for 1824. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: Brown and Danforth. 
12 11. + 4 pp. A ., B . 

1824 Rhode-Island Register and United States Calendar for 

1824. Providence: Brown and Danforth. 

108 pp. A., R. 

1825 The Rhode-Island Almanack for 1825. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: Brown & Danforth. 

12 11. A., R. 

1825 The Rhode-Island Register and United States Calendar 

for 1825. Providence: Brown & Danforth. 
112 pp. Also The Providence Annual Advertiser. 19 pp. 

A., R. 

1826 The Rhode-Island Almanack for 1826. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: Carlile & Brown. 

12 11. + 12 pp. A., R. 

1826 The Rhode-Island Register and United States Calendar 

for 1826. Providence: Carlile & Brown. 

96 pp. A., R. 

1827 The Rhode-Island Almanack for 1827. By Isaac 
. Bickerstaff. Providence: Carlile & Brown. 

12 11. + 4 pp. A., r. / 

1827 The Rhode-Island Register and United States Calendar 

for 1827. Providence: Carlile & Brown. 

105 + [2] pp. a., r. 

1828 The Rhode-Island Almanack for 1828. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: H. H. Brown. 

12 11. + 6 11. a., R. 

1828 The Rhode-Island Register and United States Calendar 

for 1828. Providence: II. H. Brown. 

9G pp. a., R. 

1829 The Rhode-Island Almanack for 1829. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: II. H. Brown. 

12 11. a., R. 



52 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

1829 The Rhode-Island Register and United States Calendar 
for 1829. Providence: H. H. Brown. 
96 pp. a., R. 

1829 The Christian Almanack for Rhode-Island. Vol. 2, 

No. 2. American Tract Society. Providence. 
38 pp. -f- cover. a., r. 

This almanac was probably not printed within the state. 

1830 The Rhode-Island Almanack for 1830. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: H. H. Brown. 

12 11. A., R. 

1830 The Rhode-Island Register and United Stated Calendar 

for 1830. Providence: H. H. Brown. 

48 pp. A., R. 

1831 The Rhode-Island Almanack for 1831. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: H. H. Brown. 

24 pp. A., R. 

1831 The Rhode-Island Register and United States Calendar 

for 1831. Providence: H. H. Brown. 

48 pp. A., R. 

1832 The Rhode-Island Almanack for 1832. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: H. H. Brown. 

24 pp. A., R. 

1832 The Rhode-Island Register and United States Calendar 

for 1832. Providence: H. H. Brown. 

48 pp. A., R. 

1833 The Rhode-Island Almanack for 1833. By R. T. 

Paine. Providence: H. H. Brown. 
24 pp. A., r. 

This almanac really belongs to the Bickerstaff series, Bickerstaff's 
name appearing again next year. 

1834 The Rhode-Island Almanack for 1834. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: H. H. Brown. 

24 pp. a., R. 

1835 The Rhode-Island Almanack for 1835. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: H. H. Brown. 

24 pp. a., R. 

1836 The Rhode-Island Almanac for 1836. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: H. H. Brown. 
24 pp. A -» R - 

This year the letter "k" was omitted from the word "almanac." 



1915.] List of Rhode Island Almanacs. 53 

1837 The Rhode-Island Almanac for 1837. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: H. H. Brown. 

24 pp. A ., r. 

1838 The Rhode-Island Almanac for 1838. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: H. H. Brown. 

24 pp. a., R. 

1839 The Rhode-Island Almanac for 1839. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: H. H. Brown. 

24 pp. A., R. 

1840 The Rhode-Island Almanac for 1840. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: H. H. Brown. 

24 pp. A., R. 

1841 The Rhode-Island Almanac for 1841. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: H. H. Brown. 

24 pp. A., R. 

1842 The Rhode-Island Almanack for 1842. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: H. H. Brown. 

24 pp. A., R. 

1843 The Rhode-Island Almanack for 1843. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: H. H. Brown. 

24 pp. A., R. 

1843 The Providence Almanac and Business Directory for 

1843. By Benjamin F. Moore. Providence: B. F. 

Moore. 

112 pp. A., R. 

This is really a business directory with an almanac in the front 
part, rather than a true almanac. It appeared until 1850 
and again from 1855 to 1857. 

1844 The , Rhode-Island Almanack for 1844. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: H. H. Brown. 

24 pp. A., R. 

1844 The Providence Almanac for 1844. By Benjamin F. 

Moore. Providence: B. F. Moore. 

134 pp. map. a., r. 

1845 The Rhode-Island Almanac for 1845. By Isaac 

Bickerstaff. Providence: H. H. Brown. 

24 pp. A., R. 

1845 Providence Almanac for 1845. Providence. 

149 pp. R- 



54 



American Antiquarian Society. 



[April, 



1846 

1846 

1847 

1847 
1848 

1848 
1848 

1849 

1849 
1850 

1850 



The Rhode-Island Almanac for 1846. By Isaac 
Bickerstaff. Providence: H. H. Brown. 



24 + [12] pp. 

The Providence Almanac for 1846 
120 pp. 

The Rhode-Island Almanac 
Bickerstaff Providence: H. 
24 + [12] pp. 

The Providence Almanac for 1847. 
120 pp. 

The Rhode-Island Almanac 



A., R. 

Providence. 

R. 

for 1847. By Isaac 
H. Brown. 

A., R. 

Providence. 

R. 

for 1848. By Isaac 



Providence: H. H. Brown. 



Providence. 



By A. Maynard. 



A. 

Isaac 



Bickerstaff. 
24 + [12] pp. 

The Providence Almanac for 1848. 
120 pp. 

The New Farmer's Almanac for 1848. 
Providence: Charles Burnett, Jr. 
47 pp. 

The Rhode-Island Almanac for 1848. By 
Bickerstaff. Providence: H. H. Brown. 
24 + [10] pp. a., r. 

The Providence Almanac for 1849. Providence. 
Ill pp. A., R. 

The Rhode-Island Almanac for 1850. By Isaac 
Bickerstaff. Providence: H. II. Brown. 
24 + [8] pp. a., r. 

The Providence Almanac for 1850. By John F. Moore. 
Providence: John F. Moore. 

100 pp. R- 



1915.] 



Justus Fox. 



55 



JUSTUS FOX 

A GERMAN PRINTER OF THE EIGHTEENTH 
CENTURY 



BY CHARLES LEMUEL NICHOLS 

The History of Printing in America by Isaiah 
Thomas was published in 1810. 

A work of this character and in an entirely new field 
would naturally be found inaccurate in some details, 
and this was the case in the volumes upon which 
Thomas had labored for eight years. Having been 
disappointed in some sources of information which 
he had reason to expect before the publication of his 
work, Thomas within a short time determined to 
prepare a new edition which should rectify the errors 
of the one in the hands of the public. 

A few years later, therefore, he had filled a copy of 
this history with extensive notes, on the title page of 
which was written by him: 

"In this copy of four books (as I obtain information) 
I make the necessary alterations and corrections but 
as I generally do it in haste, it is my intention, should 
I live, to take another copy and make all the altera- 
tions with more care. If I should not live to fulfil 
my intention and the work should again be printed 
I hope some friend will do it. I have not read it 
through since it was printed. The Phraseology in 
many places needs alteration. " 

This was dated March, 1815, and a reference to his 
Diary shows that during this year its pages contained 
frequent records of sickness, a circumstance which 
may explain the tone of uncertainty in the note above. 

Although Thomas lived many years after this time, 
the work was not completed by him, and it remained 



56 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

for a Committee of this Society, including his grand- 
son, Judge Benjamin Franklin Thomas, to edit the 
revised edition in the year 1874. 

Thomas had frequently solicited criticisms and the 
correction of errors in his book from many of his 
friends, and he received a number of communications 
on the subject, some of which are preserved in the files 
of his letters. Among these friends none did such 
extensive work as William McCulloch of Philadelphia. 

In the manuscript collections of our Society is a 
quarto volume of 296 pages entitled, ''Additional 
Memoranda for the History of Printing by Isaiah 
Thomas Communicated by William McCulloch." 

Below this title, in the hand of Thomas, is written: 
"This History was intended to go no further back 
than the Revolution. Many articles in this MS. are 
of course not adapted to the work, and many of the 
anecdotes &c are more calculated for private perusal 
than for publication, and were written principally 
for the amusement of I. Thomas, author of the work 
above mentioned. " 

Wm. McCulloch, a printer of ability in Philadelphia, 
began writing to Thomas his criticisms of the work as 
early as 1812, but later gathered together the informa- 
tion he had collected into the volume noted and 
forwarded it to him late in 1815. It relates largely 
to Pennsylvania, about which his information had 
been insufficient, and deals particularly with the 
paper mills, printers, type-founders and press-makers 
of Germantown and its neighborhood. 

The book contains a fund of information on these 
and kindred subjects, and its facts seem to have been 
gathered with care and discrimination from as reliable 
sources as were available. It deals largely with the 
correction of inaccuracies in dates and names in 
Thomas' book, but many interesting biographies of 
Pennsylvania printers are included. 

Thomas used much of this information in his own 
revision, although it was of necessity fragmentary 






1915.] Justus Fox. 57 

and condensed. The revision of 1874 drew upon it 
still more extensively, but there remains considerable 
material which is worthy of reproduction. 

It is my desire to bring before you some details in 
the life of Justus Fox, the facts of which life are 
obtained largely from this book written by McCulloch. 

Some Mennonist families from Germany and others 
from the New York province commenced the settle- 
ment of Germantown in the year 1692. In 1719 there 
came from Germany, to the new town about twenty 
families of the Tunker sect, and these were the first 
of this branch of the Baptist Communion to settle in 
America. Their importance in the later history of 
this town has led to the statement that the settlement 
of Germantown took place in 1719, instead of at the 
earlier date. 

A few years later Christopher Sower came there 
with his family, and passed the first fourteen years 
of his new life in various occupations. In 1738 
Sower established himself as a printer, having secured 
the press, type, and book stock which had been sent 
from Germany by a Baptist Society, to be employed 
for the propagation of the Gospel among the German 
settlers. 

Jacob Gans, to whom the Baptists of Germany had 
sent the printing material for the object above stated, 
proved entirely unfit for the task, and Sower was 
able to secure the property for a very moderate sum. 
Although ignorant of the printing business, Sower's 
native ability enabled him to gain both facility in the 
new work and the confidence and patronage of his 
fellow-townsmen. 

Christopher Sower had a large acquaintance in 
Germany, and it has been said that many families 
migrated to this neighborhood as the years passed, 
in consequence of the glowing accounts contained in 
his letters and those of his son, of the prosperity and 
opportunities of the new country. As his business 
increased, Sower was obliged to secure from these 



\ 



58 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

new-comers many helpers and apprentices in the 
various branches of his work, among whom in 1750 
was Henry Kurtz. 

This man, in his old age, was one of the sources 
whence McCulloch obtained the information contained 
in his book. 

The father of Kurtz, desiring the assistance of his 
son in his growing business as a tobacconist, appealed 
to Sower for his release from apprenticeship for this 
purpose, and Sower agreed to do this on condition a 
new apprentice was furnished him. Knowing of the 
recent arrival of a vessel from Germany, Kurtz sug- 
gested a boy named Justus Fox, who was one of the 
emigrants just landed. 

Justus Fox was born at Mannheim, Germany, 
March 4, 1736. His father, a cabinet maker, was 
sufficiently prosperous to give his son a good educa- 
tion, which included study in the Latin School of the 
town — a sure sign of the possession of larger means 
than the majority of his neighbors. 

While studying at this school, the boy, when not 
more than five years of age, wondered how the books 
were made which he used and endeavored to devise 
methods by which this could be effected; so early did 
his genius, later developed, show itself. 

Young Fox arrived in Philadelphia in the beginning 
of September, 1750, and on the following day was 
engaged as an apprentice by Christopher Sower who, 
acting on the information furnished by Kurtz, came 
to town for that purpose. 

When an infant, Fox was never able to take milk, 
and later developed an aversion to many of the foods 
of childhood. He records that, as he rode from Phil- 
adelphia to his new home, sitting on horseback behind 
his new master, his heart failed him as he thought of 
the many difficulties which awaited him, not the least 
among them being the kinds of food used by the colo- 
nists. 



1915.] Justus Fox. 59 

He, then, decided that from this time he would 
compel himself to overcome his antipathies in this 
direction. Hunger and this decision enabled him 
to conquer his greatest aversion at the first meal, 
when he found his only food was mush and milk, and 
from that period he suffered nothing of this kind to 
disturb his equilibrium. This homely illustration of 
the character of the boy is given by McCulloch to 
foreshadow the same persistence which he employed 
in overcoming the obstacles of his future career. 

Fox worked as an apprentice six and a half years, 
and after the expiration of its term continued with the 
elder Sower in his printing office, becoming a valuable 
assistant in various capacities. 

After the death of his master in 1758, he was trans- 
ferred to Sower, the second, and continued in his 
employ until the death of the latter in 1784. 

The first Christopher Sower printed more than sixty 
works after Fox became his apprentice. These were 
largely in the German language, and included a yearly 
almanac and a semi-monthly newspaper. There were, 
however, a number of works in English, among which 
were John Tobler's Almanacs both for Pennsylvania 
and for South Carolina from 1755 to 1762, after which 
date they passed into the hands of other printers. 

Sower erected the fifth paper mill in this country 
in order to supply in part the need of paper in his 
business, and manufactured his own ink for the same 
purpose. 

Fox was in this way bred to the various branches 
of the printing business, and made good use of the 
varied knowledge thus acquired. 

The second Sower was far more progressive as a 
business man than his father, and developed still 
more extensively all the branches of his trade, so that 
even his printing presses were made under his own 
supervision. He saw, soon after taking possession 
of his father's business, that Justus Fox was too val- 
uable a man to be confined to the printing press. 



60 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

For the senior Sower, Fox had cut on wood various 
illustrations for the German almanac and other books; 
he had made lamp black for a superior quality for 
the printer's ink, and he had cut moulds for type at 
various times of need. To the development of these 
three branches of work then the younger Sower 
applied the energies of Fox for the extension of his 
business. 

The lampblack made by Fox was perfected to .such 
a degree that in 1815 the term " Germantown black" 
stood for the best quality known, and its manufacture 
was continued by Emanuel, .son of Justus Fox, many 
years after the death of his father. This lampblack 
furnished such an excellent quality of printer's ink 
that at one period Fox supplied a large proportion of 
the ink used in this business in Pennsylvania and the 
southern colonies. A recent writer in the Pennsyl- 
vania Historical Magazine (vol. vi, p. 131) says: 
" These Foxes were so conscientious in the manufac- 
ture of their product as to have unconsciously added 
a leaf to the wreath of Germantown." 

When planning to print a third edition of the 
German Bible, Sower, realizing the delay in getting 
type from across the ocean, as well as the expense of 
it, decided to import the necessary outfit for the 
establishment of a type foundry. Franklin in his 
autobiography states that he made special type for 
his own use as early as 1728. Christopher Sower, 
in 1749, cast a number of type, making the moulds 
first of lead, and later of plaster of Paris. These cases 
were, however, sporadic, and no regular font of type 
had been cast in America until the foundry apparatus 
ordered by Sower the second, arrived from Germany 
in 1772, was set up by him and placed in charge of 
Justus Fox. 

The first font of type made by Fox in this foundry 
was "pica" for the third edition of the Sower Bible, 
and its cost was 3000 pounds currency. It was the 
intention of Sower to cast sufficient type for a standing 



1915.] Justus Fox. 61 

edition of this Bible, and to this end he had a large 
font made, and cast many supernumerary sorts, of 
no use except for such a purpose. Of lower case letters 
for example, 72,000 of the letter o were made. The 
beginning of the war in 1775 and the reversal of Sower's 
fortunes in consequence put an end to this plan. 

The moulds which came from Germany were found 
to be very imperfect, — on account of the jealousy of 
the German printers, it was said, — and it took great 
industry and skill on the part of Fox to rectify these 
faults. He made, however, many new punches, and 
then added to the German type a font of Roman and 
one of Italic for use in the English books to be printed 
by Sower. Fox became also very skilful in mixing the 
metal for his type which, in consequence, proved very 
durable. 

McCulloch states that Fox cast the type with which 
Francis Bailey printed in 1784 The Laws of Pennsyl- 
vania, and that he himself had received by inheritance 
from his father a set of figures and capitals in long 
primer for his almanac which had been in constant 
use for twenty-five years with little evidence of wear. 
Here again we note the versatile power of this German, 
but added to it we see the unusual trait of persistence 
in the employment selected for him, as well as a large 
amount of patience in working out the details. 

He remained in charge of the foundry until the war, 
during which Sower was so unjustly deprived of his 
printing establishment, when his type was cast into 
the fields and his book stock scattered to the winds. 

It being supposed that the foundry was the property 
of Fox, this was not disturbed, and he continued to 
run this branch of the business for the benefit of the 
real owner, Sower, until he died in 1784. Fox then 
purchased it of the family and continued the business, 
at first in partnership with his son, and later alone, 
until his own death in 1805. The foundry was then 
sold by his son to Samuel, son of Christopher Sower, 
and it thus reverted to the original family. 



62 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

The manuscript account states that Fox possessed a 
ready talent in drawing heads and designs on wood, 
and that he cut the figures himself, always using 
applewood for this purpose. A number of these cuts 
are believed to have been done by him for the Sow- 
ers, father and son, to illustrate the books and 
almanacs issued by them. 

McCulloch sent with his manuscript volume an 
interesting collection of almanacs, separate leaves and 
pamphlets with which to extra-illustrate his narrative, 
and wrote on them various details of their origin. 

This "bagatelle," as he called it, was obtained from 
Henry Kurtz, who had collected during his life a large 
amount of material of this ctraracter, because of his 
interest in the printing art. 

McCulloch urged Thomas to preserve these because 
of the interest which they would awaken after a 
hundred years had elapsed. 

Among these are several items worthy of consider- 
ation in this paper: 

Number 1 is a German almanac dated 1749, issued 
as a rival to Sower's Almanac in 1747 by Franklin, 
and continued for many years under various publish- 
ers. This has a special interest apart from Fox. 

Number 5 is the Sower Almanac for 1762 containing 
cuts of Montreal and of Frederick III of Prussia done 
by Justus Fox, the latter being considered by McCul- 
loch as the best block executed by Fox. 

Number 6 is the opposition almanac for the same 
year printed by Peter Miller, and containing cuts by 
Fox of Crown Point and Niagara Fort. 

Number 8 is a leaf from Sower's Almanac of 1763, 
having a full page cut of George III, the largest and 
most elaborate plate by Fox. 

Number 9 is the Sower Almanac for 1773, with cuts 
of Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, as well as a full- 
page drawing of Constantinople and the Dardanelles, 
a picture which has considerable interest for us today, 
and for which Fox was paid $16 by Christopher Sower. 



1915.] Justus Fox. 63 

These wood cuts are rude and imperfect according 
to the standards of today, but are worthy of careful 
consideration. 

Wood engraving in America during the 17th and 
18th centuries has received scanty attention, none of 
the writers on this subject having attempted to deal 
with engravers before the time of Alexander Anderson. 

Linton, indeed, speaks ofy the cuts in the Hiero- 
glyphic Bible printed by Isaiah Thomas in 1788, but 
dismisses them with the remark that they were proba- 
bly done in England, and supplied with a new title 
page by Thomas. 

In a letter written a few years ago, the late David 
McNeely Stauffer, the authority on engravers in 
America, stated that, in consequence of the lack of 
signed cuts and other difficulties, he had made little 
progress in the history of this part of his favorite study. 
While it would therefore be impossible for me to expect 
to throw light on the subject, it may not be uninterest- 
ing to speak of the illustrations in our almanacs before 
the time of the Revolution in connection with the work 
of Fox. 

The Kalendarium Pennsilvaniense for 1686 was the 
first book printed in Pennsylvania. In his preface to 
it, Samuel Atkins wrote: "I had thoughts to have 
incerted a figure of the moons eclips, a small Draught 
of the form of this city and a Table to find the hour of 
the day by the Shadow of the Staff; but we, having 
not Tools to carve them in that form that I would 
have them, nor time to calculate the other, I pass it 
for this year. " 

This will illustrate one of the difficulties of our 
colonists in their early years. 

In the Massachusetts Colony, however, work had 
been done already by our first wood engraver John 
Foster, whose life and varied accomplishments our asso- 
ciate, Dr. Green, has so well described. Ten years before 
these words of Atkins, Foster had illustrated his 
'almanacs with astronomical diagrams and with that 






64 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

"Man of signs" which has figured so prominently in 
this form of literature from the earliest times. 

With his skill as an engraver already established, 
it is a fair inference that these were the result of his 
own handiwork. 

No cuts or designs had been engraved for this 
literature before his Almanac for 1675, nor did other 
almanacs contain any ornament of this kind until in 
1687 Nodiah Russelli* Almanac presented a full- 
page cut of King David with his harp, the cut being 
unsigned and very crude. In 1693 the "man of 
signs" was used by John Tulley, a new block being 
employed and his Almanac for 1701 was illustrated 
with a small figure of an eclipse. 

Samuel Clough's almanac for 1703 was ornamented 
with two astronomical designs as elaborate as the one 
in Foster for 1675 but from new blocks, and this 
author usually employed the ' ' man of signs. " Whitte- 
more, his successor, also used the "man of signs" 
in his almanacs, and in that for 1714 placed on his 
title-page an excellent cut of Queen Anne, while his 
almanac for 1727 was decorated with the arms of 
England, although not so well executed as the portrait. 

In Pennsylvania, Titan Leeds' almanac for 1715 
contained a large astronomical design, while those for 
1726 and 1727 beside the "man of signs" was orna- 
mented with rude cuts at the top of the title page, and 
in 1728 and later years Leeds placed the family coat 
of arms on those almanacs printed in New York as 
well as the Pennsylvania issues. 

Franklin's Poor Richard's Almanac contained with 
few exceptions the "man of signs," and in the issue 
for 1737 is to be found the cut of a leaf of Rattlesnake 
weed illustrating an article on that subject. 

These are the chief illustrations in the almanacs of 
the colonies until Christopher Sower began printing 
in 1738, and issued his first almanac in 1739. 

The fifth issue, that for 1743, was ornamented with 
a cover bearing .an elaborate design with which to 



1915.] Justus Fox. 65 

attract the public interest, and the quarto size of 
book was employecjjn place of the usual octavo form. 
Without question, both of these innovations came 
from German originals, but they distinguished the 
German from all other almanacs in this country and 
showed the business acumen of Sower in adopting 
them. 

It is said that Sower himself designed this cover, 
and Hildeburn states that it was cut on type metal — 
a material which was used largely during the 18th 
century in this country, especially for the rude cuts 
of broadsides and newspaper ornaments. 

This block was employed yearly until it was too 
much worn for further use, and in 1759 it was carefully 
recut by Fox for the 1760 almanac, and so well was it 
executed that the block was employed, after the sale 
of the almanac in 1784 to Michael Billmeyer, under 
his name for more than a score of years. 

The next step in the illustration of almanacs took 
place in 1749, when Franklin printed, in his Poor 
Richard, calendar pictures at the head of each monthly 
page. These cuts, though not uncommon in German 
almanacs, had never been employed in the English 
colonies before this time. W. J. Linton said it was 
reported that Franklin made these cuts himself. 
McCulloch, however, in Number 1 item shows the 
1749 almanac printed by Gothard Armbruster, which 
contains the same cuts on which McCulloch has writ- 
ten, " These cuts were bought in Germany." It 
would seem therefore that Linton's statement was 
wrong, for this evidence comes from a contemporary 
and is confirmed by one acquainted with the parties. 
Seidensticker states that Franklin purchased type 
and stock from Gothard Armbruster the latter part 
of 1748 or early in 1749, and this would explain the 
appearance of the cuts in the two almanacs for that 
year. These calendar cuts never appeared in the 
German almanac again, their place being taken by 
new designs, but Franklin used them for nearly 
twenty years in his Poor Richard. 



66 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

The almanac of John N. Hutchins of New York, for 
1761 and for a few years later contained calendar cuts, 
and these ornaments then disappeared until in 1790 
they were 1*sed by Isaiah Thomas, and in 1800 were 
adopted by Robert B. Thomas, in whose almanacs 
they still are seen yearly. 

In 1755 Christopher Sower printed John Tobler's 
almanac for Pennsylvania, and for several years the 
same issue for Charleston, South Carolina. Four of 
these had rude cuts at the top and bottom of the title 
page, signed with the initials "G. H." 

In 1759, James Turner who had been an engraver 
in Boston from the year 1743 and later worked in 
Philadelphia from 1758 to 1767, made and signed a 
cut of Boston which appeared on the title page of the 
Ames Almanac for 1760, which was printed in Ports- 
mouth, N. H. 

In the same year was started a series called Father 
Abraham's Weatherwise Almanacs, one peculiarity 
of which was a frontispiece or a cover design. The 
frontispiece for 1762 and that for 1764 were made and 
signed by Henry Dawkins, who lived in New York, 
until his death in 1776. 

These are the only signed woodcuts in almanacs 
within the period we have marked, except that by 
Paul Revere in Edes & Gills Almanac for 1770. 

An important point in the history of engraving 
should be noted here. The first issue of Father Abra- 
ham's Almanac — that for 1759 — contained a full- 
page copper plate of Frederick III, King of Prussia, 
signed, "J. M. aet. 14, sculp. 1758." It is claimed 
that this is the earliest copper plate engraved in 
Philadelphia and it may be added the earliest copper 
plate used in an almanac. The same plate appeared 
in Hutchins' Almanac and Moore's New York Pocket 
Almanac for the same year. 

The object of this review is to show how little 
material progress had been made in this line before 
the work of Fox. It is probable, therefore, that the 






1915.] Justus Fox. 67 

impetus of competition started his work, and that the 
stimulus afforded by the strife in the colonies and the 
wars on the contiAent furnished the material for 
illustrating his almanacs. 

In order to learn the extent of book illustration, 
other than that of almanacs, the titles in Evans' 
Bibliography have been examined to the year 1750. 
Of the 2000 imprints recorded, less than a score con- 
tain a title-page cut or a frontispiece. This does not 
include the many Acts and Resolves and the Procla- 
mations in the various provinces which often displayed 
the royal arms on their titles, or the few broadside 
and newspaper cuts which are to be found. 

Hildeburn whose special field is Pennsylvania was 
then examined from 1750 to 1765, the period of Fox's 
known activity in this line, and but a dozen books 
were found in the same class, one-half of which 
appeared in 1764. 

This is a crude method of studying the question, it 
is acknowledged, since neither Evans nor Hildeburn 
are expected to note all illustrated work. Most of 
the well-known books, however, are there recorded, 
and the examination will serve to emphasize the point 
that a small proportion of the books in the English 
Colonies were illustrated before 1750, and that no 
larger number were so treated in Philadelphia until 
about 1765. 

The same then is true, as is seen in almanac illus- 
tration, that little occurred to stimulate engravers 
in the colonies until after 1760, — indeed, the period 
of greatest interest in wood-cut illustration is from 
1775 to 1800, a period which does not enter into this 
discussion. 

In addition to the list of cuts made by Fox already 
noted, McCulloch mentions a bust of General Wolfe 
and a picture of Quebec, neither of which it has been 
possible for me to locate. There are several cuts in 
the other Sower Amanacs which could be ascribed 
to him with probability. 



68 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

When we compare the engraved work done by Fox 
with that of his contemporaries, his cuts show equally 
correct technique and careful execution. While the 
plans of Crown Point and others of that nature are 
not as elaborate, as the drawings by James Turner, 
for example, the nortraits excel anything I have seen 
of that period, and when we remember that this was 
but one branch of his work, developed without instruc- 
tion, we find another evidence of the remarkable 
versatility of this man. 

To show that his contemporaries had a high opinion 
of his skill in this work, McCulloch stated that when 
the United States Mint was established in Philadelphia 
in the year 1792, Fox was asked to take the position 
of engraver and die-cutter. Finding that this new 
work would interfere with his various vocations already 
in hand, Fox declined and suggested a fellow-worker, 
Jacob Bey, who was appointed to the position. 

Justus Fox was pious, humane and charitable. He 
belonged to the Tunker sect of Baptists, so called 
from a peculiarity in their mode of baptism, a sect 
which believed in universal salvation. He was a man 
of small stature and, contrary to the custom of his 
sect, wore no beard. He possessed much grace of 
manner and dignity of person. 

Hearing of the genius of Franklin, and knowing no 
one through whom he could meet him, Fox went alone 
to his house, told him frankly his purpose, and was 
not only cordially received, but remained an intimate 
acquaintance of that great man until his death. 

The writer in the Pennsylvania Historical Magazine 
on "The Germantown Road and its Associations, " 
says that "At the corner of Indian Queen Lane and 
Main Street stands the house in which Sower, the 
second, cast his first type, and north of it stood the 
house which was formerly the residence of Dr. Justus 
Fox, a worthy citizen of that day." 

It has been stated of Fox that besides being a printer, 
he was a physician, an apothecary, and a surgeon; 



1915.] Justus Fox. 69 

that he had eleven trades, from any one of which he 
could earn a competence, and sufficient evidence has 
been produced 4fo place him far above the average of 
his day. 

This man has been brought before you as the repre- 
sentative of a type of man always to be found in a new 
country. 

The Sowers were more favored, and had a larger 
grasp of affairs; they were the captains of industry 
in their community. Fox was also the product of his 
time and his surroundings, and he represents a class 
of subordinate leaders without whom the Captains 
would be helpless, and would fail of their success. 

In every new country there are required and are 
produced by the necessity, men who gain facility in 
many special lines of work, whose mental processes 
become so active and so well trained that each unaccus- 
tomed task is met, each sudden emergency overcome 
with ease and certainty. 

Two of his fellow-workers, Jacob Bey and Frederick 
Geyer, possessed the genius and versatility of Fox, 
yet both failed in their life work, the one because he 
lacked persistence in execution, the other definiteness. 
Justus Fox possessed these qualities and more, slow 
in action but constant in labor, versatile but not 
brilliant; he exercised infinite patience in overcoming 
difficulties combined with exactness in arranging 
details; qualities upon which lasting success ever 
depends. His is an excellent example of the Teutonic 
mind. 



70 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 



CONNECTICUT'S RATIFICATION OF THE 
FEDERAL CONSTITUTION 

BY BERNARD C. STEINER. 

While Connecticut was one of the smaller States 
among the thirteen which adopted the Federal Consti- 
tution, every detail of the momentous series of events, 
which attended the formation of the present Nation, 
is of such importance that the action of Connecticut 
well repays study. We find that the forces of union, 
with the leadership of Trumbull, Sherman, Johnson 
and Ellsworth had a great triumph. The State was 
not at first enthusiastic for stronger form of govern- 
ment, but the work of the Delegates to Philadelphia, 
during the Convention and after its adjournment, 
caused a complete victory for the Federal forces and 
the adoption of the Constitution by a large majority 
of those chosen to the ratifying convention. 

As early as November 14, 1780, a convention of 
delegates from the four New England States and New 
York had met at Hartford and proposed, as the founda- 
tion for a safe system of finance 1 , that a certain and 
inalienable revenue be raised for the Federal govern- 
ment by taxes or duties and that from this revenue 
should be paid the interest on the funded public debt. 
A circular letter, prepared by this convention, stated 
that "Our embarrassments arise from a defect in the 
present government of the United States. All govern- 
ment supposes the power of coercion; this power, 
however, never did exist in the general government 
of the continent, or has never been exercised. Under 

> Bancroft Const., vol. 1, p. 14. See Milton Fesaenden, Connecticut in the Con- 
stitutional Convention of 1787. See New England Magazine April 1915, vol. 52, p. 267. 



1915.] Connecticut's Ratification of Federal Constitution. 71 

these circumstances, the resources and force of the 
country can never be properly united and drawn 
forth. The States, individually considered, while 
they endeavor to retain too much of their indepen- 
dence, may finally lose the whole. By the expulsion 
of the enemy, we may be emancipated from the 
tyranny of Great Britain; we shall, however, be 
without a solid hope of peace and freedom, unless 
we are properly cemented among ourselves. ,, 

The forces in Connecticut tending toward a strong 
central government had the powerful support of Gov- 
ernor Jonathan Trumbull during the Revolutionary 
epoch. On June 10, 1783, he wrote Washington in 
praise of his last address, "which exhibited the foun- 
dation principles of an indissoluble union of the States 
under one federal head." 2 In his address to the 
"General Assembly and the freemen of the State, " 
delivered in October 1783, he declined a re-election 
to the gubernatorial chair, as he had reached the age 
of seventy-three and felt a "declining state of vigor 
and activity." He took the occasion to inculcate 
principles of individual righteousness and of good 
government into the minds of the people and, with 
great emphasis, he urged that, "for the purposes of 
national happiness and glory, they will support and 
strengthen the federal union by every constitutional- 
means in their power." He believed that "the exis- 
tence of a congress, vested with powers competent 
to the great national purposes for which that body 
was instituted, is essential to our national security, 
establishment, and independence" and added that, 
"For my own part, I do not hesitate to pronounce, 
that, in my opinion, that body is not possessed of 
those powers which are fully adequate to the purposes 
of our general sovereignty; nor competent to that 
energy and exertion of government, which are abso- 
lutely necessary to the management and direction of 

1 Bancroft Const., vol. 1, p. 119, vide the Supreme Court's opinion in Texas v. White. 



72 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

the general weal; or the fulfilment of our own expec- 
tations." He continued by stating that: "This 
defect in our federal constitution I have already la- 
mented, as the cause of many inconveniences which 
we have experienced; and, unless wisely remedied, 
will, I foresee, be productive of evils, disastrous, if 
not fatal, to our future union and confederation.' ' 
In his "idea, a congress, invested with full and suffi- 
cient authorities, is as absolutely necessary for the 
great purposes"' of our confederated union, as your 
legislature is for the support of internal order, regula- 
tion, and government, in the State. Both bodies 
should be entrusted with powers fully sufficient to 
answer the design of their several institutions. Their 
powers should be distinct; they should be clearly de- 
fined, ascertained, and understood. They should 
be carefully adhered to; they should be watched over 
with a wakeful and distinguishing attention of the 
people. But this watchfulness is far different from 
that excess of jealousy, which, from a mistaken fear 
of abuse, withholds the necessary powers, and denies 
the means which are essential to the end expected. " 
He was not alarmed at dangers from the governmental 
officers but thought that: "In our present temper of 
mind, are we not rather to fear ourselves? to fear the 
propriety of our own elections? or rather to fear that, 
from this excess of jealousy and mistrust, each one, 
cautious of his neighbor's love of power, and fearing 
lest, if he be trusted, he would misuse it, we shall lose 
all confidence and government and everything tend 
to anarchy and confusion? from whose horrid womb, 
should we plunge into it, will spring a government, 
that may justly make us all to tremble." 3 

The Lower House were averse to Trumbull's views 
as to enlarging the powers of Congress and struck out 
an endorsement of his position thereon, when they 
adopted resolutions of appreciation for his services. 4 

* Carey's American Museum, vol. 3, p. 33. 

* Stuart's Trumbull, p. 609. 



1915.] Connecticut's Ratification of Federal Constitution. 73 

As Trumbull wrote his friend Washington 8 , upon 
November 15, this paragraph of endorsement was 
rejected through fear; "lest by adopting it, they 
should seem to convey to the people an idea of their 
concurring with the political sentiments contained 
in the address; so exceedingly jealous is the spirit of 
this State, at present, respecting the powers and the 
engagements of Congress, arising principally from their 
aversion to the half-pay and commutations granted 
the army." 

The rejected resolution was mild enough and stated 
only that the Assembly "considered those important 
principles of justice, benevolence, and subordination 
to law, therein inculcated, as constituting the only 
solid basis, upon which social happiness can be estab- 
lished and, therefore, deserving the serious attention 
of the good people of this State." 

Another Connecticut man who was a strong sup- 
porter of a vigorous National government was Noah 
Webster, who wrote in 1784 : 6 "We can not and 
ought not to divest ourselves of provincial attach- 
ments, but we should subordinate them to the general 
interest of the continent; as a citizen of the American 
empire, any individual has a national interest far supe- 
rior to all others." 

Connecticut was not represented at the Annapolis 
Convention, but Madison had written Jefferson 7 
on August 12, 1786, that "Connecticut declined, not 
from a dislike to the object, but to the idea of a Con- 
vention, which, it seems has been rendered obnoxious 
by some internal Conventions which embarrassed the 
Legislative authority." 

In the early months of 1787, the proposed Conven- 
tion at Philadelphia received considerable discussion 
in Connecticut. The New Haven Gazette and Con- 
necticut Magazine, edited by Josiah Meigs, was quite 

6 Ford'a Washington, vol. 10, p. 342. Sparks'a Washington, vol. 9, p. 4. 
•Bancroft Const., vol. 1, p. 185. 
* Hunt's Madison, p. 262. 



74 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

favorable to the movement for a closer union and 
printed, in its issue for March 1, an article stating 
that "the objects of this union are the support of a 
federal government — the protection of the union as a 
nation — its defence and dignity." Congress have 
not "money to oil the wheels of wisdom and power" 
and "are almost contemptible for want of power." 
"We shall have confusion and war or an increase of 
the powers of Congress. May Heaven induce us to 
the latter." A growing lawlessness was felt over all 
the land and the Shays Rebellion brought terror to 
Connecticut. "We should top off the libertinism of 
juvenile independence, strengthen the grand basis 
of our system of government and give greater stability 
and energy to all its operations." Those ideas were 
advanced in later issues of this and other newspapers 
printed in the State, though occasionally we find a 
discouraged note, such as that stating that the coun- 
try may break up into several confederacies. 8 
Articles advocating a closer union were copied from 
journals without the State and we find that the impor- 
tance of Washington's attendance on the Convention 
was fully realized. 9 

At the opening of the May session of the Assembly 
in 1787, Governor Huntington referred in his speech 
to the meeting of the proposed convention at Phila- 
delphia and stated that he had convened his Council 
to ask them, if a special session were necessary to 
elect delegates "for the purpose of revising and altering 
the articles of confederation"; but they had decided 
against the need of it, if the legislature took up the 
matter promptly at the regular session, as the Governor 
hoped they would do. 

Considerable discussion 10 followed before the vote 
was taken on May 12. 11 Colonel Charles Burrall 

8 New Haven Gazette, April 20. 

• New Haven Gazette, May 3. 

10 In Aprii, 1787, Madison wrote that of Connecticut alone doubts are entertained 
(Van Santwood Chief Justices, p. 252). 

» Hartford Courant, April 16 and May 14, 1787, also Conn. Journal, Carey's American 
Museum, vol. 2, p. 395. 



1915.] Connecticut's Ratification of Federal Constitution. 75 

of Canaan opened the debate. General Jedidiah 
Huntington followed and would have voted for the 
proposal, "from the respect to Congress and affection 
to our sister states," since "the measure under con- 
sideration is commended by Congress and has been 
either anticipated, or acceded to, by most of the 
States." 

There were those who considered that "the con- 
federation is sufficient for its purposes and some who 
believe we should do better without any." To answer 
their contentions, Huntington ably continued: "The 
confederation was framed while this country was 
smarting under the hand of arbitrary power" and 
hence, erected "an authority over this country, with- 
out committing absolutely any power to it. The 
compact between the several states has not any penalty 
annexed to it for the breach of its conditions: nor is it 
provided with any power of coercing a compliance; 
the observance of it depends entirely on the goodwill 
and pleasure of each State." The confederation is 
"an insufficient one," for the "importance of a general 
government, a superintending power that shall extend 
to all parts of our extensive territory, to secure 
peace and administer justice between one state and 
another and between these States and foreign nations, 
must be obvious to the least reflexion." "Animosities 
and contentions of the most serious nature" are likely 
"to arise between the States" and, in a "cool and dis- 
passionate hour," plans should be made, ior checking 
these disputes and obtaining "the original object" 
of the union. Connecticut alone is too weak to face 
a foreign power and has no assurance of the contin- 
uance of the "peaceable disposition of our neighbors." 
With great emphasis, he declared: "I am an advocate 
for an efficient general government and for a revenue 
adequate to the nature and exigencies of it. This 
revenue must not depend on the will of any particular 
State." He believed that "sufficient revenue (except 
in case of an expensive war) might be drawn from im- 



76 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

port duties. " He appreciated the importance of the 
coasting trade and believed that, if the impost were 
"carried to excess/' so that foreigners resisted it and 
made "reprisals by laying counter duties," the "natural 
tendency" would be "to promote the growth and 
manufacture among ourselves, of the articles affected 
by the impositions and proportionably increase our 
wealth and independence. Manufactures, more 
than any other employment, will increase our numbers 
— in that consist the strength and glory of a people." 

There was a considerable opposition, headed by 
Amos Granger of Suffield, who "conceived it would 
be disagreeable to his constituents" to have delegates 
sent from Connecticut to the Convention, which would 
be likely to endanger "the liberties of the people" 
and "have a tendency to produce a regal government 
in this country." The "Constitution of Connecticut 
was sufficient for every purpose, added to the Articles 
of Confederation, in which sufficient power was already 
delegated to Congress." 

Hosea Humphrey of Norfolk followed and approved 
Granger's position, observing that it "would be better 
to oppose the measure in the first instance" and imitate 
the conduct of Rhode Island in refusing to send dele- 
gates; for, if a majority of the States complied with 
any recommendations of the Convention for alterations 
in the articles of Confederation, that majority would 
"compel the minority to comply also, however opposed 
the latter might be to any change in the federal govern- 
ment," a prophecy proven true by the future course 
of events. Colonel Thomas Seymour of Hartford 
next spoke in favor of sending delegates. He was 
happy that the proposal had "come from so respectable 
a quarter" as the State of Virginia. "The affairs of 
the Union" had "truly arrived at an alarming crisis," 
for "Vermont was balancing between Canada and the 
United States" (always spelled with small initial 
letters in the newspapers), the West was rapidly in- 
creasing in population and was draining the East "by 



1915.] Connecticut's Ratification of Federal Constitution. 77 

constant emigrations," New York "was too much 
attached to her local interests and had become unfed- 
eral," while "the affairs of Massachuestts were still 
unsettled" and Rhode Island, "by her iniquity, had 
justly become the reproach and scorn of her neigh- 
bors." "He flattered himself, that the convention 
would find a remedy for all evils, and that efficiency 
might be given to the federal government, that every 
part of the United States, however disjointed at 
present, might be brought to promote the great ob- 
jects at first proposed by their union." 

Captain Daniel Perkins of Enfield then spoke in 
opposition, fearing that the "State would send men 
that had been delicately bred, and who were in affluent 
circumstances, that could not feel for the people in 
this day of distress." He also held that "if we send, 
we shall be under double obligation to adopt what the 
convention shall recommend." 

Colonel Jeremiah Wadsworth of Hartford next 
added his great weight to the federal side of the debate. 
Everybody allowed that the "present confederation 
does not answer the purpose of federal government." 
The articles of confederation are "entirely neglected," 
though "solemnly declared to be inviolably preserved" 
and "there is no power in the federal government to 
enforce them." Rhode Island's example should not 
be followed. "They have forfeited all claim to the 
confidence of the United States, and of the whole 
world: their acts are a disgrace to the human race." 
"It was very alarming to find that men are boldly 
declaring that it would be better to go back to Great 
Britain" and that at least one member of the Assembly 
wished "we had been conquered by the British." 
"If there is to be no power of coercion, there is to be 
no government." As to the objection that delegates 
would be "delicately bred," Wadsworth said: "Are 
we so stupid as to send delegates that are unacquainted 
with our situation and circumstances?" "No state," 
in Wadsworth's opinion, "had more reason to wish for 



78 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

an alteration in the articles of confederation than 
Connecticut. Fertile and well cultivated, we have 
large exports from the produce of our land, and we 
consume much foreign produce. The profits of im- 
portation go entirely to our neighbor states. There 
is collected by them at least one hundred thousand 
dollars impost (annually) which we pay." He con- 
cluded by comparing the State to a "strong ass, couch- 
ing down, not under two, but under twenty burdens; 
and they will finally crush us out of existence." 12 

Mr. Fitch opposed sending delegates, because of a 
fear that "the privileges of the people would be exposed 
to danger," but Samuel Davenport of East Haven 
followed him with a careful argument, advocating 
the sending of delegates. Those who say that the 
"articles of confederation need no revision" are vir- 
tually declaring that they "want no continental gov- 
ernment: for what power has congress now?" (The 
article is almost invariably omitted in the newspa- 
pers.) "They have, it is true, the power of demand- 
ing money: but have they the power to collect it?" 
Even Connecticut has failed to honor their requisitions 
for money, although it has granted additional powers 
over commerce to Congress and has clamored against 
New York, for "not granting the same additional 
authority." Some men in Connecticut have even 
urged that New York be coerced, while their own State 
was failing to comply with congressional requisitions. 
"What would have been the consequence of disunion 
in the late war?" he inquired, when all the strength 
of the United States was necessary and "the resolu- 
tions of Congress were most critically attended to and 
observed, when they were of more force than law." 
An efficient national government "was also necessary 



" Under date of June 3. Farrand, vol. 3, p. 33, King's Ru/us King, p. 221, Wadaworth 
wrote Rufua King that he was "satisfied with the appointment, except Sherman, who I 
am told, is disposed to patch up the old scheme of government. This was not my opinion 
of him, when we chose him; as he is cunning as the Devil, and if you attack him, you 
ought to know him well; he is not easily managed, but if he suspects you are trying to 
take him in, you may as well catch an eel by his tail. " 



1915.] Connecticut' s Ratification of Federal Constitution. 79 

to preserve peace between the States,' 7 whose "inter- 
ests are in some measure opposed." Davenport made 
light of the objection that the Southern States may 
wish to adopt dangerous measures, since "their feelings 
are more arbitrary and despotic than ours." On the 
contrary, they have "run into the extremes of democ- 
racy, as is shown by the Constitution of Georgia, 
which prohibits the re-election of a governor," and 
by the fact that the delegates from those States "at 
the time of framing the confederation" were "purely 
republican." 

Dangers might be apprehended from Canada, and 
from the Western settlers, discontented with "the 
treaty which is on foot with Spain," so that from these 
causes may arise a "necessity for union and united 
strength." 

Finally, "the convention was first proposed to 
remedy the evils arising from the embarrassments 
of our trade; this is an object we have much at heart" 
and may well rejoice that the Southern States, who 
"have been heretofore opposed to federal measures" 
and whose "interests have been opposed to trade 
regulations," are now so "alarmed that they wish to 
consolidate the Union." Samuel Hopkins of Goshen 
despairingly remarked that he "had very little to 
expect from the proposed Convention," but would 
vote to send delegates "out of compliment to the sister 
States"; and Captain John Welton of Waterbury, also 
favored sending delegates, because, "unless some alter- 
ations take place, the union will be entirely at an end." 
The last speaker whose words were reported was 
Charles Chauncey of New Haven. He was a new 
member of the legislature and advocated sending 
delegates. He felt that these that had spoken had 
"left little to be urged on the subject, but called to the 
attention of the members that, in previous sessions, 
listening to the debates from the galleries," he had 
constantly heard "complaints that congress had not 
power enough" and "that, all the evils we feel were for 



80 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

the want of a well regulated federal government. We 
have something to hope and nothing to fear from the 
Convention." 13 

It is interesting to note that, a few days later, Messrs 
Seymour and Burrall proposed postponing to the next 
session the compliance with the requisitions of Con- 
gress and won by a vote of seventy-nine to seventy in 
the House. 

Colonel Erastus Wolcott of East Windsor was first 
chosen with Oliver Ellsworth and William Samuel 
Johnson, as delegates, but, as Wolcott declined the 
honor, Roger Sherman was selected to succeed him. 14 

The credentials of the Connecticut delegates to the 
Philadelphia Convention, signed by George Wyllys, 16 
authorized them to confer with delegates from 
other States, for purposes mentioned in the act of 
Congress, and to "discuss upon such alterations and 
provisions, agreeable to the general principles of Re- 
publican government, as they shall think proper, to 
render the Federal Constitution adequate to the 
exigencies of government and the preservation of the 
Union." The results of their deliberations should be 
reported to Congress and to the General Assembly of 
Connecticut. Ellsworth arrived first at the Conven- 
tion and answered to the roll call on 16 May 28, 
Sherman following on May 30, and Johnson 17 on 
June 2. These three men, whom Bancroft truly 
terms "remarkable 18 in age, in experience" and "in 
illustrating the force of religion in human life," may 
well be matched with the delegation from any other 
State and took a prominent part in the Convention. 



18 Col. Benjamin Hinman of Woodbury spoke in favor of sending delegates, n'de Courant, 
May 21, 1787. 

" Brown's Ellsworth, p. 118. 

" Doc. Hist. Const., vol. 1, p. 13. Farrand Recs. Fed. Conven., vol. 3, p. 585 

» Ellsworth left Philadelphia and returned to Now Haven on August 27. Farrand, 
vol. 3, pp. 75, 587. 

17 Sherman and Johnson remained throughout the Convention, except that Sherman 
came to New Haven in the end of July, to attend his daughter's wedding to Simeon 
Baldwin. 

« Const., vol. 2, p. 47. 



1915.] Connecticut's Ratification of Federal Constitution. 81 

Roger Sherman was the eldest, a man of "grave 
and massive understanding," 19 whom his fellow 
citizens delighted to honor. 20 He 21 was sixty-five 
years old when the convention met, and was surpassed 
in years by Franklin only among its members. 22 
Alone of all men, Sherman had the privilege of 
signing the Association of 1774, the Declaration of 
Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and 
the Constitution. He had been on the committee 
of five to prepare the Declaration of Independence 
and, because of his "practical wisdom" and his "very 
intimate knowledge of his own countrymen," he had 
been called by John Adams "one of the soundest and 
strongest pillars of the revolution." He had been 
born in Massachusetts and had learned the shoe- 
maker's trade. Removing to New Milford, Connecti- 
cut, at the age of twenty-two, he became the sur- 
veyor of Litchfield County two years later and made 
the calculations for an almanac. In 1754, he began 
to practice law, and, five years later, he became a 
judge. In 1761, he removed to New Haven, being 
chosen a judge there four years afterwards, In the 
succeeding year, he was elevated to the bench of the 
Supreme Court, where he sat until 1789, being also 
an Assistant, or member of the Upper House of the 
legislature. He was first mayor of New Haven and 
continued to hold that office from 1784, till his death 



19 Hollister's Connecticut, vol. 2, p. 435. 

20 A French Witness, Farrand, vol. 3, p. 233, speaks of Ellsworth and Sherman, like 
Benjamin Huntington, as men: "simple dans ses manieres, mais sage et infiniment 
raisonable; n'ayant jamais suivi aucun parti et voulant le bien sans consid6rer des motifs 
personnels." Of Connecticut, he wrote: "Les gens de cet Etat ont, en g6ue>al, un 
caractere national qu'on ne trouve gueres dans les autres parties de continent. lis se 
raprochent plus de la simplicity republicaine; ils sont tons a leur aise sans connoltre 
l'opulence. L'economie rurale et l'industrie domestiques sont pouss6es trfis loin dans le 
Connecticut; le peuple y est heureux. " 

si See Report of Am. Hist. Assoc. 1893, p. 231, paper by Lewis H. Boutell and the same 
writer's life of Sherman. Less important accounts are found in Worcester Magazine, 
vol. 1, p. 2G4 by D., in Sanderson's Biographies of the Signers, vol. 3, p. 199, by Bobert 
Wain, in Am. Hist. Review, vol. 3, p. 326, in Duykincks National Portrait Gallery, vol. 1, 
p. 334. Interesting characterizations of Sherman and the other two Connecticut dele- 
gates will be found in Farraud's Framing of the Constitution, pp. 33-35. 

11 Franklin was eighty-one years old. 



82 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

in 1793. In 1783, with Richard Law, he revised the 
Statutes of the State. He was often in the Continen- 
tal Congress and sat in the Federal House of Repre- 
sentatives from 1789 to 1791 and in the Senate, from 
that date until his death. 

Plain and unostentatious, even awkward and bash- 
ful in appearance, he was firm and unwavering in his 
opinions. As early as September 15, 1775, John 
Adams said that he had a " clear head and sound judge- 
ment" and later acquaintance confirmed his high 
opinion of "that old Puritan, as honest as an angel 
and as firm in the cause of American independence as 
Mount Atlas/' who was "one of the most sensible 
men in the world." In his speeches, Sherman was 
remarkable rather for the comprehensive view he took 
of subjects than for eloquence. Bancroft remarked 
that he never made long speeches, but "would intui- 
tively seize on the turning point of a question and 
present it in terse language, which showed his own 
opinion and the strength on which it rested." 23 
The same writer stated that there were found in Sher- 
man "kindheartedness and industry, penetration and 
close reasoning, an unclouded intellect, superiority 
to passion, intrepid patriotism, solid judgment, and a 
directness which went straight to its end." A "self 
taught man," Sparks well said of him, that he "had 
rarely been excelled in native good sense, soundness 
of judgment, singleness of heart, and uprightness of 
character." Patrick Henry ranked him with Washing- 
ton, Richard Henry Lee, and George Mason, as the 
greatest statesmen he ever knew and Sherman was 
the only one of the four not a Virginian. Theodore 
Sedgwick said of him that he "was the man of the 
selectest wisdom that ever I knew," and President 
Stiles, in writing in his Diary at the time of Sherman's 
death, bore testimony to him as "an extraordinary 
man, a venerable, uncorrupted patriot." 



" Hist. Const., vol. 2, p. 49. 



r 



1915.] Connecticut's Ratification of Federal Constitution. 83 

This erect, brown haired, blue eyed man at first 
favored amendment of the Articles of Confederation 
and "entered the Convention," to use Boutell's words, 
as a strong Confederationist. He left it a firm Nation- 
alist." His austere virtue put to every proposal the 
test he named in the tariff debate of 1789 that "popu- 
lar opinion is founded in justice and the only way to 
know if the popular opinion is in favor of a measure 
is to examine whether the measure is just and right 
in itself." As early as August 25, 1777, being a hard 
money man, he wrote Samuel Adams that Confedera- 
tion was "absolutely necessary to support the public 
credit of the United States" and, on October 31, 1778, 
he told Elisha Paine that "the strength of the United 
States lies in their union." In 1776, he had advocated 
a representation in Congress, on the basis both of the 
States and of population, in which proposition Boutell 
sees the germ of the so-called Connecticut Compromise, 
which Sherman suggested in the Convention on June 
11, 1787. 24 It seemed to him, as he told John 
Adams, that "the State is the most important Branch 
in the government, for aiding and supporting the execu- 
tive, securing the rights of the individual States, the 
government of the United States, and the liberties 
of the people." 25 

His grandson, Senator Hoar, wrote that "it seems 
to me clear 26 that the plan was Mr. Sherman's, 
that the proposal of it in the Convention was Mr. 
Sherman's, the first motion in its favor was Mr. Sher- 
man's and that the final proposition, which made it 
safe in the clause about amending the Constitution, 
was Mr. Sherman's, and that he was on the committee 
that reported it, and that he made more speeches in 
its favor than anybody else and seems to have had the 
entire management of conduct of the measure." 

24 He favored leaving the slave trade for the present, believing that "in time slavery 
will not be a speck on the country." 

15 In Congress, Sherman opposed the recognition of instructions to representatives and 
the Potomac site of the capital, while he favored naming a day of thanksgiving, and the 
assumption of State debts, and voted for the United States bank. 

26 Lodge's A Fighting Frigate, p. 496. 



84 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

"Mr. Sherman, if he were remarkable for anything, 
was remarkable for his great tenacity in insisting on 
plans he had once devised, his great success in attaining 
his objects, and his great influence over the bodies 
to which he belonged, especially his great influence 
over the minds of the ablest men. I think he may be 
fairly compared to Alexander Hamilton in that par- 
ticular. That this is true is proved by abundant 
testimonials from his great contemporaries. I do not 
think such testimonials are in existence in regard to 
another of them, save Washington alone, with a pos- 
sible exception of Dr. Franklin." 

William Samuel Johnson was the least conspicuous 
of the delegation and yet, by any test, he was a man 
who ranked high. The son of an Episcopalian, who 
had been the first head of King's College, now Colum- 
bia University, Johnson followed his father in his post. 
He was a graduate of Yale College, a lawyer who had 
been a member of the Stamp Act Congress, but had 
not been conspicuous during the Revolutionary war. 
Connecticut had retained him to appear for her in the 
Wyoming controversy in 1782 and Oxford University 
gave him a degree of D. C. L. A conservative man, 
he had not favored calling the Convention at first; 
but became a useful member and served as chairman 
of the committee on style. He was later chosen as 
one of the first United States Senators from Connec- 
ticut. His life justified Bancroft's encomium that 27 
he was of "good humor, composedness and candor," 
and that he knew how to conciliate and to con- 
vince. 28 Trumbull, the author of McFingal, said 
that the "polish and beauty of his style, his smooth 
and easy flow of words and sweet melodious voice, 
accompanied with grace and elegance of person and 
manner, delighted and charmed his hearers." 29 

27 Bancroft Const., vol. 2, p. 50. 

28 Beardsley's Life of W. S. Johnson, p. 127, claims that he suggested the Connecticut 
Compromise. Hollister's Connecticut, vol. 2, p. 435, speaks of him as the "ripest perfection 
of a scholar" and (p. 452) notes that he proposed to count all the slaves for purposes of 
representation, while Ellsworth favored counting only three-fifths of them. 

*» Quoted in Flanders' Chief Justices, vol. 2, p, 65. 



1915.] Connecticut's Ratification of Federal Constitution. 85 

William Pierce, one of his colleagues in the Convention, 
bore testimony 30 to him as "a character much cele- 
brated for his legal knowledge; he is said to be one of 
the first classics in America, and certainly possesses 
a very strong and enlightened understanding." He 
thought Johnson had been overrated as an orator, but 
added that he "possesses the manners of a gentleman 
and engages the hearts of men by the sweetness of his 
temper and that affectionate style of address with 
which he accosts his acquaintance." 31 

Oliver Ellsworth was forty-two years old, the young- 
est of the delegation. 32 He is said to have formed 
himself on the model of Sherman and to have been 
chiefly different from him, because he had a liberal 
education, having graduated at Princeton. He studied 
theology for a year and then turned his attention to 
law. He married when young and poor and is said 
to have cut wood to pay his debts, .but soon gained a 
leading position at the Connecticut bar. President 
D wight 33 wrote of him that he was " always pos- 
sessed of his own scheme of thought concerning every 
subject which he discussed, ardent, bold, intense, and 
masterly. His conceptions were just and great; his 
reasonings invincible; his images glowing; his senti- 
ments noble; his phraseology remarkable for its clear- 
ness and precision; his style concise and strong; his 
utterance vehement and overwhelming. Universally, 
his eloquence strongly resembled that of Demosthenes; 
grave, forcible and inclined to severity." He, fre- 
quently, poured out to juries "floods of eloquence, 

so Amer. Hist., Review vol. 3, p. 326. 

S1 He wrote his son, on June 27, 1787, that the obligation of secrecy prevented him 
from telling what was transpiring. Farrand, vol. 3, p. 49. Farrand in the same volume, 
at page 552, prints extracts from his diary. 

32 See Flanders Chief Justices, vol. 2, p. 55, Van Santwood Chief Justices, p. 217, 
Herrings Nat. Portrait Gallery, vol. 4, Am. Lit. Mag., vol. 1, p. 195, Duykiuck, Nat. 
Portrait Gallery, vol. 1, p. 345, Am. Hist. Rev., vol. 3, p. 326, Portfolio, (Poole 34) vol. 20, 
p. 185, Analectic Magazine, vol. 3, p. 382, by Gulian C. Verplanck, Lewis's Great Ameri- 
can Lawyers, vol. 1, p. 307 by F. G. Cook, address by Henry C. Lodge at Yale in his 
A Fighting Frigate, J. L. Irving Discourse on Classical Learning N. Y., 1830, H. A. Row- 
laud Eulogy on Ellsworth, 1808, in addition to the valuable biography by Win. G. Brown. 

» Travels, vol. 1, p. 301. 



86 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

which were irresistible and overwhelming." Again 
D wight said that Ellsworth "was formed to be a great 
man. His presence was tall, dignified, and com- 
manding, and his manners, though wholly destitute 
of haughtiness and arrogance, were such as irresistibly 
to excite in others, wherever he was present, the sense 
of inferiority. His very attitude inspired awe." 
When Washington was not present in any "assembly, 
no one would be more readily acknowledged to hold 
the first character" than Ellsworth. In line with the 
last tribute, is the unwilling praise of Aaron Burr who 
said that Ellsworth was the Cerberus of the Treasury 
as opposed to money grants and had such influence 
over the Senate, while he was a member of it, that if 
he spelled the name of the Deity with two ds, it would 
take the Senate three weeks to expunge the super- 
fluous letter. 34 Other contemporaries were loud 
in his praise. John Adams wrote in 1813 that Ells- 
worth was "the finest pillar" of Washington's adminis- 
tration. Madison added in 1836: "As a speaker, his 
reasoning was clear and close and delivered in a style 
and tone which rendered it emphatic and impressive." 
Washington was his friend, Oliver Wolcott wrote 
of Ellsworth in 1790, 35 that he supported his opinions 
"with all that boldness and reason which give him 
a predominant influence in the Senate." This tall, 
erect man, whose large penetrating blue eyes looked 
fearlessly out from beneath heavily arched brows, 
with powdered hair, wearing the dress of the day, silk 
stockings and knee buckles, is one of the most impres- 
sive figures of the period. His style in speaking was 
better than he used in writing and he wrote few and 
brief letters, fearing, it is said, that they should be 
published, but we have a clear picture of him, from his 
speeches and his acts. His "habits of thought were 
slow and laborious." Bancroft summed up his char- 



M Goodrich's Recollections, vol. 1, p. 536. 
" Gibba'a Wolcott, vol. 1, p. 49. 



1915.] Connecticut's Ratification of Federal Constitution. 87 

acter thus: 36 "Of robust habit of mind, he was full 
of energy and by nature hopeful; devoid of sentimen- 
tality and safe against the seductions of feeling, or the 
delusions of imagination, he was always self-possessed. 
Free from rancor and superior to flattery, he could 
neither be intimidated nor cajoled. His mind ad- 
vanced cautiously, but with great moving force. 
Knowing what he needed, he could not be turned from 
its pursuit; obtaining it, he never wrangled for more." 

Hollister 37 also bears testimony to his logical and 
argumentative mind. He "possessed an analytical 
style of condensed statement, through which there 
ran, like a magnetic current, the most delicate train 
of analytical reasoning. His eloquence was wonder- 
fully persuasive too and his manner solemn and im- 
pressive." He had an "eye that seemed to look an 
adversary through," a "deep, rich voice and a reserved 
force of scornful satire." 

Van Santvoord's estimate is that "his mind was not 
inventive. He was better adjusted to aid in the exe- 
cution, than in the construction of a plan of govern- 
ment. He came to the Convention with two ideas 
fixed and indelibly impressed on his mind. One of 
these was the preservation of the identity, the influence, 
and the sovereignty of the respective States; and the 
other, the engrafting upon the new system, as far as 
practicable, those simple, democratic principles which 
were embodied in the institutions and government of 
his native State." 

Living at Windsor and practising law at the Hart- 
ford bar, Ellsworth had climbed the several steps of 
the official ladder, which Connecticut, like the Roman 
Republic, provided for her public men. He had been 
State's Attorney, Assistant, and Judge of the Superior 
Court. He presided at the pay table and, with Sher- 
man, had sat in 1780 on the Committee to fix prices. 
In 1777, he had been sent to the Congress, where he 

m Hist. Const., vol. 2, p. 51. 
* 7 Hist. Conn., vol. 2, p. 435. 



88 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

had served on the marine committee and on that to 
consider the establishment of a bank. In Congress, 
he stood with unyielding pertinacity for the interests 
of Connecticut and of the whole country and was said 
to be one of the four controlling minds of the body. 
On the discussion as to raising revenue, he said that 
the vital question was how far the Federal Government 
can, or ought to coerce delinquent members. He 
left Congress in July 1783 and, just before then, wrote 
Jonathan Trumbull from Princeton: "It will soon be 
of very little consequence where Congress go, if they 
are not made respectable, as well as responsible, which 
can never be done, without giving them a power to 
perform engagements as well as to make them. * * * 
There must, sir, be a revenue, somehow established, 
that can be relied on and applied for national purposes, 
as the exigencies arise, independently of the will or 
views of a single State, or it will be impossible to sup- 
port national faith or national existence. The powers 
of Congress must be adequate to the purposes of the 
Constitution. It is possible there may be abuses and 
misapplication, still it is better to hazard something, 
than to hazard all." Willing thus to hazard some- 
thing, though he was held to be among the "ablest 
advocates of what was termed the States Rights par- 
ty," 38 he co-operated eagerly with his colleagues 
in the Convention in advocacy of the Connecticut 
compromise. He felt that the "only chance of sup- 
porting a general government lay in grafting it on 
those of the individual States" and he favored the use 
of the phrase "government of the United States," 
rather than national government. 39 

After the final adoption of the Constitution by 
Rhode Island, in forcing which State to take favorable 
action, he took large part, Ellsworth wrote, on June 

*s Flanders, vol. 2, p. 129. 

34 He is said to have told his son that the Constitution was drawn by himself and five 
others. Farrand, vol. 3, p. 397. At first he favored payment of Congressmen by the 
States, but later changed his mind. He opposed paper money and, like Sherman, thought 
it best not to interfere with the African slave trade. 



1915.] Connecticut's Ratification of Federal Constitution. 89 

7, 1790, that Rhode Island had been "brought into 
the Union, and by a pretty cold measure in Congress, 
which would have exposed me to some censure, had 
it not produced the effect which I expected it would 
and which in fact it has done. But 'all is well that 
ends well.' The Constitution is now adopted by all 
the States and I have much satisfaction, and perhaps 
some vanity, in seeing, at length, a great work finished, 
for which I have long labored incessantly." 

His later career added to his renown. With his 
colleague, Johnson, in the United States Senate he 
drafted the Judiciary Act; he urged upon Washington 
the mission of Jay to England and helped Washington 
to draft the message, refusing to send the House of 
Representatives papers which it requested. He de- 
fended the right of the President to remove officers, 
formulated the enacting clause of bills and presented 
the bill for the organization of the territories. He 
hardly slept for anxiety, when Washington considered 
whether or not he would sign the Jay treaty, and he 
refused to vote for the confirmation of Rutledge as 
Chief Justice, because he had opposed that treaty. 
Appointed Chief Justice by Washington, Ellsworth 
showed his fearlessness by rebuking Justice Chase for 
interrupting counsel, and his charges to Grand Juries 
were always admirable. For example, at Savannah 
on April 25, 1796, he said: "so long as America shall 
continue to have one will, organically expressed and 
enforced, must she continue to rise in opulence and 
respect." He felt that the Federal government was 
"the Palladium of American Liberty and the ground 
of national hope." He approved the alien and sedition 
acts and opposed the election of Jefferson to the presi- 
dency, though he preferred him to Burr. He accepted 
nomination as commissioner to France in 1799, and 
the French treaty, which opened the way to the Louis- 
iana treaty, was in large measure due to him. When 
he "found himself unable to secure the much desired 
indemnities," he "boldly disregarded his instructions 



90 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

and made the best bargain he could for the sake of 
peace." After spending a year in England, he returned 
to Connecticut, resumed his position in the Upper 
House of her Assembly, and died at his home in 1807. 

His biographers have all united in eulogy. Ver- 
plank speaks of him as "no unfit representative of our 
general national character,' ' not a poet nor a philoso- 
pher, but "fitted for the able discharge of great duties 
in the most arduous and diversified scenes of life. He 
had a cold and colorless imagination and little general 
literary curiosity, but his uniform prudence and regu- 
larity/' joined to a "patient and impartial investiga- 
tion, sound and accurate judgment and quick percep- 
tion, made him a good judge." An anonymous 
writer in the American Literary Magazine spoke of 
Ellsworth's "sterling integrity and uncompromising 
fixedness of principle, with none of the bigotry, intol- 
erance, and narrowmindedness" called Puritan. He 
was assiduous in his attention to the duties of the legis- 
lative bodies in which he served. A clear-headed, 
ready, calm, and self-possessed debater, he was noted 
for his simple and lucid statements. He was not 
"fluent, flowery, or fastidious," but employed "simple, 
nervous, energetic language" and "presented facts 
and arguments, with a force and earnestness which 
carried permanent conviction." 

Flanders said he illustrated his arguments with 
diagrams, not with pictures, and that his penetration, 
powers of discrimination, and analysis, his earnestness 
of tone and energy of manner, "went home to the 
hearts and understandings of his auditors and caused 
him to have great success with juries at nisi prim." 
"He had business talents of a very high order, power 
of investigation and reflection, uncommon powers of 
argument, sound judgment, steady application, ardor, 
and devotion in pursuit of the public interests." 

Ellsworth displayed, in Cook's opinion, "those qual- 
ities; tact, courage, initiative, conciliation, power, 
resource, that made him, one might say, indispensable, 



1915.] Connecticut's Ratification of Federal Constitution. 91 

in the inauguration and establishment of the republi- 
can system." His character was remarkable for 
integrity, sincerity, fidelity, and earnestness. He was 
patient of detail, conciliatory in spirit, fertile in re- 
source, ready and determined in debate. He was a 
dangerous antagonist, an adroit, efficient leader. " 

Brown, bearing witness to Ellsworth's "one central 
gift of ardor, energy, purpose," considered that his 
guiding genius" was "an English constancy, quick- 
ened with a New England keenness, an American 
readiness and capacity for change." He possessed 
great quickness of perception and excelled in exposi- 
tion. His "clear and vivid apprehension and lucid 
statement of the facts involved in a case would, 
frequently, throw out a blaze of light, that instantly 
dispelled all doubt and difficulties, to the surprise and 
admiration of every attendant. " 4U His "extraordinary 
terseness of phrase" led him to "pack his meaning into 
the fewest possible words." He "could never enjoy 
social or other pleasures, until he had mastered what- 
ever problem he had on his mind. His standard of 
thoroughness was unusual, his absorption in his work 
phenomenal. In his brief intervals of leisure, he found 
children the best resource for amusement and refresh- 
ment." 

The service of the Connecticut delegates to the 
Constitutional Convention was a noteworthy one and 
the arrangement by which the States had an equality 
of representation in the Senate, while the representa- 
tion in the House of Representatives is on the basis of 
population, has become popularly known as the 
Connecticut Compromise, because of the influence 
thought to have been exerted by the men from that 
State in effecting the adoption of the measure. 
Bancroft 41 said of it that "Connecticut, which was in 
all sincerity, partly federal and partly national, was 
now compelled to take the lead"; while Alexander 



«■ P. 40. 

*» Hist. Const., vol. 2, p. 47. 



92 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Johnston 42 stated that Connecticut " desired a sound 
and practical government and the path to it was 
marked out for her delegates by their own common- 
wealth's development and history of an hundred and 
fifty years. * * * Her combination of commonwealth 
and town-rights had worked so simply and naturally 
that her delegates were quite prepared to suggest a 
similar foundation of national and state rights as the 
foundation of the new government." 

This credit had been given the Connecticut delegates 
when, on February 28, 1847, in the United States 
Senate, the great anti-Federalist, Calhoun, who had 
received his education in Federalist Connecticut, had 
said: "It is owing — I speak it here in honor of New 
England and the Northern States — it is owing mainly 
to the States of Connecticut and New Jersey, that we 
have a federal instead of a national government — that 
we have the best government, instead of the most 
despotic and intolerable on earth. Who were the 
men of these States to whom we are indebted for this 
admirable government? I will name them. Their 
names ought to be engraven on brass and live for 
ever! They were Chief Justice Ellsworth, Roger 
Sherman, and Judge Patterson of New Jersey. The 
other States further South were blind; they did not see 
the future. But to the sagacity and coolness of these 
three men, aided by a few here and there, but not so 
prominent, we owe the present Constitution." 43 Well 
may the biographer of Ellsworth write 44 : "Calhoun 
and Webster, though they were the champions of 
entirely contrary views of the Constitution, agreed on 
the soundness of his. Alone of all that famous 
company, he seems to have won the equal homage of 
those opposed intellects." 

While the Convention met in Philadelphia in 1787, 
David Daggett delivered an Independence Day oration 



« Connecticut, p. 320, 321. 

« Calhoun's Works, vol. 4, p. 354. 

44 Brown's Ellsworth, p. 176. 



1915.] Connecticut's Ratification of Federal Constitution. 93 

at New Haven, which showed clearly how serious men 
in Connecticut considered the national condition to be 
and how much Shay's rebellion had alarmed a large 
part of the people. 45 He said that the "eyes of all 
Europe are fixed upon us. Their writers and orators, 
who extolled our success, and predicted our future 
greatness, now laugh at our folly, burlesque our policy, 
and condemn our dishonesty. They respect us for 
what we have been, admire us for what we might be, 
and despise us for what we are." He feared that 
" patriotism is fled" and dreaded despotism. On the 
same day, Joel Barlow addressed the Connecticut 
Society of the Cincinnati in the North Church at 
Hartford. He warned his auditors that "the revolu- 
tion is but half completed. Independence and govern- 
ment were the two objects contended for and but one 
is yet obtained." "Could the same generous 
principles, the same wisdom 46 and unanimity be 
exerted in effecting the establishment of a permanent 
federal system," as in severing the States from the 
British empire, "what an additional luster would it 
pour upon the present age!" 

"Without an efficient government," he continued, 
"our independence shall cease to be a blessing. Shall 
that glow of patriotism and unshaken perseverance, 
which has been so long conspicuous in the American 
character, desert us at our utmost need?" 

He felt that "the present is justly considered an 
alarming crisis; perhaps the most alarming that 
America ever saw. We have contended with the most 
powerful nation and subdued the bravest and best 
appointed armies: but now we have to contend with 
ourselves, and encounter passions and prejudices, 
more powerful than armies, and more dangerous to 
our peace. It is not for glory, it is for existence that 
we contend." 



"Carey's American Museum, vol. 2, p. 593. 
"Carey's American Museum, vol. 2, p. 13G. 



94 American Antiquarian Society. ' [April, 

He felt that much was " expected from the federal 
convention" and rejoiced that "so general a confidence 
from all parts of the country is centered in that respect- 
able body"; but he insisted that more was "demanded 
from ourselves." The people must be convinced of 
the "importance of the situation" and must be led to 
view the "system to be proposed by the convention" 
"with candor and dispassionate respect." John 
Adams was praised for what he had done, in his treatise 
in defence of the constitutions, and was urged to con- 
tinue the work, by tracing the history of confederacies 
and delineating a "system adapted to the circum- 
stances of the United States." Barlow looked hope- 
fully toward the future and trusted that the "same 
political abilities which were displayed" in the Articles 
of Confederation, "united with the experience we have 
had of its operation, will doubtless produce a system, 
which will stand the test of ages, in forming a powerful 
and happy people." 

At the dinner given on that evening, the order of 
the toasts shows both the importance attributed to 
the Convention and the precedence given the Federal 
Union over the State, for we read that tlie feasters 
drank first to the United States, then to the Federal 
Convention, thirdly to Congress, fourthly to His 
Christian Majesty, the King of France, fifthly to 
General Washington, sixthly to the Allied Powers, and 
only seventhly to the State of Connecticut. 47 

While Connecticut's delegates were acquitting them- 
selves well in Philadelphia, their deliberations were 
of great interest to the people of the State. Rumors 
of a plan for the division of the country into three 
republics had reached Hartford, 48 but the general 
sentiment was hopeful, as the Courant stated 49 when 
the news came of the election of Washington and 
Randolph, as delegates to the Convention from 



« N. II . Gazette, July 14. 
« Courant, April lti, 1787. 
« April 30. 



1915.] Connecticut's Ratification of Federal Constitution. 95 

Virginia. If other States should choose as well; 
"what happy consequences may not all the true 
friends to federal government promise themselves from 
the united zeal, policy, and ability of so august an 
assembly!" The C our ant chronicled Washington's 
arrival 50 at Philadelphia, the representation of eight 
States, 51 the organization of the Convention, 52 the 
rumor that the Convention will withdraw the right of 
the States to emit paper money, 53 the Convention's 
secrecy. 54 The position of the C our ant was an avowed 
Federal one. It stated, on June 16: "When, indeed, 
we consider the critical situation of the country, the 
anxiety with which every good citizen regards this 
dernier resorte and the decisive effect it must have 
upon the peace and prosperity of America, though 
everything should certainly be given to prudence and 
deliberation, not a moment can be spared to useless 
forms, or unprofitable controversy." This expression 
of opinion was followed by a letter from a correspond- 
ent in Philadelphia, 55 who compared the Confederation 
"to a hut or tent, accommodated to the emergencies 
of war, but it is now time to erect a castle of durable 
materials, with a tight roof and substantial bolts and 
bars, to secure our persons and property from violence 
and external injuries of all mankind. May this build- 
ing rise like a pyramid upon the broad basis of the 
people and may they have wisdom to see that, if they 
delegate a little more power to their rulers, the more 
liberty they will possess themselves, provided they 
take care to secure their sovereignty and importance 
by frequent elections and rotation of officers," 'The 
Convention is "happily composed of men who are 
qualified from education, experience, and profession, 
for the great business assigned to them." They have 






"May 21. 
« May 28. 
52 June 4. 
M June 18. 
m July 2. 
"July 9. 



96 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

a " variety of experiments before them of the feeble- 
ness, tyranny, and harshness of our American forms 
of government. " A week later, 66 in speaking of the 
" novel" Convention, the Courant uttered the hope 
that patriotism may "blow the gale and virtue be the 
pilot to the ports of happiness and freedom." 

As the days passed, reports of the Convention's 
progress continued to be good. On July 30, the 
Courant stated that there was "so great unanimity in 
the Convention that it is proposed to call it Union 
Hall." "When citizens looked up to the Federal 
government for safety and protection, the country 
was powerful and successful at home and abroad"; 
but, "as soon as they set up the idol of State Sover- 
eignty, distress, confusion, debts, and disgrace" came. 
"May the enemies of the new Confederation, in Rhode 
Island or elsewhere, meet the fate of the disaffected 
in the late war." 57 

When reporting the recess of the Convention and 
the appointment of the Committee on Style, the 
Courant, expressed the hope 58 that the "people of the 
United States are prepared to receive with respect and 
try with fortitude and perseverance the plan which 
will be offered to them by men distinguished for their 
wisdom and patriotism." The eyes of the Continent 
were truly on the Convention. 59 "Truth and public 
safety would probably prevail," since America was 
not half so well prepared for the Congressional resolves 
of 1775, or the Declaration of Independence, as for the 
Constitution. The single States 60 had been like the 
prodigal son and now are returning to the father's 
federal house, so that vigorous, efficient, national 
government might be expected. 

« July 16. 

H The animosity felt toward Rhode Island, in Connecticut, undoubtedly aided the 
Federal cause. June 18, Courant. 

" August 6. The N. H. Gazette for Aug. 2 printed the rumor that the son of George 
III, the Bishop of Osnaburgh, had been invited to become King of the United States 
and was hopeful that the Convention would save the country from royal government. 

" Courant for August 20. 

80 Courant, August 27. 



1915.] Connecticut's Ratification of Federal Constitution. 97 

Even before the adjournment of the Convention, 
report reached Connecticut that Pennsylvania 61 was 
expected to adopt the Constitution. An allegory of 
an old man with his thirteen sons, the last of whom 
hung himself, showed the hostility toward Rhode 
Island and we are told that "tyrants and official 
pensioners alone oppose the reformation of govern- 
ments." Washington is the head of a chosen band 
of patriots and heroes, "arresting the progress of 
American anarchy and taking the lead in laying a deep 
foundation for preserving that liberty by a good 
government, which he had acquired for his country 
by his sword." 

One of the first objects of the Constitution was to 
"provide funds for the payment of the national debt 
and, therefore, restore credit." Every holder of the 
Continental securities should therefore be "deeply 
interested in the cordial reception and speedy estab- 
lishment of vigorous continental government." 62 
Before the Convention was published, the Courant 
felt that the Convention would lay "America under 
such obligations to establish liberty on so permanent a 
basis, as no time can cancel." The text of the Con- 
stitution was printed in full 63 and it was announced 
that the States had unanimously voted for it in the 
Convention, while the concurrence of Franklin and the 
petition of the freemen of Philadelphia for its adoption 
were also noted. On October 8, the Courant reported 



41 Courant, September 3. 

82 August 9, N. H. Gazette. "We may expect a scheme of continental government 
adapted to the circumstances and habits of the people, without regard to the fine drawn 
systems of elementary writers. " September 10, Courant. "Every one awaits the decision 
of the Convention." Sept. 24 notes its adjournment. At the Cincinnati dinner (N. H. 
Gazette, Sept. 11) the order of toasts was the President General of the Cincinnati, the 
King of France and the friendly powers, the National Convention, the Congress, the 
Government and the State, efficient federal government and confusion to its enemies. 
About the same time, at the Yale Commencement, in a dispute, two students argued in 
favor of the "Expediency of enlarging the powers of Congress" and one opposed it. 

" Ootober 1 Courant. October 3 Journal. The N. H. Gazette copied a censure on 
Governor Clinton of New York for his opposition to the Constitution (Aug. 16) and 
reprinted Observator V (Sept. 20), which emphasised the necessity of adopting the 
reform which may be recommended by the Convention." 



98 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

that there was " great enthusiasm" for the Constitu- 
tion in Pennsylvania, that Delaware and New Jersey 
received it favorably, and that a correspondent from 
Boston wrote: " Honest men must rejoice in the 
spirit of honesty rising through the new constitution. " 
It was already felt that Washington should be the 
first president under the national government. The 
Journal, on October 17, published a letter, dated 
October 14, from Massachusetts to a gentleman in 
New Haven, in reply to one written on September 
24.64 This published letter opposed the Constitution 
and was parodied in the issue of October 24. On 
October 17, the Journal also published a letter from 
Philadelphia, dated October 10, which stated that the 
Constitution would be adopted, since ministers and 
Christians of all denominations are praying for it and 
none pray against it. 

From New London, on September 26, 1787, Sher- 
man and Ellsworth wrote Governor Samuel Hunt- 
ington 65 transmitting to him a printed copy of the 
proposed Federal Constitution, that he might lay it 
before the legislature. They stated that ' ' the Conven- 
tion endeavored to provide for the energy of govern- 
ment on the one hand, and suitable checks on the 
other hand, to secure the rights of the particular states 
and the liberties and properties of the citizens. We 
wish it may meet approbation of the several states 
and be a mean of securing their rights and lengthening 
out their tranquility. " Especial attention is called 
to several matters : for example, ' ' The equal represen- 
tation of the states in the senate, and the voice of that 
branch in the appointment of officers will secure the 
rights of the lesser, as well as of the states." The 
additional powers vested in Congress, in accordance 
with the " principal object" of the Convention, 
" extend only to matters respecting the common 

M He began "My Objections to the doing of our Honorable Convention are many." 
tf Born at Windham, 1732, lawyer, judge, Congressman in 1775, president of Congress 
1779, died 1796. 






1915.] Connecticut's Ratification of Federal Constitution. 99 

interests of the union, and are specially denned, so 
that the particular States retain their sovereignty in 
all other matters. " 

"The objects for which Congress may apply monies, 
are the same" as those named in the Articles of 
Confederation and it was "probable that the principal 
branch of revenue will be duties on imports," while 
"what may be necessary to be raised by direct taxation 
is to be apportioned on the several states, according 
to the numbers of their inhabitants," and Congress 
will not raise such tax directly, "if each state will 
furnish its quota." 

The restraint on the "States respecting emitting 
bills of credit, making anything but money a legal 
tender in payment of debts, or impairing the obligation 
of contracts by ex post facto laws, was thought neces- 
sary, as a security to commerce, in which the interest 
of foreigners, as well as of the citizens of different 
States may be affected. " 66 

They did not confine themselves to this official 
communication; but, by letters to the Connecticut 
newspapers, vigorously advocated the. adoption of the 
Constitution. Ellsworth's anonymous "Letters of a 
Landholder" were reprinted in newspapers from New 
Hampshire to Maryland 67 and received replies from 
eminent Anti-federalists. These letters were thirteen 
in number and appeared in print between November 
5, 1787 and March 24, 1788. Purporting to be written 
by a farmer and addressed to farmers, they are plain, 
direct, and practical, written clearly but without 
ornament of style. In the first letter, he stated that 
the "honesty and patriotism" of the members of the 
Convention are shown by the submission of the new 
"system to the people, rather than the legislatures, 



« Carey's American Museum, vol. 2, p. 434, Courant, Nov. 6, 1787, Elliot's Debates, 
vol. 1, Farrand, vol. 3, p. 99, Journal, Oct. 31, 1787. 

67 Letters of a Landholder (by Oliver Ellsworth) published in Connecticut Courant and 
American Mercury, November 1787-March 1788, also in Conn. Journal, December 5, 
1787, etc., reprinted in Ford's Essays on the Constitution, p. 139 and If. Answers by Gerry, 
Williams, and Luther Martin are reprinted in the same volume. 



100 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

whose decisions are often influenced by men in the 
higher departments of government, who have provided 
well for themselves and dread any change, lest they 
should be injured by its operation." He then struck 
his keynote by postulating, "asa fixed truth, that the 
prosperity and riches of the farmer must depend on 
the prosperity and good national regulation of trade." 
While the farmers ''depend on the mercy of foreign 
nations, you are the first persons who will be humbled/ ' 
for "every foreign prohibition on American trade is 
aimed, in the most deadly manner, against the holders 
and tillers of the land, and they are the men made 
poor. Your only remedy is such a national govern- 
ment as will make the country respectable; such a 
supreme government as can boldly meet the supremacy 
of proud and self-interested nations. The regulation 
of trade ever was and ever will be a national matter. 
A single State in the American union can not direct, 
much less control it. This must be the work of the 
whole and requires all the wisdom and force of the 
continent. " Already the importation of salt in foreign 
bottoms has had the result that "flax seed in 1787 has 
not returned you more than two-thirds of the usual 
quantity. From this beginning, learn what is to 
come." In trenchant phrases, the farmers are ex- 
horted to wait no longer, but to "demand a govern- 
ment which can protect what they have bravely 
defended." 

The low price of farm produce is due to a "bad 
system of policy and government or rather in having 
no system at all. When we call ourselves an inde- 
pendent nation, it is false; we are neither a nation, 
nor are we independent. Like thirteen contentious 
neighbors, we devour and take every advantage of 
each other and are without that system of policy 
which gives safety and strength and constitutes a 
national structure." 

The opponents of the proposed constitution are: 
firstly: "the old friends of Great Britain"; secondly 



1915.] Connecticut's Ratification of Federal Constitution. 101 

" debtors in desperate circumstances, who' have not 
resolution to be either honest or industrious"; thirdly, 
"men of much self importance and supposed skill in 
politics, who are not of sufficient importance to obtain 
public employment, but can spread jealousies in the 
little districts of country where they are placed"; 
and lastly, "men who have lucrative state offices," 
who "act from principles of self interest" and fear 
that they will "sink from a controlment of finance, or 
any other great department of the state, through 
want of ability or opportunity to act a part in the 
federal system." He warns his readers that "this is 
the last opportunity you may have to adopt a govern- 
ment which gives all protection to personal liberty, 
and, at the same time, promises fair to afford you all 
the advantages of a sovereign people." 

He realized that the specious plea was made that a 
"government is inconsistent with liberty," but he 
replied that an " internal government of strength is 
the only means of repressing external violence and 
preserving the national rights of the people against 
the injustice of their own brethren." He insisted 
that "a government capable of controlling the whole, 
and bringing its force to a point, is one of the prerequi- 
sites for national liberty." If we mean to have our 
"natural rights and properties protected, we must first 
create a power which is able to do it, and, in our case, 
there is no want of resources, but a civil constitution 
which may draw them out and point their force." 

Some men feared that the power granted by the 
Constitution "should be improved for oppression." 
Ellsworth replied that "this is doubtless possible, but 
where is the probability?" and that "a power of doing 
good always implies a power to do evil, if the person 
or party be disposed." In Connecticut, men do not 
hesitate to entrust powers of taxation to selectmen 
and to justices of the quorum, or to permit the town 
officers to have the disposal of the children. There 
was actual oppression, on the other hand, "for want 



102 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

of the power which can protect commerce, encourage 
business, and create a ready demand for the produc- 
tions of your farm." 

Such is the argument of his first three letters. The 
fourth and fifth letters are devoted to a reply to 
Elbridge Gerry's attack 68 on the constitution and 
abound in such terse epigrammatic sentences as: "It 
is an excellency of the Constitution that it is expressed 
with brevity and in the plain, common language of 
mankind. Had it swelled into the magnitude of a 
volume, there would have been more room to entrap 
the unwary, and the people who are to be its judges, 
would have had neither patience nor opportunity to 
understand it." 

His sentences fall like sledge hammer blows: "A 
people can not long retain their freedom, whose govern- 
ment is incapable of protecting them. The power of 
collecting money from the people is not to be rejected, 
because it has sometimes been oppressive. Public 
credit is as necessary for the prosperity of a nation, 
as private credit is for the support and wealth of a 
family. " 

The sixth letter is a rejoinder to George Mason and 
shows considerable acerbity toward him and Richard 
Henry Lee, whom Ellsworth charges to have opposed 
the Constitution because Washington favored it. In 
the seventh letter, Ellsworth defends the clause in the 
Constitution which provides that no religious test 
should be required as a qualification for federal office, 
as "The business of a civil government is to protect 
the citizen in his rights, to defend the community 
from hostile powers, and to promote the general 
welfare. Civil Government has no business to meddle 
with the private opinions of the people"; but only to 
prohibit such practices as involve "gross immoralities 
and impieties," History has shown that "A test law 



•« Gerry's letter of October 18 is printed in the Journal for November 14, with an 
answer by a federalist, who claimed that the fact that the great majority of the Phila- 
delphia Convention signed the Constitution proved that it was good. 



1915.] Connecticut* s Ratification of Federal Constitution. 103 

is the parent of hypocrisy and the offspring of error 
and the spirit of persecution." 69 

The eighth letter is a bitter personal attack upon 
Gerry, in which we find that Ellsworth considered 
that "In Connecticut, our wrongheads are few in 
number and feeble in their influence. The opposition 
here is not one-half so great to the federal government, 
as it was three years ago to the federal impost, and the 
faction, such as it is, is from the same blindfold party." 
The time was near at hand for the State ratifying 
Convention and in his ninth letter, which appeared 
on December 31, five days before the Convention 
assembled, Ellsworth addressed the delegates. He 
urged upon them to remember the " solemn situation" 
in which they were placed and maintained that 
" America is, at this moment, in ten-fold greater danger 
of slavery than ever she was from the councils of a 
British monarchy, or the triumph of British arms. 
She is in danger from herself and her own citizens, 
not from giving too much, but from denying all power 
to her rulers — not from a constitution on despotic 
principles, but from having no constitution at all. 
Should this great effort to organize the empire prove 
abortive, heaven only knows the situation in which 
we shall find ourselves; but there is reason to fear 
it will be troublesome enough." Anarchy may even 
come and "it is a condition which mankind will not 
long endure." To avoid it, the people may even 
accept an "ambitious usurper." The same men 
oppose the new Constitution as have always been anti- 
federal. Their policy enables New York to draw 
"an annual tribute of £40,000 from the citizens of 



•» In the Connecticut ratifying Convention, William Williams stated that he wished 
that clause as to the test had been omitted and said that the "newspaper observations" 
against a test "combatted objections which did not exist and was building up a man of 
straw and knocking him down again." A communication, asking what he meant by 
this and signed "Landholder," appeared in the Connecticut Courant for February 4, 
and a reply to it was made by Williams, stating that he wished no test, but desired "a 
religious preamble. " Ellsworth published a postscript to one of his later letters, denying 
the authorship of the letter of February 4, and stating that "against preambles we have 
no animosity" — see Ford's Essays on the Constitution, pp. 195, 205, 207. 



104 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Connecticut" and ruins our foreign trade, so that the 
farmer is " unable to command a just price for his 
commodities." They have been indulged too long, 
"until the state is on the brink of ruin." The first 
citizens of the State have been chosen as delegates to 
this Convention. "When convened, you will consti- 
tute the most august assembly that were ever collected 
in the State, and your duty is the greatest that can 
be expected from men, the salvation of your country." 
Ellsworth published no more numbers of the 
Landholder until February 29, when an extremely 
vigorous personal attack on Luther Martin 70 appeared 
in the Maryland Journal and, a few days later, he 
addressed the Citizens of New Hampshire, in two 
letters printed in the columns of the Connecticut Cou- 
rant, and urged them to ratify the Constitution. On 
March 17, the same newspaper printed a vehement 
article by Ellsworth against the "Rhode Island friends 
of paper money, tender acts, and Anti-federalism" 
and, a week later, appeared the Landholder's last 
letter, urging the development of manufactures. 

Roger Sherman 71 was no less earnest than Ellsworth 
and advocated the adoption of the Constitution, 
through the medium of five newspaper letters to the 
people of Connecticut. Realizing that "people are 
justly cautious how they excharge present advantages 
for the hope of others, in a system not yet experienced, " 
he skilfully showed the disadvantages of small inde- 
pendent governments and then maintained that, "if 
the constitution is a good one," there need be no fear 
of uniting, "even if the Union was to be much more 
complete and entire than is proposed." He was bold 



78 In the Courant for May 5, 1788 appeared this doggerel: 

" Did not the Devil appear to Martin 

Luther in Germany for certain, 

And can't the Devil, if he please, 

Come over to Maryland with ease? 

This beiug admitted, then 'tis certain, 

He has got into Luther Martin." 
« Roger Sherman. Letter of a Countryman printed in New Haven Gazette, November 
to December 1787, and reprinted in Ford Essays on the Constitution p. 215 and ff . 



1915.] Connecticut'' 's Ratification of Federal Constitution. 105 

and sagacious in saying that "the only security that 
you can have for all your important rights must be 
in the nature of your government. If you suffer any 
man to govern you who is not strongly interested in 
supporting your privileges, you will certainly lose 
them." He called to the attention of his readers that: 
"The famous English Magna Charta is but an act 
of parliament, which every subsequent parliament, has 
had just as much constitutional power to repeal and 
annul, as the parliament which made it had to pass 
it at first." The General Assembly of Connecticut 
were "supreme" and might trespass on the rights of 
the citizens, yet no one feared them. "If you can 
not prove by the best of all evidence," Sherman 
daringly wrote, ■ 'viz., by the interest of the rulers, that 
this authority will not be abused, or at least that those 
powers are not more likely to be abused by the Con- 
gress, than by those who now have the same powers, 
you must by no means adopt the Constitution — 
No, not with all the bills of rights and stipulations in 
favor of the people that can be made. " As he viewed 
the matter, "the sole question (so far as any appre- 
hension of tyranny and oppression is concerned) ought 
to be, how are Congress formed? how far have you a 
control over them? Decide this, and then all the 
questions about their power may be dismissed for the 
amusement of those politicians whose business is to 
catch flies." His logic was cogent, when he urged 
that not only the powers proposed to be given the 
National government, but also "all other powers, are 
already in the general assembly. The enquiry is, 
whether Congress is, by this new constitution, so 
formed that a part of the power now in the general 
assembly would be as well lodged in Congress." The 
people had already granted the General Assembly 
"all the powers of society" and were only called upon 
to divide the exercise of these powers between Congress 
and the Assembly. The larger territory to be governed 
by Congress and the smaller representation of the 



106 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

State in that body are no valid objections and there 
need be no fear that the Congressmen will be too little 
careful of the property of their constituents. The fact 
that Senators and Representatives are to serve for a 
longer time than do members of the Assembly, does 
not endanger liberty, as the example of England shows, 
which country elects members of Parliament for seven 
years. 72 

During the latter months of 1787, the papers were 
filled with the news of discussion concerning the Con- 
stitution. On October 1, at New Haven town meet- 
ing, 73 the people by a full vote asked their Representa- 
tive in the General Assembly to press the summons of a 
State Convention to consider the Constitution as soon 
as possible. It was noted that at the assembly of the 
Congregational clergy in County Association at New 
Haven the support of that powerful body of the 
Standing Order was so assured that every one present 
was favorable to the Constitution. The people read 
of the adoption by Pennsylvania 74 and, before the end 
of the month of October, heard 75 that the General 
Assembly had unanimously voted to summon a 
Convention, 76 composed of representatives of the towns 
as in the legislature, except that Colebrook and 
Barkhampstead, which were not represented in that 
body, should each have a delegate. The delegates 
were to be paid, just as the representatives in the 
General Assembly were, and, after being chosen on the 
second Monday in November, should meet at Hartford 
in January. The discussion now became more vigor- 
ous. On October 29, the Courant said that Connecticut 



"Roger Sherman also wrote two "Letters of a Citizen of New Haven" which were 
printed in New Haven Gazette, December 1788, and reprinted in Ford, Essays on the 
ConstittUion, p. 233. They deal with the proposed amendments to the Constitution und 
ably defend its provisions. 

13 New Haven Gazette, October 4. 

« October 15, Courant, Wilson's speech in the Convention is in issue for October 22. 

« October 22, Courant. October 25, N. H. Gazette. 

« Vide Bancroft Const., vol. 2, p. 256, vide N. H. Gazette, Oct. 29, letter calling for the 
choice of "characters of tried abilities and integrity," see also issue for October 4, Josiah 
Meigs' New Haven Gazette printed the broadside, which is dated Oct. 31, 1789. 



1915.] Connecticut' 's Ratification of Federal Constitution. 107 

was to be honored for her early action. The question 
is "shall union render us respectable and happy, or 
shall discord and division make us weak, comptempti- 
ble, and wretched." The Constitution was published 
in broadside form with the call of the Convention and 
was thus 77 circulated throughout the State. Governor 
Huntington recognized the importance of the occasion 
and, in his proclamation appointing a day of thanks- 
giving on November 15 78 , prayed God to "inspire their 
several Councils with wisdom and unanimity to discern 
and adopt the best means to promote the prosperity 
and hapiness of the nation." The Landholder's 
arguments were supported by a correspondent who 
showed 79 that the people are guarded by the State 
Constitutions and by the nature of things from danger 
of federal tyranny; but the Courant also published 
Gerry's and Mason's objections to show what could 
be said in opposition to the Constitution. 80 So few 
statements on that side were found, however, that the 
Courant twice defended itself from the charge of being 
one-sided and suppressing Anti-Federal news. 81 

Although there was some attempt in New Haven 
County to range the farmers against the Constitution, 
as a document chiefly benefitting the commercial 
classes, the Courant was able to announce on Novem- 
ber 26 that the towns had acted, with uncommon 
unanimity, in choosing delegates who would vote for 
the adoption of the Constitution. In many places, 
there was no dissent and, in other towns, instructions 
to the delegates to support the Constitution were 
expected to be adopted at the December town meetings. 
Madison's keen vision had observed that favorable 
course of events in Connecticut. On September 30, 



" Courant, November 5. 
78 Courant, November 5. 
78 November 12, Courant. 

80 November 12 and 26. The Journal in New Haven printed Mason's objections to 
the Constitution in its issue for November 28; but, in the same issue, print:d also letters 
from Consideration and Plain Truth, advocating the adoption of the document. 

81 December 10 and 24. On December 31, A. Freeman wrote a vigorous article, urging 
adoption of the Constitution, as the federal government needed power and there was no 
danger of slavery. 



108 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

he wrote his father 82 "The echo from Connecticut and 
New Jersey, so far as it has reached us, indicates a 
favorable disposition in those States" and, on the 
same day, he told Washington that the "first impres- 
sion seems to be auspicious" in Connecticut. 83 Two 
weeks later, he wrote Washington that ' ' an opposition 
is known to be in petto in Connecticut, but it is not to 
be much dreaded," 84 and, on October 21, he joyfully 
sent Edmund Randolph word that "the Legislature 
of Connecticut have 85 unanimously recommended the 
choice of a Convention in that State and Mr. Baldwin, 
who is just from the spot, informs me that, from 
present appearances, the opposition will be inconsider- 
able; that the Assembly, if it depended on them, 
would adopt the system almost unanimously; and 
that the clergy and all the literary men are exerting 
themselves in its favor." In the same vein, he wrote 
Jefferson that "Its passage through Connecticut is 
likely to be very smooth and easy" 86 and to Edmund 
Pendleton 87 that Connecticut has unanimously called 
a Convention and "left us no room to doubt her 
favorable disposition." After the election of the 
delegates, his certainty was increased. , He wrote 
Randolph 88 that "The elections in Connecticut are 
over and, as far as the returns are known, a large 
majority are friendly to it. Dr. Johnson says it will 
be pretty certainly adopted, but there will be an 
opposition. The power of taxing anything but imports 
appears to be the most popular topic among the 
adversaries." To Washington, he wrote 89 : "I 
understand that the Constitution will certainly be 
adopted in Connecticut, the returns of the deputies 
being now known and a very great majority found 

81 Hunt's Madison, vol. 5, p. 4. 
"•Hunt's Madison, vol. 5, p. 7. 
M Hunt's Madison, vol. 5, p. 10. 
84 Hunt's Madison, vol. 5, p. 16. 

86 October 24, Hunt's Madison, vol. 5, p. 35. 

87 October 28, Hunt's Madison, vol. 5, p. 45. 

88 On December 2, Hunt's Madison, vol. 5, p. CO. 
88 December 7, Hunt's Madison, vol. 5, p. 61. 



1915.] Connecticut's Ratification of Federal Constitution. 109 

to be its declared friends" ; and again 90 " Connecticut, 
it is pretty certain, will decide also in the affirmative 
by a large majority." He also wrote to Jefferson 91 
that "the returns of deputies for the Convention of 
Connecticut are known and prove, as is said by those 
who know the men, that a very great majority will 
adopt it in that State." 

The Convention "appointed to take into considera- 
tion the new plan of federal government" met at the 
State House in Hartford on Thursday, January 4, 1788, 
and, after organization, removed to the Meeting 
House of the First Society, which building had been 
especially fitted with stoves, so that it might be 
warmed and made comfortable for the Convention. 
The subject matter of the deliberations was so impor- 
tant that the galleries were opened to the public, so 
that they might listen to the debates. Men took notes 
of the principal speeches, which notes, though not 
absolutely accurate, yet represented the general 
position of the speakers with substantial correctness. 92 
From this full and open discussion and the reports 
thereof in the newspapers of the State, the people 
derived much useful information, as to the new 
government. In the membership of the Convention, 93 
were found the incumbents of the highest offices of 
government and some of their predecessors, judges of 
the Courts, and ministers of the Gospel. Almost a 
third of the members had been soldiers in the Revolu- 
tionary army. The Constitution was read and then 
debated, section by section, under an agreement that 
no vote should be taken, until the whole document 
had been discussed. 94 The newspapers 95 said that 



90 December 20, Hunt's Madison, vol. 5, p. 73. 

91 December 9, Hunt's Madison, vol. 5, p. 64. 
w Conn. Journal, Jan. 2, 1788. 

» s Bancroft's, Const., vol. 2, p. 25G. 

M On Jan. 7, 1788, the Courant printed long articles, favorable to the Constitution, 
asserting that its adoption in no way endangered liberty, from "The Republican," 
"Citizens of New Haven," and an anonymous correspondent. On January 21, an 
article against the Constitution appeared in the Courant. 

•* Journal, January 16. 



110 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

the Constitution was " canvassed critically and fully. 
Every objection was raised against it which the ingen- 
uity and invention of its opposers could devise." 

The debate was opened by Oliver Ellsworth. His 
speech was an able and convincing one, showed wide 
reading of history, and was made more effective by 
his "extraordinarily vehement and rapid elecution ,KJ6 . 
He believed that the proposed constitution "will be 
found calculated to answer the purposes for which it 
was designed" and considered it a "complete system 
of legislative, judicial and executive power. " 97 Though 
there was no preface to the document, it "evidently 
presupposes two things: one is, the necessity of a 
federal government, the other the inemcacy of the old 
articles of confederation." He maintained that a 
"union is necessary for the purpose of national 
defence," lest "hostile nations sweep off a number of 
separate states, one after another," as the Romans 
did the Italian cities and the Israelites the Canaanites, 
"when divided." History "shews us the necessity 
of combining our whole force, and, as to national pur- 
poses, becoming one State." 

The second reason for union was an economical one, 
as the expenses of defence, "which would be moderate 
for a large kingdom, would be intolerable to a petty 
state." The fact that the per capita taxation in 
Holland was double that in England illustrated this 
point. 

Again union was essential "in order to preserve 
peace among ourselves" and, by placing "a parental 
hand over the whole, " to "restrain the unruly conduct 
of the members. 

Union was also "necessary to preserve commutative 
justice between the States" and to "prevent the large 
states from oppressing the small, e. g., to save Con- 
necticut from "the ambition and rapacity of New 



"Brown's Ellsworth, p. 171. 

W Elliot's Debates, vol. 2, p. 186, January 9, Conn. Jour., also in Courant, Carey s 
American Museum, vol. 3, p. 334, Moore's American Eloquence, vol. 1, p. 404. 



^ 



1915.] Connecticut's Ratification of Federal Constitution. Ill 

York" and from the power of Massachusetts. "Have 
we not already begun to be tributaries? " New Jersey 
and Delaware, other small States, foreseeing these 
dangers, have adopted the Constitution unanimously 
and, if Connecticut does not unite in the ratification, 
"shall we not be, like Issachar of old, a strong ass 
crouching down between two burdens. " Ellsworth 
urged that: "A more energetic system is necessary. 
The present is merely advisory. It has no coercive 
power. Without this, government is ineffectual, or 
rather is no government at all." Even "sister states" 
may become enemies and sacrifice each other, as 
Holland sacrificed Antwerp. "I wish I could say 
there were no seeds of similar injustice springing up 
among us. Is there not in one of our states (probably 
Rhode Island with her paper money legislation is 
meant) injustice too barefaced for eastern despotism? 
That state is small; it does little hurt to any but itself. 
But it has a spirit, which would make a tophet of the 
universe." Great Britain, with her governors and 
her veto on laws of the American provinces, formerly 
"awed us" and some central power should replace her. 
Similar powers of coercion were found in the confeder- 
acies of ancient Greece, exist in the "Germanic body" 
and have been introduced in practice, from necessity, 
in "the Dutch republic, through the stateholder. " 
The Swiss cantons are so far different in circumstances 
that they form no precedent; but, by treaty, France 
has been made mediator between some of the cantons, 
with power to "compel submission to reasonable 
terms." We have "seen and felt the necessity of 
such a coercive power." For lack of it, Connecticut 
and a few other states "bore the burden of the war" 
of the Revolution and, "since the close of the war," 
through failure of the States to comply with the requi- 
sitions of Congress, "we have been driven to wretched 
shifts in finance and have not been able to perform 
our part," in accordance with the "very favorable" 
treaty of peace with Great Britain. Consequently 



Tj 



112 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

we have not received "the forts on our northern quar- 
ter." While we have only a shadow of a national 
government " and suffer "from the want of a federal 
system," the State of Connecticut is tributary to New 
York and Massachusetts, paying them tribute through 
their impost on imports. European nations "were 
pleased to see us disconnected from Great Britain; 
they are pleased to see us disunited among ourselves." 
If we continue so, or suffer the union to expire, we may 
expect them to divide us among them, as was done to 
Poland, or to form alliances, playing off the states one 
against another, so that "we shall be involved in all 
the labyrinths of European politics." "A power in 
the general government to enforce the decrees of the 
union is absolutely necessary. " 98 

William Samuel Johnson also spoke on January 4." 
He called the attention of the Convention to the fact 
that the Country was in a critical condition, Ells- 
worth's picture, "melancholy, but not too highly 
drawn" showed that "our commerce is annihilated, 
our national honor, once in so high esteem, is no more. 
We have got to the very brink of ruin. We must turn 
back and adopt a new system. The gentleman's 
arguments have demonstrated that a principle of 
coercion is absolutely necessary, if we would have a 
union to answer any beneficial purposes. All ancient 
leagues had this principle. Holland has, in fact, had 
it.* * * Under our old Confederation each State was 
bound under the most solemn obligation to pay its 
proportion of the national expense." If it did not 
perform this obligation, it became a transgressor and 
did injury to the other States, "who have a right by 
the law of nature and nations to insist upon and compel 



•» On Jan. 10, 1788, Ellsworth wrote a friend that the report of this speech in the 
Connecticut Courant was incorrect "with regard to some of the historic facts alluded 
to"; but that "the deviations do not go to circumstances very material to the argument 
itself." (Brown's Ellsworth, p. 172). "Plain Farmer" replied (Journal, February 6, aud 
Courant, January 18) that he was glad that the speeches were priuted and hoped that 
Ellsworth would correct, and republish his. 

» Bancroft's Constitution, vol. 2, p. 25G, Journal for January 16, also Courant. 



1915.] Connecticut's Ratification of Federal Constitution. 113 

a performance. How shall this be done? There is 
"no other way but by force of arms. What is the 
consequence? This way of enforcing federal duress 
leads directly to civil war and national ruin. This 
was the case with the ancient leagues." To avoid 
this danger, the Convention "have gone upon entirely 
new ground. They have formed one nation out of 
the individual States.* * * The force which is to be 
employed is the energy of law and this force is to 
operate only upon individuals, who fail in their duty 
to their country." 

He closed with a solemn warning. "Though no 
enthusiast, I cannot but attribute it to a signal inter- 
vention of Divine Providence that a convention from 
States, differing in circumstances, interests, and 
manners, should be so harmonious in adopting one 
grand system. If we reject a plan of government, 
which, with such favorable circumstances, is offered 
for our acceptance, I fear our national existence must 
come to a final end." 

• The opposition to the Constitution was led by 
General James Wadsworth, who objected to the grant 
of the power to lay duties on imports as partial to 
the Southern States and claimed that the Federal 
government was given despotic power by the union of 
the power of the sword to that of the purse. 100 

William Williams 101 , who held that the Constitution, 
"was yet too wise and too necessary to be rejected" 104 
expressed regret that a religious test was forbidden by 
that document and wished that "an explicit acknowl- 
edgment of the being of God, his perfections, and his 
providence" had been prefixed to the Constitution. 

Three days after the convention opened, on January 
7, 1788, Ellsworth addressed it for the second time, 



100 At the next election, the voters left him out of the government. Bancroft Con- 
stitution, vol. 2, p. 257, Boutell's Roger Sherman, p. 167. 

101 A graduate of Harvard, served in the French and Indian war, for forty-five years in 
Connecticut legislature, member of Continental Congress in 1770, died 1811. 

102 Ford Essays on the Constitution, p. 207, Connecticut Journal, March 3, 1788 



114 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

on the power granted Congress by the Constitution 
to lay taxes. He had listened carefully to the debate 
on this "most important clause" and considered all 
the objections made against it "to be unfounded." 
The first objection was that the clause is "too exten- 
sive, as it extends to all the objects of taxation." 
Ellsworth replied that the clause did "not extend to 
them exclusively. It does not say that congress shall 
have all these sources of revenue, and the States none. 
All, excepting the impost, still lie open to the States. 
This State owes a debt; it must provide for the pay- 
ment of it. So do all the other States. This will not 
escape the attention of congress. When making 
calculations to raise a revenue, they will bear this in 
mind. They will not take away that which is neces- 
sary for the States. They are the head and will take 
care that the members will not perish. The State 
debt, which now lies heavy upon us, arose from the 
want of powers in the federal system. Give the neces- 
sary powers to the national government, and the state 
will not be again necessitated to involve itself in debt 
for its defence in war. It will lie upon the national 
government to defend all the States, to defend all its 
members from hostile attacks * * * Wars have now 
become rather wars of the purse than of the sword. 
Government must, therefore, be able to command the 
whole power of the purse, otherwise a hostile nation 
may look into our constitution, see what resources 
are in the power of government and calculate to go a 
little beyond us; thus they may obtain a decided 
superiority over us, and reduce us to the utmost dis- 
tress. " 

The second objection was "that the impost is not 
a proper mode of taxation" since it is "partial to the 
southern States." Ellsworth was mortified that it 
should be supposed that he and his colleagues in the 
convention had made such "a sacrifice of the interests 
of their constituents" and maintained that there were 
"three reasons why an impost is the best way of raising 



1915.] Connecticut's Ratification of Federal Constitution, 115 

a national revenue." In the first place, it had been 
found by all nations to be "the most fruitful and easy- 
way. " " Direct taxation can go but little way towards 
raising revenue," for people will not be provident 
enough to lay up money "to answer the demands of 
the collector." "If you would do anything to purpose, 
you must come in when they are spending." When 
a man is " laying out a shilling for superfluities," the 
impost " takes two pence of it for public use and the 
remainder will do him as much good as the whole." 
He showed "how easily and insensibly a revenue is 
raised by indirect taxation," by pointing out that, 
through the New York impost, the people of Connecti- 
cut paid annually more than $50,000 into the treasury 
of the former state and by calling attention to the 
portage-bill of £60 paid by each of "our common 
river sloops" in the West Indies. We pay this tax, 
"for a duty laid upon our shipping, which transports 
our produce to foreign markets, sinks the price of our 
produce, and operates as an effectual tax upon those 
who till the ground and bring the fruits of it to mar- 
ket. " "All nations have seen the necessity and pro- 
priety of raising a revenue by indirect taxation, by 
duties upon articles of consumption" and he cites 
the examples of France, Switzerland, England, and 
Holland. The experiments made in Massachusetts, 
New York, and Pennsylvania "shew the productive 
nature of indirect taxes. " Our imports were already 
large and were destined greatly to increase with the 
increase of population, "because our citizens will 
choose to be farmers, living independently upon their 
freeholds, rather than to be manufacturers and work 
for a groat a day." A general impost of 5% on 
imports "would raise the sum of £45,000 per annum, 
deducting eight per cent for the charges of collecting," 
and the increase of importations would speedily over- 
balance any further deduction to be made "for smug- 
gling, a business which is too well understood among 
us, and which is looked upon in too favorable a light." 



116 



American Antiquarian Society. 



[April, 



Higher duties, " without any detriment to pui health 
or morals," might be set on certain articles such as 
rum. The " avails of the impost will pay the interest 
on the whole foreign debt (£130,000) and nearly 
satisfy" the "current national expenses" which 
amount to about £130,000 and consist of the civil list 
(£37,000) the maintenance of the frontier posts, the 
"support of those who have been disabled in the service 
of the continent, etc. "It is a strong argument in 
favor of the impost that the collection of it will inter- 
fere less with the internal police of the States than 
any other species of taxation. It does not fill the 
country with revenue officers; but is confined to the 
sea coast and is chiefly a water operation." The 
third reason for giving this "branch of revenue" to 
Congress is that, otherwise, it will be left to the states 
and will give some of them "an opportunity of oppress- 
ing others and destroy all harmony" between them. 
The impost is not partial to the south in Ellsworth's 
opinion. "Until you get as far south as the Carolinas, 
there is no material difference in the quantity of 
clothing which is worn." Even there, a "great deal 
of cold, raw, chilly weather" is experienced and, as 
far south as Georgia, "the river Savannah has been 
crossed on ice." Even if less clothing is worn in the 
South, "people of rank wear that which is of much 
more expensive kind." In New England, "we manu- 
facture half of our clothing and all our tools of hus- 
bandry"; in the South, "they manufacture none nor 
ever will," because "they find it much more profitable 
to cultivate their lands, which are exceedingly fertile. 
Hence they import almost every thing, not excepting 
the carriage in which they ride, the hoes with which 
they till the ground, and the boots which they wear." 
Their great exports, the hundred ship loads of rice and 
indigo annually sent from the port of Charleston, the 
tobacco of Virginia, the exports of Maryland, are paid 
for, not in money, but "in eatables, in drinkables, and 
in wearables. " All these are subject to the impost, 



1915.] Connecticut's Ratification of Federal Constitution. 117 

as are "the blacks which Carolina imports." Only 
the " uninformed mind" can say that the impost is 
partial. (The Virginians are poor, to a proverb, in 
money. They anticipate their crops; they spend faster 
than they earn; they are ever in debt.) 

The third objection is that Congress which has the 
"power of the sword" ought not to "have power to 
raise any money at all," lest the added "power of 
the purse" make them despotic. No government 
ever existed without these powers combined. In 
England the power of the sword is in the hand of the 
king, that of the purse in Parliament, but united as 
the "supreme power of the nation," they have both 
sword and purse, of necessity, else how could the 
country be defended? If Congress levy money they 
must legislate; but Ellsworth will not admit that 
"two legislative powers can not exist together in the 
same place," although he grants that "both can not 
legislate upon the same object, at the same time, and 
carry into effect laws which are contrary to each other. 
Each legislature has its province," according to the 
constitution. "Their limits may be distinguished." 
"Two several legislatures have in fact existed and 
acted at the same time in the same territory. " During 
the revolution, Congress had complete power, "wher- 
ever the army was, in whatever State." The con- 
vention was meeting in a city which was "a complete 
state in miniature. Ye't it breeds no confusion, it 
makes no schism. " Other cities have the same experi- 
ence. "This constitution defines the extent of the 
powers of the general government. If the general 
legislature should at any time overleap their limits, 
the judicial department is a constitutional check. 
If the United States go beyond their powers, if they 
make a law which the constitution does not authorize, 
it is void; and the judicial power, the national judges, 
who, to secure their impartiality, are to be made 
independent, will declare it to be void. On the other 
hand, if the states go beyond their limits, if they make 



118 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

a law which is an usurpation upon the general govern- 
ment, the law is void; and upright, independent judges 
will declare it to be so. " These are strong, clear words 
on the right of courts to pronounce laws unconstitu- 
tional from one of the chief lawyers of the Constitu- 
tional Convention, who was destined to be a Chief 
Justice of the Federal Supreme Court. 

He contemplated the possibility of a quarrel between 
the United States and individual States and said that 
"it is sufficient for this constitution, that so far from 
laying them under a necessity of contending, it pro- 
vides every reasonable check against it." If all the 
States oppose the general government, "the measure 
which is opposed to the sense of the people will prove 
abortive. In republics, it is a fundamental principle, 
that the majority govern and that the minority comply 
with the general voice. How contrary then to repub- 
lican principles, how humiliating is our present 
condition! A single state can rise up and put a veto 
upon the most important public measures." This 
actually took place and was, "in effect, the worst 
species of monarchy." "Hence we see how necessary 
for the union is a coercive principle." Every one 
admits this. "The only question is, shall it be a 
coercion of law or a coercion of arms? There is no 
other possible alternative. " Ellsworth was for "coer- 
cion by law — that coercion which acts only upon 
delinquent individuals. This constitution does not 
attempt to coerce sovereign bodies, states in their 
political capacity. No coercion is applicable to such 
bodies, but that of an armed force." Reverdy 
Johnson remembered these facts in 1861, but too many 
public men forgot them. Ellsworth believed that 
"this legal coercion singles out the guilty individual 
and punishes him for breaking the laws of the union." 
He felt that "the morals of the people" had been 
"depraved for the want of an efficient government, 
which might establish justice and righteousness," and 
he closed his address with the statement that, "if 



1915.] Connecticut' s Ratification of Federal Constitution. 119 

we wish to prevent this alarming evil; if we wish to 
protect the good citizen in his right — we must lift 
up the standard of justice; we must establish a national 
government, to be enforced by the equal decisions of 
the law, and the peaceable arm of the magistrate." 1 " 

Pierpont Edwards had just preceded Ellsworth, 
speaking on the same side of the question; but said 
that, when Ellsworth had finished, so much more light 
had he thrown on the subject that "I felt like a light- 
ning bug in broad daylight." A contemporary wrote 
that Ellsworth "was a complete master of the subject. 
He was armed at all points. He took a very active 
part in defending the Constitution. Scarcely a single 
objection was made, but what he answered. His 
energetic reasoning bore down all before it." The 
Journal™ contrasted Ellsworth's " Demosthenian 
energy" with the "learning and eloquence" of John- 
son and "the genuine good sense and discernment of 
Sherman" and said that the combination of the three 
caused all objections to vanish. Years afterward, 
Webster told W. W. Ellsworth, the orator's son, that 
his own ideas as to the Constitution had their most 
important source in Ellsworth's two speeches before 
the Connecticut Convention. Higher testimony could 
not be given as to the value of these speeches. 105 

In discussing the nature of the Federal Government, 
during a debate with Calhoun in the United States 
Senate in 1833, concerning the Supreme Court, 
Webster said 106 : "I cannot do better than to leave 
this part of this subject, by reading the remarks upon 
it in the Convention of Connecticut by Mr. Ellsworth, 
a gentleman, sir, who has left behind him on the 
records of the government of his country, proofs of 
the clearest intelligence and of the deepest sagacity, 



"J Elliot's Debates, vol. 2, p. 390, Carey's American Muteum, vol. 3, p. 338, Moore's 
American Eloquence, vol. 1, p. 406. 

> M Brown's Ellsworth, p. 171. Journal, January 16. 

1W Brown's Ellsworth, p. 175. 

i" Webster's Works, vol. 3, p. 485, Quoted in Lodge's Ellsworth, in his A Fighting 
Frigate, etc., p. 83. 



120 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

as well as of the utmost purity and integrity of char- 
acter. " Sherman's speeches before the Convention 
have not been found, but his biographer 107 Wain, 
claimed with probable reason that the large majority 
for ratification was " owing in a considerable degree 
to the influence and arguments'' of Sherman, who 
"uniformly performed," with "great plainness and 
perspicacity," the "task of explaining the Constitu- 
tion, section by section, to the Convention." 

After full discussion for five days, the Grand Ques- 
tion 108 was moved by General Parsons, seconded by 
General Huntington. In the debate which followed, 
three notable addresses were made in the Convention 
on January 9, 1788, by the three highest officers of 
the State. Governor Huntington spoke first. He 
maintained that the "best way to learn the nature and 
effects of different systems of government, is not from 
theoretical dissertations, but from experience, from 
what has actually taken place among mankind." 
This experience proves, as "an established truth, 
that no nation can exist without a coercive power — a 
power to enforce the execution of its political regula- 
tions." 109 As a converse truth, "if we look into his- 
tory, we shall find that the common avenue, through 
which tyranny has entered in and enslaved nations 
who once were free, has been their not supporting 
government." His sage sentences may well be at- 
tended to, now as then, for he continued: "The great 
secret of preserving liberty is to lodge the supreme 
power so as to be well supported and not abused. If 
this could be effected, no nation would ever lose its 
liberty. The history of man clearly shows, that it is 
dangerous to entrust the supreme power in the hands 
of^one man. The same source of knowledge proves, 
that it is not only inconvenient, but, dangerous to 



107 Sanderson, Biographies of the Signers, vol. 3, p. 276. 

"« Hollister's Connecticut, vol. 2, p. 461. 

">• Elliot's Debates, vol. 2, p. 197. Carey's American Museum, vol. 4, p. 167. 



1915.] Connecticut's Ratification of Federal Constitution. 121 

liberty, for the people of a large community to attempt 
to exercise in person the supreme authority. Hence 
arises the necessity that the people should act by 
their representatives; but this method, so necessary 
for civil liberty, is an improvement of modern times. 
Liberty, however, is not so well secured as it ought to 
be, when the supreme power is lodged in one body of 
representatives. There ought to be two branches of 
the legislature, that one may be a check upon the 
other. It is difficult for the people at large to know 
when the supreme power is verging towards abuse and 
to apply the proper remedy. But if the government 
be properly balanced, it will possess a renovating 
principle, by which it will be able to right itself. " 
The British constitution is named with praise, as 
meeting these requirements. 

Huntington believed that " there is at present an 
extreme want of power in the national government; 
and it is my opinion that this constitution does not 
give too much. " He did not consider the representa- 
tion in Congress too small, nor the elections too fre- 
quent, nor that the " state governments" would "be 
endangered by the powers vested by this constitution 
in the general government." His own congressional 
experience had shown him that the "members were 
quite as strenuous advocates for the rights of their 
respective States, as for those of the union" and he 
thought that they would so continue." The people 
themselves must always be the "chief support of 
liberty. While the great body of freeholders are 
acquainted with the duties which they owe to their 
God, to themselves, and to men, they will remain free. 
But if ignorance and depravity should prevail, they 
will inevitably lead to slavery and ruin." 

He favored the constitution and thought that it 
bade "fair to promote our national prosperity." 
"Heretofore, most governments have been formed by 
tyrants and imposed on mankind by force. Never 
before did a people, in time of peace and tranquility, 



122 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

meet together by their representatives, and, with calm 
deliberation, frame for themselves a system of govern- 
ment/ This whole attempt does honor to our 
country." The address closed with a courteous 
reference to those who differed from him. 

Oliver Wolcott 110 , lieutenant governor of the State, 
spoke second, as he felt that he must give his " opinion 
more explicitly than by a silent vote." There was 
general agrement "that the present confederation is 
inadequate to the exigencies of our national affairs." 
The people must adopt some better plan of govern- 
ment, or "risk the consequences of disunion." After 
careful consideration, Wolcott decided to favor the 
new Constitution, for "it is founded upon the election 
of the people. If it varies from the former system, or 
if it is to be altered hereafter, it must be with the 
consent of the people. This is all the security in 
favor of liberty that can be expected. " He considered 
that "the constitution effectually secures the States 
in their several rights. It must secure them, for its 
own sake; for they are the pillars which uphold the 
general system." The senators are "appointed by 
the states and will secure the rights of the several 
states"; while the representatives, "elected by the 
people at large," will be "the guardians of the rights 
of the great body of the citizens. So well guarded is 
this constitution throughout, that it seems impossible 
that the rights either of the states or of the people 
should be destroyed." 111 He saw no necessity for a 
test oath and felt that, by enjoining on all officers, 
an oath which is "a direct appeal to that God who is 
the avenger of perjury," the Constitution had given 
a "full acknowledgment of his being and providence." 
He feared no establishment of religion, but would not 
object to the addition of a clause to secure "us from 
the possibility of such oppression.". Wolcott was 



»o Born 1726, died 1797, graduate of Yale, Congressman in 1776, Governor of Connect- 
icut in 1796. 

in Elliot's Debates, vol. 2, p. 201. Carey's American Museum, vol. 4, p. 169. 



1915.] Connecticut's Ratification of Federal Constitution. 123 

" happy to see the States in a fair way to adopt a 
constitution, which will protect their rights and pro- 
mote their welfare." 112 

Last spoke Hon. Richard Law, Chief Justice of the 
Supreme Court of the State. He also favored adop- 
tion of the Constitution and pointed out that defects 
might be corrected in the future by the "easy, peaceful 
way of amending" the document. He called attention 
to the difference between the government of Great 
Britain and the proposed federal government, in 
which "the whole is elective; all dependent on the 
people. The president, the senate, the representa- 
tives, are all creatures of the people. Therefore the 
people will be secure from oppression." 

There is no danger of annihilation of the State 
governments, since the general one rests on them for 
its support. "It is like a vast and magnificent 
bridge, built upon thirteen strong and stately pillars, 113 
now the rulers who occupy the bridge, cannot be so 
beside themselves as to knock away the pillars which 
support the whole fabric." Some feared that a free 
government had "not energy enough to pervade a 
country of such vast extent as the United States," 
but Law urged that the experiment be tried and 
warned the Convention that "We shall be wanting to 
ourselves, if, instead of adopting" the Constitution, 
"we wait for the arm of tyranny to impose upon us a 
system of despotism." He felt that "the finger of 
Providence is evidently to be seen in the political 
affairs of this country" and that the people, who were 
formerly willing to accept nothing better than the old 
articles of Confederation, had been led on, by im- 
perceptible degrees, "to see that they are defective." 
In closing, he expressed the hope that "He who turns 
the hearts of the children of men, as the rivers of waters 



»» Wolcott's strong federalist views are shown in his letter of December 23, 1789, 
printed in Gibbs's Wolcott, vol. 1, p. 33, in which he stated that the "States must be 
considered as corporations only and their laws strictly municipal. " 

"•Elliot's Debates, vol. 2, p. 200. Carey's American Museum, vol. 4, p. 168. 



124 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

are turned, will induce the people of the United States 
to accept of a constitution which is well calculated to 
promote their national welfare." 

Madison's vigilant eye kept watch over the situation 
and, on January 10, he wrote Edmund Randolph that, 
"in Connecticut and Massachusetts, the opposition 
proceeds from that part of the people who have a 
repugnance in general to good government, or to any 
substantial abridgement of State powers. * * * The 
Connecticut Convention has probably come to a 
decision before this, but the event is not known here. 
It is understood that a great majority will adopt the 
Constitution. " 

" After everything 114 which any member had to offer 
upon the subject had been heard with that candor and 
attention which was becoming in an Assembly con- 
vened to decide the fate of an Empire, the question 
was put." When the vote Was taken, it was found 
that one hundred and twenty-eight delegates voted 
for the adoption of the Constitution and only forty 
against it, so that the majority was eighty-eight, over 
half of the total vote. 115 The ratification was an 
unconditional one and not even were any amendments 
proposed. Matthew Griswold, President of the Con- 
vention, and Jedidiah Strong, its Secretary, trans- 
mitted to Congress the formal announcement of the 
action of the Convention, signed by the one hundred 
and twenty-eight delegates who voted in the affirm- 
ative. It is a roll of the State's greatest men and con- 
tains such names as: Elisha Pitkin, Oliver Ellsworth, 
Roger Sherman, Pierpont Edwards, Stephen Mix 
Mitchell, Samuel Huntington, Jedidiah Huntington, 
Isaac Huntington, Richard Law, Jeremiah Halsey, 
Philip Burr Bradley, William Samuel Johnson, Eliph- 
alet Dyer, Moses Cleaveland, William Williams, Oliver 
Wolcott, and Benjamin Hinman. 



114 Hollister's Connecticut, vol. 2, p. 461. 

"* Doc. Hist. Const., vol. 2, p. 80. The affirmative list may there bo found. 



1915.] Connecticut's Ratification of Federal Constitution. 125 

The negative votes included the names of Hon. 
James Wadsworth, General Andrew Ward, Col. John 
Elliott, Col. Noah Phelps, and Captain Daniel 
Perkins. 116 

An ardent admirer of the Constitution fervently 
wrote, shortly after the Convention adjourned, 117 
that he would never vote for men who now opposed 
the Constitution, "for they fight against God. " The 
writer praised the speeches in the Convention, which 
he considered equal to those of Roman senators, and 
bore his testimony to the value of the " Landholder's 
Letters." Analyzing the membership of the Conven- 
tion, which was composed of "the greatest characters 
for wisdom, virtue and piety among us, " who "treated 
each other with candor," he found that in the affirm- 
ative list stood the names of two governors of the 
State, a lieutenant governor, six assistants, four judges 
of the Supreme Court, two clergymen, eight Generals, 
eighteen Colonels, seven Majors, thirteen Captains, 
and sixty-seven County Judges, Justices of the Peace, 
and "private characters." Among those who voted 
in the negative, he found an assistant, two Generals, 
four Colonels, a Major, three Captains, a Lieutenant, 
twenty-nine Justices of the Peace, and "private 
characters." 118 

In his joy over his State's action, Jonathan Trum- 
bull, on January 9, wrote Washington of the decision 
of the Convention on the preceding evening. He had 
not been a delegate, because he was "under the cloud 



118 A complete list of those voting nay, as given in the Journal for January 16 and in 
the Courant, is as follows: Capt. Daniel Perkins, Hezekiah Holcomb, Alexander King, 
David Todd, Col. Noah Phelps, Daniel Humphrey, William Gold, Timothy Hoadley, 
David Brooks, Hon. James Wadsworth, Daniel Hall, Samuel Davenport, General Andrew 
Ward, Col. John Elliott, Daniel Bassett, Col. Street Hall, Samuel Whitney, Capt. Samuel 
Osborn, Samuel Newton, Ephraim Carpenter, Constant Southworth, Nathaniel Atwood, 
Jonathan Randall, Simeon Cotton, Stephen Paine, Timothy Perrin, Joseph Wilder, 
Mathew Patterson, Col. Abuer Wilson, Thomas Goodman, Asahel Humphrey, Hosea 
Humphrey, Josiah Coleman, Jonathan Gillet, Eliphalet Enos, Ebenezer N;ish, Capt. 
Daniel Ingham, Elihu Marvin, Joshua Pomeroy and Major Abiel Peaee. 

117 Courant, January 18. Journal, February 6. 

» 8 A letter from a correspondent in Philadelphia, printed in the Courant for February 
4, said that the majority in Connecticut was great, considering the circumstances. 



126 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

of commutation and Cincinnati"; but he had attended 
all the debates and had been " amply compensated 
by the pleasure and satisfaction and instruction, I 
have participated on the occasion." The debates 
were " conducted with a spirit of great candor, liber- 
ality, and fairness, and the decision was received with 
the universal applause of a numerous body of the 
people of the State, who attended the public deliber- 
ations of the Convention and expressed their cordial 
assent on the moment of decision with a general clap. 
The great unanimity with which this decision has been 
made and the liberality with which its previous delib- 
erations have been conducted in this State, I hope, 
will have a happy influence on the minds of our breth- 
ren in Massachusetts.* * * It may not be amiss to 
mention that, in the list of affirmants in this State 
stand the names of all our principal characters, with 
the men of liberality, sentiment, and influence." 119 
Five days later, in a letter to Washington, Henry 
Knox referred to the " noble majority" for ratification 
in Connecticut, including "every character in the 
convention of any importance" excepting General 
James Wadsworth. 120 

After the adjournment, Sherman wrote Floyd that, 
perhaps, a better Constitution "could not be made on 
mere speculation" and it provided an "easy and peace- 
able mode of making amendments. If it should not 
be adopted, I think, we shall be in deplorable circum- 
stances." 121 A curious sequel showed Sherman's 
influence in his State. When Madison proposed 
amendments to the Constitution in the first Congress, 
Sherman opposed them, saying: "The state I have 
the honor to come from adopted this system by a very 
great majority, 122 because they wished for the Govern- 
ment," but they desired no "amendments." The 



"» Doc. Hist., Const, vol. 2, p. 434. 
"0 Doc. Hist. Const., vol. 2, p. 441. 

121 Wain in Sanderson's Biographies of the Signers, vol. 3, p. 279. 

122 Boutell'a Sherman, p. 207. 



1915.] Connecticut's Ratification of Federal Constitution. 127 

government needed organization first of all. "I do 
not expect any perfection this side of the grave in the 
works of man, but my opinion is that we are not at 
present in circumstances to make it better. It is a 
wonder that there has been such unanimity in adopting 
it, considering the ordeal it had to undergo, and the 
unanimity which prevailed at its formation is equally 
astonishing.'' He said, however, that if there were 
amendments, he preferred them "by way of supple- 
ment' ' and not to " interweave our propositions into 
the work itself." The amendments were submitted 
by Congress in the form which Sherman preferred, 
but Connecticut ratified none of them. 

The interest in the progress of ratification by other 
States continued keen in Connecticut. Her news- 
papers printed the debates in the Massachusetts 
Convention and praised the conduct of the minority 
there, as being truly Republican, since, after a fair 
investigation and final adoption of the Constitution, 
the most perfect harmony prevailed. 123 The ratifica- 
tion by Massachusetts was celebrated in New Haven 124 
by discharge of cannon and ringing of bells. 

On Independence Day, 1788, Simeon Baldwin 
" pronounced" at New Haven an oration, which was 
published in pamphlet form, " in commemoration of 
the Declaration of Independence and establishment 
of the Constitution of the United States of America" 
and when the news of the final ratification of the 
Constitution arrived in Hartford in July, 125 it was 
received with public rejoicing, shown by the firing of 
guns and ringing of bells. 



12S Courant, March passim and April 7. 
124 Journal, February 13. 
128 Courant, July 14. 



128 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 
AMERICAN NEWSPAPERS, 1690-1820 

Part III 



MARYLAND TO MASSACHUSETTS (boston) 

COMPILED BY CLARENCE S. BRIGHAM 

The following bibliography attempts, first, to present a 
historical sketch of every newspaper printed in the United 
States from 1G90 to 1820; secondly, to locate all files found 
in the various libraries of the country; and thirdly, to give 
a complete check list of the issues in the library of the 
American Antiquarian Society. 

The historical sketch of each paper gives the title, the date 
of establishment, the name of the editor or publisher, the fre- 
quency of issue and the date of discontinuance. It also 
attempts to give the exact date of issue when a change in title 
or name of publisher or frequency of publication occurs. 

In locating the files to be found in various libraries, no at- 
tempt is made to list every issue. In the case of common news- 
papers which are to be found in many libraries, only the longer 
files are noted, with a description of their completeness. Rare 
newspapers, which are known by only a few scattered issues, 
are minutely listed. 

The check list of the issues in the library of the American 
Antiquarian Society follows the style of the Library of Con- 
gress " Check List of Eighteenth Century Newspapers," and 
records all supplements, missing issues and mutilations. 

The arrangement is alphabetical by states and towns. 
Towns are placed according to their present State location. 
For convenience of alphabetization, the initial "The" in the 
titles of papers is disregarded. Papers are considered to be of 
folio size, unless otherwise stated. There are no abbreviations, 
except in the names of the libraries where files are located, and 
these should be easily understood. A superior italic "m" is 
used in the listing of the Society's files to signify mutilated 
copy, The bibliography includes only newspapers, and does 



1915.] Bibliography of American Newspapers. 129 

not list magazines; the distinction has sometimes been difficult 
to draw, but the test lias generally been the inclusion of current 
news. Neither in the historical sketches nor in the listing of 
files is any account taken of the existence of the paper after 
1820. 

All files, except in a few instances, have been personally 
examined by the compiler of this list, and the facts stated have 
been drawn fronTail inspection of the papers themselves and 
not based on secondary authorities. 

The bibliography will be published in the Proceedings in 
about eight installments, after which the material will be gath- 
ered into a volume, with a historical introduction, acknowl- 
edgment of assistance rendered, and a comprehensive index 
of titles and names of printers. Reprints of each installment 
will not be made, nor will the names of papers or printers be 
indexed in the Proceedings. Since the material will all be held 
in type until after the printing of the final installment, the 
compiler will welcome additions and corrections. 

In compiling the list of Boston newspapers, invaluable 
assistance has been derived from the "Check-List of Boston 
Newspapers, 1704-1780," by Mary F. Ayer, with Bibliograph- 
ical Notes by Albert Matthews, forming vol. ix of the Publica- 
tions of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts. This is the 
most pretentious and comprehensive work of its kind ever 
attempted, and is a model for all other localities. Because 
of the detailed information furnished by the Check-List for 
the Boston newspapers before 1780, the following Bibliography 
does not list in detail the files of these early papers owned by 
the various libraries, except in the case of libraries not covered 
by the Check-List. In the copy of the Check-List owned 
by the American Antiquarian Society are entered with the 
library initials all the issues which have been added by libra- 
ries since the publication of the Check-List in 1907, also the 
files possessed by libraries not included in the Check-List. 
In this way about ten thousand additional issues have been 
noted in the Society's copy. Although the information is far 
too copious to be given in this condensed Bibliography, the 
annotated Check-List is available for the use of students 
whenever desired. 



130 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 



MARYLAND 
Abingdon Patriot, 1805. 

Weekly. Established by Daniel P. Ruff on Sept. 17, 
1805, judging from the date of the first and only issue 
located, that of Oct. 1, 1805, vol. 1, no. 3. The full title 
was "The Abingdon Patriot, and Harford County Ga- 
zette." 

Lib. Cong, has Oct. 1, 1805. 

[Annapolis] Maryland Gazette, 1727-1734. 

Weekly. Established in September, 1727, judging 
from the date of the first issue located, that of Dec. 10, 
1728, no. 65. In the " American Weekly Mercury," 
Philadelphia, of Sept. 28, 1727, is a news item dated 
Annapolis, Sept. 16, 1727, audit is possible that this was the 
date of the first issue of "The Maryland Gazette. " There 
are occasional quotations from the Annapolis paper in the 
"Mercury " in 1727 and 1728; and in the issue of June 13, 
1728, is an advertisement for the apprehending of Nich- 
olas Classon, a printer by trade, 21 years of age, who ' for- 
merly lived with William Parks Printer in Annapolis." 
This first issue of Dec. 10, 1728, was published by William 
Parks, as are all subsequent issues to Dec. 22, 1730, no. 
171, the last issue located of the early series. It was con- 
tinued longer, certainly to March, 1731, as is shown by a 
bill from William Parks, March 1, 1730/31, for printing 
in the Gazette advertisements of St. Ann's Parish (Md. 
Hist. Mag., v. 8, pp. 158, 163). During this period, Parks 
had been in England (see issue of June 9, 1730) and had 
also set up a press at Williamsburg, Va., where according 
to the "American Weekly Mercury" of July 15, 1731, he 
advertises that he is residing. In December, 1732, the 
Annapolis paper was revived by W. Parks, and E. Hull (Wil- 
liam Parks and Edmund Hall), under the title of "The 
Maryland Gazette Reviv'd," as is shown by the issue of 
Feb. 2, 1733, no. 9. The issues from Feb. 2 to Mar. 16, 



1915.] Maryland. 131 

1733, bore this title, but from Apr. 13, 1733, to Nov. 29, 

1734, were entitled "The Maryland Gazette." Between 
Apr. 20 and Dec. 28, 1733, William Parks had become sole 
publisher. The last issue located of this new series is that 
of Nov. 29, 1734, no. 90, and the paper was discontinued 
either with this issue or soon afterwards. Samuel Ogle, 
Governor of Maryland, under date of Nov. 22, 1737, 
wrote "As we have not a Press here at present, I have 
given Directions to the Bearer of this to get a good 
Number of Proclamations printed in Philadelphia" 
(Penn. Col. Records, v. 4, p. 253). 

Md. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 10, 1728- July 22, 1729. N. Y. 
Pub. Lib. has June 3, Oct. 28, 1729; Mar. 3, 17, 31, May 
26, June 9, 16, Oct. 20, Dec. 1, 15, 22, 1730; Feb. 2, 9, 
Mar. 16, Apr. 13, Dec. 28, 1733; Jan. 18, May 24, July 19, 
Aug. 2, 9, Sept. 27, Nov. 1, 22, 29, 1734. 

[Annapolis] Maryland Gazette, 1745-1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Jan. 17, 1745, by Jonas Green, 
under the title of "The Maryland Gazette." With the 
issue of Oct. 26, 1789, William Rind was admitted to part- 
nership and the paper was published by Jonas Green, and 
William Rind. In consequence of the Stamp Act, the 
paper was suspended for a time in 1765. The issue of 
Oct. 10, 1765, no. 1066, was headed "Maryland Gazette, 
Expiring: In uncertain Hopes of a Resurrection to Life 
again. " On Oct. 17, an unnumbered issue was published, 
entitled "A Supplement to the Maryland Gazette, of last 
, Week;" on Oct. 24, there appeared another issue entitled 
"Second Supplement to the Maryland Gazette, of the 
Week before last;" and on Oct. 31, another issue, entitled 
"Third and Last Supplement to the Maryland Gazette, 
of the Tenth Instant." On Dec. 10, 1765, was published 
an issue entitled "An Apparition of the late Maryland 
Gazette, " which announced its revival within a few weeks. 
On Jan. 30, 1766, there appeared "The Maryland Gazette, 
Reviving," no. 1067, resuming the former numbering and 
published by Jonas Green. This was followed by "The 
Maryland Gazette, Revived," no. 1068, on Feb. 20, 1766; 



132 



American Antiquarian Society. 



[April, 



and "The Maryland Gazette," no. 10G9, on Mar. 6, 1766, 
after which publication proceeded regularly. Jonas 
Green died on Apr. 11, 1767, and beginning with the issue 
of Apr. 16, 1767, the paper was published by his widow, 
Anne Catherine Green. With the issue of Jan. 7, 1768, 
she admitted her son into partnership, under the firm name 
of Anne Catherine and William Green (spelled Catharine 
Jan. 28, 1768, and after). William Green died in August, 
1770, and with the issue of Aug. 23, 1770, the paper was 
published by Anne Catharine Green. With the issue of 
Jan. 2, 1772, it was published by Anne Catharine Green 
and Son (Frederick Green). Mrs. Green died Mar. 23, 
1775, and beginning with the issue of Mar. 30, 1775, the 
paper was published by Frederick Green. It was tem- 
porarily suspended with the issue of Dec. 25, 1777, but 
was revived by Frederick and Samuel Green with the issue 
of Apr. 30, 1779. This firm name was changed to F. and 
S. Green with the issue of Mar. 14, 1782, and to Frederick 
and Samuel Green with the issue of Oct. 2, 1788. In 
January, 1811, both these editors died within a week of 
each other, Samuel on Jan. 5, and Frederick on Jan.-, 
and beginning with the issue of Jan. 16, 1811, the paper 
was published by Jonas Green. The title was changed 
to " Maryland Gazette, and Political Intelligencer" with 
the issue of Jan. 28, 1813, although shortage of paper 
caused a reversion to the earlier title and a reduction in 
size, from Sept. 8 to Oct. 6, 1814. The paper was con- 
tinued by Jonas Green until after 1820. 

Md. State Lib. has a file running from Jan. 17, 1745, to 
after 1820, one of the most complete newspaper files exist- 
ing. Md. Hist. Soc. has Apr. 26, 1745 -Dec. 30, 1746, 
good; Feb. 3, 1747 -Nov. 30, 1748, fair; Mar. 12, 1752- 
Dec. 9, 1756; Jan. 4, 1759-Dec. 20, 1764; Jan. 22, 1767- 
Dec. 8, 1768; Mar. 23-Dec. 28, 1769, scattering; Jan. 25, 
1770; Nov. 28, 1771; Jan. 14, 1773-Dec. 18, 1777; Jan. 6, 
1785-Dec. 21, 1797; Apr. 19, 1809-June 12, 1811; July 9, 
Aug. 20, 1812; Feb. 18, 1813-Nov. 9, 1820, scattering. 
Mass. Hist, Soc. has Oct. 19 -Nov. 9, 1748; July 10, 
17, 1755; July 7, Sept. 8, 15, 1757; May 25, 1769- 



1915. 



Maryland. 



133 



Feb. 6, 1777, scattering issues. Harvard has July 
25, 1765, July 17, 1777; June 23-Sept. 29, Nov. 17-24, 
1791; Mar. 5-July 16, 30, Aug. 13, 1795-Dec. 31, 1801, 
scattering; June 16, Aug. 25, 1803. Yale has May 
15, 22, 1760; Mar. 14, 1765-Sept. 4, 1766, scattering. 
Lib. Cong, has Apr. 22, Dec. 30, 1746; Apr. 9, 1752 -Oct. 

30, 1755, fair; July 9 -Oct. 1, 1761; Jan. 26-Dec. 20, 1764; 
1767-1771, scattering issues; Apr. 22 -Dec. 23, 1773; Jan. 
7-Dec. 30, 1790; May 14, 1795-May 10, 1798; and a few 
other scattering issues. Phil. Lib. Co. has Oct. 10, 24, 

31, 1765; Sept. 19, 26, 1793; Oct. 22, 1795-July 28, 1796, 
scattering. Georgetown Univ. Lib. has July 18, 1754. 
Wis. Hist. Soc. has Apr.-Dec, 1760; 1762; Jan.-Sept., 
1763; 1767; Oct., 1781-June, 1783; 1784. British Mu- 
seum has Feb. 15 -July 29, 1790; Jan., 1819-Dec. 1820. 
A. A. S. has: 

1766. Aug. 28. 
Apr. 21. 
Nov. 10. 
Feb. 29. 
Mar. 21. 
Apr. 11. 
May 2, 9, 16. 
July 4 m . 
Mar. 29 m . 

Supplement: Nov. 29. 
May 16. 
Jan. 23. 
Mar. 27. 
Apr. 17. 
June 12, 26. 
July 17. 
Aug. 14. 
Sept. 4, 18. 
Oct. 16, 30. 
May 19, 26. 
Dec. 22. 
Jan. 5, 12™. 
Feb. 9, 16. 



1774. 



1776. 



1781. 

1782. 
1783. 



1785. 



1786. 



134 



American Antiquarian Society. 



[April, 



1788. 



1789. 



Mar. 2, 9 m , 30. 

Apr. 20, 27. 

May 4, 11, 25. 

June 1, 8, 15. 

July 6, 20, 27. 

Aug. 10, 24, 31. 

Sept. 14, 21, 28. 

Oct. 19, 2G. 

Nov. 2, 9, 30. 

Dec. 14, 28. 

Supplement: Oct. 26. 
1787. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 

Supplement : Aug. 16. 

Missing: Feb. 15, 22, Mar. 1, 15, May 17, 
July 19, Aug. 2, Sept. 13, Nov. 22, Dec. 
27. 

Mar. 20. 

Dec. 18, 25. 

Jan. 22, 29. 

Feb. 5, 12, 19, 26. 

Mar. 12, 19, 26. 

Apr. 9, 16, 23. 

May 7. 

July 23. 

Aug. 13, 20, 27. 

Sept. 3, 10. 

Oct. 1. 

Nov. 5, 19, 26. 

Dec. 3, 10, 17, 24, 31. 
1790. Jan. 14, 28. 

Feb. 25. 

Mar. 25. 

Apr. 8, 22. 

May 6, 13, 20. 

June 3, 10, 17, 24. 

July 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. 

Aug. 5, 12, 19. 

Sept. 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 

Oct. 7, 14, 28. 



1915.1 



Maryland. 



135 



Nov. 4, 18, 25. 

Dec. 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 
1791. Jan. 13, 27. 

Feb. 3, 10, 17, 24. 

Mar. 3, 31. 

Apr. 14, 28. 

May 12. 

June 2, 30. 

July 7, 28. 

Aug. 4, 11, 25. 

Sept. 15. 

Oct. 13, 20. 

Nov. 3. 

Dec. 1. 

Jan. 5 to Dec. 27. 

Missing: Jan. 5, Mar. 1, 29, Apr. 5, May 3, 
24, Oct. 4, 25, Nov. 8, Dec. 6. 

Jan. 3, 10, 24, 31. 

Feb. 7, 14, 21. 

Mar. 7, 14, 21, 28. 

Apr. 4, 11™, 25. 

May 2, 9, 23, 30. 

June 6, 13. 

July 18. 

Dec. 12,26. 
1794. Apr. 17. 

Aug. 21. 

Sept. 18. 
1798. Oct. 25. 



1792. 



1793. 



[Annapolis] Maryland Gazette, and Annapolis Advertiser, 1779. 

Weekly. Established in April, 1779, judging from the 
date of the only issue located, that of July 9, 1779, vol. 1, 
no. 15, published by James Hayes, Jun., and entitled "The 
Maryland Gazette, and Annapolis Advertiser, " a single 
sheet only. Hayes had been publishing "The Maryland 
Gazette, and Baltimore General Advertiser" (see under 
Baltimore), and upon the suspension of that paper early 
in 1779, went to Annapolis, where his activity apparently 



136 American Antiquarian Society,. [April, 

caused the revival of the " Maryland Gazette," by Fred- 
erick and Samuel Green, on Apr. 30, 1770. 
Lib. Cong, has July 0, 1770. 

[Annapolis] Maryland Republican, 1800-1820-f. 

Weekly and semi-weekly. Established June 17, 1800, 
by John W. Butler. It was published weekly, except 
during the sessions of the assembly, when it was published 
semi-weekly. With the issue of July 1, 1811, Butler dis- 
posed of the paper to Jehu Chandler. The last regular 
issue was that of June 21, 1817, upon which date Chand- 
ler announced a new semi-weekly paper, and thereafter 
issued weekly extras of a single page only to bridge the 
interval before the commencement of the new series. Ex- 
tras were issued on June 28, July 5, 12, 10, 26. The first 
issue of the new series appeared on July 17, 1817, with the 
title of "The Maryland Republican and Political and 
Agricultural Museum." It was a semi-weekly, although 
the second issue did not appear until Aug. 7, 1817. Con- 
tinued after 1820. 

Md. Hist. Soc. has June 17, 18r"-Sept. 30, 1812; July 
3, 1813-1820+. Lib. Cong, has July 1, 1811 -June 20, 
1812; Jan. 2, 1810-1820+. Advertiser-Republican office, 
Annapolis, has July 22, 1800-Dec. 22, 1810. A. A. S. has: 

1809. Sept. 2. 
Nov. ll m . 

1810. Jan. 20. 
Mar. 17. 
Apr. 21, 28. 

May 5, 12, 10™, 26. 
June 2 m , 23 ro , 30. 
July 7, 14, 28. 
Aug. 4, 11, 18, 25. 
Sept. 1, 15, 20. 
Nov. 13, 17, 20, 24, 27. 
Dec. 1, 4, 8, 11, 15. 

1811. Feb. 23. 
Mar. 2, 23. 

Apr. 6, 13, 20, 27. 



1915.1 



Maryland. 



137 



May 4, 11. 
June 1, 8, 15, 22. 
July 1, 8, 29. 
Aug. 15, 22. 
Sept. 11, 18. 
Oct. 2, @», 30. 
Nov. 11, 18, 25, 29. 
Dec. 20, 23, 27, 30. 

1812. Jan. 15. 

Feb. 12, 19, 26. 

Mar. 25. 

Apr. 1, 8, 15, 29-. 

May 6, 27. 

June 24. 

July 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. 

Aug. 5, 12, 26. 

Sept. 9. 

Oct. 7, 14, 21, 28. 

Nov. 4, 20, 23, 27, 30. 

Dec. 4, 14, 18, 25. 

1813. Jan-'\6, 13. 
Mar. 10, 24. 
Apr. 3. 
June 5. 
Sept. 25. 
Nov. 6. 

Dec. 11, 14, 21, 25. 

1814. Jan. 1. 
Feb. 19, 23". 
Mar. 19. 
Apr. 30. 
May 7. 

1817. Dec. 23. 
1820. Mar. 6. 



[Baltimore] American, 1799-1820+ . 

Daily. Established May 14, 1799, by Alex. Martin, 
under the title of " American and Daily Advertiser. " With 
the issue of May 17, 1802, Martin transferred the paper 



138 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

to Thomas Burling, who on Aug. 17, 1802, transferred it to 
W. Pechin, although there was an announcement that 
John B. Colvin would assist for a while in the editorial de- 
partment. Beginning with Jan. 1, 1803, the paper was 
published by Pechin & Frailey (William Pechin and Leon- 
ard Frailey) and the title changed to "American, and 
Commercial Daily Advertiser." This firm was dissolved 
and the paper conducted by William Pechin, beginning 
with the issue of Aug. 12, 1805. With the issue of July 2, 
1810, the firm was enlarged to W. Pechin & G. Dobbin & 
Murphy. (William Pechin, George Dobbin and Thomas 
Murphy) and the title changed to " American & Commer- 
cial Daily Advertiser." On Dec. 3, 1811, George Dobbin 
died, but the name of the firm remained unchanged, his 
share in the business being retained for the benefit of his 
widow. With the issue of July 4, 1815, the firm added 
William Bose under the firm name of Pechin, Dobbin, 
Murphy & Bose. With the issue of July 1, 1817, this was 
changed to Dobbin, Murphy & Bose, who continued the 
paper until after 1820. A tri-weekly country paper was 
also issued from 1800 to 1820, with various minor changes 
of title. 

Bait. American office has 1805-1820+ . Md. Hist. Soc. 
has May 14-Dec. 12, 1799; June 6, 1800 -May 2, 1801, 
fair; Aug. 5, Sept. 4, 1801; July 7, 1804-Dec. 31, 1806; 
Jan. 1, 1808-1820+. Peabody Inst, has Jan. 1, 1808- 
Dec, 1810; July 1811-1820+ . Harvard has of the daily, 
Dec. 28, 1799; Jan. 24, Apr. 22, 1800; Mar. 3, 23, Apr. 28- 
30, 1802; Jan. 10, 1803; Aug. 7-Nov. 13, 1804, scattering; 
and of the tri-weekly, July 30, Nov. 14, Dec. 5, 1800, Jan. 
19, 23, Feb. 23, June 2G, 28, 1801; July 7, 1801 -Dec. 29, 
1803, fair; June 23, 1804- Jan. 23, 1809, fair. N. Y. Pub. 
Lib. has Feb. 11, 1803; Feb. 20 -June 19, 1805; Feb. 6- 
Sept. 12, 1806, fair; Jan. 29, 1807-Sept. 26, 1808, fair; 
Jan. 9, 1809 -Sept. 21, 1812, scattering. N. Y. Hist. Soc. 
July 6, 1810; Jan. 1-June 30, 1812; Feb. 25, 1813- June 
30, 1814. Lib. Cong, has Feb. 10, 1810-Sept. 21, 1811, 
scattering; Jan. 1-June 30, 1812; Aug. 22-Dec. 22, 1815, 
scattering; 1817, scattering; July 1, 1818-1820+. Wis. 



1915. 



Maryland. 



139 



Hist. Soc. has Jan.-June, 1806; June-Dec, 1810, scatter- 
ing; Jan. -Feb., 1811; Jan.-June, 1814. A. A. S. has: 

1799. (Daily) 
May 18. 
Nov. 20 w . 

1800. (Daily) 
Oct. 20. 

1801. (Daily) 

Jan. 17, 19, 26. 
Feb. 6. 

1801. (Tri-weekly) 
Feb. 2. 
Apr. 13, 27. 
June 24. 
July 16. 
Aug. 15. 
Sept. 23. 
Nov. 23. 

1802. (Tri-weekly) 
July 12. 
Sept. 3. 

Nov. 10, 22, 29-. 
Dec. 3, 6, 17 m . 

(Daily) 

Supplement: Oct. 14. 
(Tri-weekly) 
June 18. 
Aug. 1, 26. 
Sept. 30. 
Oct. 14, 18. 
Nov. 18, 22. 
Dec. 2, 23. 
1804. (Tri-weekly) 
Jan. 11, 23. 
Feb. 17, 29. 
Apr. 18. 
May 16, 21. 
Aug. 3, 24. 



1803. 



1803. 



140 



American Antiquarian Society. 

1805. (Daily) 
Apr. 12. 

1805. (Tri-weekly) 
Jan. 14, 28. 
Mar. 1. 

1806. (Tri-weekly) 
Jan. 19. 
Apr. 28. 
June 18. 
Aug. 25. 

1807. (Tri-weekly) 
Nov. 25. 

1808. (Tri-weekly) 
June 9. 
Oct. 19. 

1810. (Daily) 
June 27. 
July 31. 
Aug. 21, 23, 27. 
Supplement, July 16.* 

1810. (Tri-weekly) 
July 10. 
Aug. 16. 
Oct. 18, 25. 
Nov. 17. 
Dec. 1, 29, 31. 

1811. (Daily) 
Apr. 19, 22. 

1811. (Tri-weekly) 
Jan. 3, 5, 24. 
Feb. 12, 23. 
Mar. 5. 
June 22. 
July 18™. 
Sept. 3, 21, 24. 
Dec. 10. 

1812. (Daily) 
Mar. 7 m . 



[April, 



♦Pamphlet of 16 pages containing Mr. Sampson's Reply on the Trial of James Cheetham. 



1915. 



Maryland. 



141 





Apr. 7. 




July 8. 


1812. 


(Tri-weekly) 




Jan. 30. . 




Sept. 22. 


1813. 


(Daily) 




Nov. 12 m . 


1813. 


(Tri-weekly) 




May 13. 




Oct. 26. 




Nov. 2, 30. 




Dec. 21. 


1814. 


(Tri-weekly) 




Jan. 6, 8, 22. 




Feb. 1. 




Mar. 1. 




Aug. 20 m . 




Sept. 8, 10, 24, 29. 




Oct. 8. 




Dec. 15 m . 


1815. 


(Daily) 




Dec. 29". 


1815. 


(Tri-weekly) 




July ll m . 


1818. 


(Daily) 




Jan. 8, 9, 10, 12, 16. 




Mar. 14. 




May 23, 25, 28, 29". 




June 13. 




July 18. 




Aug. 22", 28. 




Sept. 16, 23. 




Oct. 6, 28™, 29, 31". 




Dec. 7, 22, 23. 


1819. 


(Daily) 




Jan. 25. 




Feb. 12. 




Apr. 13, 15, 16. 




Nov. 22. 



142 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

[Baltimore] American Farmer, 1819-1820-f . 

Weekly. Established Apr. 2, 1819, by John S. Skinner. 
The paper was in a way a continuation of the "Maryland 
Censor" whose subscribers received the " American Farm- 
er" until the termination of their subscriptions in Au- 
gust, 1819. No name of printer is given from Apr. 2 to 
Apr. 23, 1819; it was printed by Ebenezer French from 
Apr. 30 to June 18; no name from June 25 to July 26; by 
Ebenezer French from July 23 to Sept. 10; and by Joseph 
Robinson from Sept. 17, 1819, to Mar. 10, 1820. It was 
published throughout by John S. Skinner until after 1820, 
and was of quarto size, with pagination, title-page and in- 
dex. Although more properly a magazine, it is included 
in this list, since the early issues, at least, contain cur- 
rent Baltimore news and death notices. 

Files are to be found in nearly all of the larger historical 
libraries of the country. A. A. S. has: 

1819. Apr. 2, to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated May 14. 
Missing: Oct. 22. 

1820. Jan. 7 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: Apr. 14. 
Missing: Mar. 24. 

[Baltimore] American Patriot, 1802-1803. 

Weekly and tri-weekly. Established Sept. 18, 1802, 
printed and published by S. M'Crea (Samuel M'Crea) for 
the editor (Dennis Driscol). A specimen number had 
been issued on Sept. 4, 1802, also with the numbering vol. 

I, no. 1. No paper was issued from Dec. 18, 1802, to Jan. 

II, 1803, upon which latter date it was brought out as a 
tri-weekly. Driscol sold out his interest and beginning 
with the issue of Apr. 16, 1803, the paper was published 
by M'Crea & Kennedy (Samuel M'Crea and Samuel Ken- 
nedy). It was suspended for a short while after the issue 
of July 19, 1803, but was revived with the issue of Aug. 6, 
1803, upon which latter date it was published by S. Ken- 
nedy. With the issue of Aug. 16, 1803, the title was 



1915.] Maryland. 143 

changed to "American Patriot and Fell's Point Adver- 
tiser." The last issue located is that of Oct. 15, 1803, in 
which it was announced that the paper would be issued as 
a daily during the ensuing week. There is no evidence to 
show that it was so issued. 

Md. Hist. Soc. has Sept. 25, 1802-Oct. 15, 1803. Har- 
vard has Sept. 4, 1802 -Sept. 24, 1803, scattering issues. 
A. A. S. has: 

1802. Nov. 20, 27. 

1803. Mar. 8. 
Apr. 5, 30. 
May 26. 
July 2, 14. 

[Baltimore] City Gazette, 1797. 

Daily. A continuation, but without change of num- 
bering, of the "Baltimore Telegraphe." The change of title 
was made about Jan. 1, 1797 (see under the "Baltimore 
Telegraphe"), the full title being "City Gazette, and Dai- 
ly Telegraphe," published by Clayland, Dobbin & Co. 
Between Apr. 12 and June 22, 1797, the title was again 
changed to "The Telegraphe and Daily Advertiser," 
which see. 

Harvard has Mar. 16-Apr. 12, 1797. A. A. S. has: 
1797. Feb. 11, 18. 

Baltimore Correspondent, 1809. 

No copy of this paper has been located and it is known 
only through the reprint of a poem "Aus dem Baltimore 
Correspondent" in the "Readinger Adler" of Feb. 21, 
1809. Christian Cleirn was the German printer in Balti- 
more in this year and may have printed the paper. 

Baltimore Daily Intelligencer, 1793-1794. 

Daily. Established Oct. 28, 1793, upon the foundation 
of the "Baltimore Daily Repository," continuing the ad- 
vertisements and using the same type, but adopting a new 
volume numbering. ' Published by Yundt and Patton 
(Leonard Yundt and William Patton). The last issue 



144 



American Antiquarian Society. 



[April, 



with this title was that of Oct. 29, 1794, vol. 1, no. 311, 
after which it was continued by the new firm of Yundt and 
Brown, as the ''Federal Intelligencer," which i 

Md. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 28, 1793 -Oct. 29, 1794. Pea- 
body Inst, has Mar. 1-Oct. 29, 1794. Lib. Cong, has 
Oct. 29, 1793 -Oct. 29, 1794. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 
28, 1793 -Feb. 28, 1794. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Aug. 27, 
Sept. 1G, 1794. A. A. S. has: 

1794. Jan. 15, 16 ; 18, 22, 23. 

Apr. 12, 19, 30. 

May 1, 12, 13, 14, 15. 

June 13 m , 25. 

July 30, 31. 

Aug. 25, 26. 

Sept. 4, 9, 17. 

Oct. 4, 25. 

Baltimore Daily Repository, 1791-1793. 

Daily. Established Oct. 24, 1791, by David Graham. 
It was of quarto size. With the issue of Apr. 29, 1793, it 
was enlarged to folio size and published by D. Graham, L. 
Yundt and W. Patton (David Graham, Leonard Yundt 
and William Patton). The last issue located is that of 
Oct. 19, 1793, and it was probably discontinued with this 
issue, to be succeeded by the "Baltimore Daily Intelligen- 
cer," which see. 

Md. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 26, 1791 -Oct. 20, 1792; Apr. 
29-Oct, 19, 1793. Peabody Inst, has Oct. 24, 1791 -Apr. 
16, 1792. Lib. Cong, has Oct. 25, 1791 -Aug. 30, 1792; 
Apr. 29-Oct. 19, 1793. N.Y. Hist. Soc. has Feb. 2-Oct. 
3, 1792. Hist. Soc. Perm, has Feb. 17-Dec. 19, 1792. 
Phil. Lib. Co. has Sept. 16-Oct. 1, 1793. A. A. S. has: 

1791. Nov. 15, 16. 

Dec. 5, 6, 19, 20-, 26, 27. 

1792. Jan. 7, 19, 23, 27™. 

Feb. 2, 20, 21, 22, 27, 28. 

Mar. 13, 15, 23, 24. 

Apr. 18^, 19. 

May 7, 8, 9, 10, 16, 17, 26, 28, 29, 30, 31. 



1915.] 



Maryland. 



145 



June 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 

19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 27, 28, 30. 

July 3, 4, 5, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 

23, 24, 25, 27, 28. 
Aug. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 27, 28, 

29, 30. 
Sept. 1, 3, 4, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 19, 20, 26, 

27, 28, 29. 
Oct. 5, 6, 8, 9, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 

23, 24, 25, 26, 27. 
Nov. 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 

20, 23, 24, 28, 29. 

Dec. 3, 6, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 20, 21, 22, 

26, 27, 28, 29, 31. 
1793. Jan. 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 

25, 26, 28, 29, 30, 31. 
Feb. 1, 2-, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 13, 15, 19, 26. 
Mar. 6, 7, 15, 16, 22, 23, 25™ 
Apr. 1, 2, 10, 22, 23, 26, 27, 30. 
May 2, 11, 16, 20, 23, 25, 30. 
June 4, 6, 8, 26. 
Aug. 24, 27, 29. 
Oct. 9, 10. 

[Baltimore] Democratic Republican, 1802. 

Weekly, semi-weekly and daily. Established Feb. 
10, 1802, judging from the date of the first issue located, 
that .of Mar. 17, 1802, vol. 1, no. 6. The full title was 
"The Democratic Republican; or, Anti-aristocrat," pub- 
lished by Cornelius Firebrand, junior, (John B. Colvin). 
The paper was of quarto size and each issue was of 8 pages, 
with pagination. The imprint reads "Printed by Samuel 
Sower, for the Editor." With the issue of Apr. 7, 1802, 
the paper was issued semi-weekly, the size was enlarged 
to folio, and the number of pages reduced to four, the edi- 
tor's address being signed by John B. Colvin. The issue 
of Apr. 10, bears the imprint "Printed by S. Sower for 
J. B. Colvin." With the issue of May 6, 1802, the paper 
was issued tri-weekly, and the issue of May 8 announced 



146 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

that Colvin would have the paper printed at his own 
house. The imprint then becomes "Printed & pub- 
lished by John B. Colvin." The last issue in this form 
was that of May 21, 1802, vol. 1, no. 23. After an inter- 
val of ten days, the paper was brought out in new form, 
the issue of May 31, 1802, being numbered vol. 1, no. 24. 
It bore the new title of " Democratic Republican; and 
Commercial Daily Advertiser," and was published by 
W. Pechin, " assisted in the editorial labors by J. B. Col- 
vin." Although entitled a daily, it was June 15, 1802, 
before the paper was really issued daily. The last issue 
located is that of Aug. 13, 1802. On Aug. 17, 1802, Wil- 
liam Pechin and John B. Colvin took control of the 
"American." 
Harvard has an imperfect file, Mar. 17 -Aug. 13, 1802. 

[Baltimore] Dunlap's Maryland Gazette, 1775-1778. 

• Weekly. Established May 2, 1775, by John Dunlap 
under the title of " Dunlap's Maryland Gazette; or the 
Baltimore General Advertiser. " In May and June, 1778, 
several issues were printed in reduced size because of 
sea* - -ity of paper, and the title shortened to "Dunlap's 
Maryland Gazette." With the issue of Sept. 15, 1778, the 
paper was published by James Hayes, Junior, and the 
title changed to "The Maryland Gazette, and Baltimore 
General Advertiser," which see. Hayes then stated that 
he had carried on the business for Mr. Dunlap for "up- 
wards of three years past. " 

Md. Hist. Soc. has May 2, 1775 -Sept. 8, 1778. Lib. 
Cong, has July 23, 1776. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Sept. 8, 
1778. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Feb. 20, 1776. British Muse- 
um has Apr. 21, May 5, 19, 26, Aug. 25, Sept. 1, 8, 1778. 

[Baltimore] Eagle of Freedom, 1796. 

Tri-weekly. Established July 4, 1796, judging from 
the date of the first issue located, that of July 15, 1796, 
vol. 1, no. 6. Published by Pechin & Wilmer (William 
Pechin and James J. Wilmer), under the title of "The 



1915.] Maryland. 147 

Eagle of Freedom; or, the Baltimore Town & Fell's Point 
Gazette. n The last issue located is that of July 27, 1796. 
Harvard has July 15, 20, 22, 27, 1796. Phil. Lib. Co. 
has July 15, 20, 22, 25, 1796. 

[Baltimore] Edwards's Baltimore Daily Advertiser, 1793-1794. 

Daily. A continuation of the " Baltimore Evening 
Post, the change of title occurring in October, 1793. The 
numbering, however, was continuous. The last issue lo- 
cated of "Edwards's Baltimore Daily Advertiser" is that 
of Nov. 20, 1794, but on Jan. 1, 1795, Edwards bought an 
interest in the "Maryland Journal" and consolidated his 
paper with it. 

Phil. Lib. Co. has Oct. 21, 1793. Md. Hist. Soc. has 
Nov. 8-Dec. 24, 1793; Jan. 1-4, Feb. 8, 11, 12, Mar. 31, 
Apr. 2, July 25, 1794. Lib. Cong, has July 25, Nov. 19, 
20, 1794. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Dec. 18, 1794. A. A. S. 
has: 

1793. Oct. 29", 31. 
Nov. 14 m . 
Dec. 24, 30, 31. 

1794. Jan. 8, 9, 29, 30. 
Feb. 25. 

Apr. 21, 22, 30. 
May 1. 
July 16, 18. 
Aug. 19 m . 
Oct. 3, 4. 
Extraordinary : Aug. 18. 

Baltimore Evening Post, 1792-1793. 

Daily. Established July 13, 1792, by Philip Edwards, 
judging from the date and the advertisements of the first 
issue located, that of July 28, 1792, no. 14. The exact ti- 
tle was "The Baltimore Evening Post," but by or before 
Sept. 27, 1792, this was changed to "The Baltimore Even- 
ing Post and Daily Advertiser." Between Oct. 3 and 
Dec. 15, 1792, the title was shortened to "The Baltimore 



148 



American Antiquarian Society. 



[April, 



Evening Post." In October, 1793, the title was chung. il 
to "Edwards's Baltimore Daily Advertiser," which see. 
There was no change in the numbering, the issue of the 
"Baltimore Evening Post" of Sept. 30, 1793, being vol. 2, 
no. 378, and that of " Edwards's Baltimore Daily Adver- 
tiser" of Oct. 21, 1793, being vol. 2, no. 394. 

Lib. Cong, has July 28, 1792. Phil. Lib. Co. has Sept. 
17, 18, 19, 21, 24, 27, 28, 30, 1793. A. A. S. has: 



1792. 



1793. 



Sept. 27. 
Oct. 3. 
Dec. 15. 
Jan. 11, 12, 14. 
Mar. 2. 
Apr. 25, 27 m . 
July 18, 19, 20. 



Baltimore Evening Post, 1805-1811. 

Daily. Established Mar. 25, 1805, by J. Cook & Co. 
(John Cook and George Bourne), under the title of "Bal- 
timore Evening Post: Mercantile Daily Advertiser." A 
country paper was also issued tri-weekly. With the issue 
of June 10, 1805, the title was shortened to "Baltimore 
Evening Post." Cook sold out his interest to George 
Bourne, who began publishing the paper with the issue 
Aug. 31, 1805. With the issue of Nov. 27, 1805, the paper 
was published by Hezekiah Niles. Leonard Frailey was 
admitted to partnership and with the issue of Sept. 8, 1806, 
the paper was published by Niles & Frailey. With the 
issue of July 11, 1809, Frailey withdrew from the firm, and 
and the paper was again published by Hezekiah Niles. 
The paper was transferred to Thomas Wilson, who 
began publishing it with the issue of June 11, 1811. The 
last issue was that of June 22, 1811, vol. 13, no. 78, after 
which it was changed to a morning paper and the title 
altered to "The Sun," which see. 

Md. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 25, 1805-Dec. 1808, fair; Jan. 
2, 1809- June 22, 1811. Peabody Inst, has Mar. 25, 1805- 
Mar. 31, 1806. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 25-Dec. 17, 



1915.] Maryland. ; 149 

1805; Sept. 25, 1806-Mar. 21, 1807; July 2-Dec. 31, 1810. 
N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Mar. 25- June 24, 1805; June 2, Sept. 
5, 1806; Mar. 22, 1808 -July 31, 1809, scattering. Lib. 
Cong, has Mar. 25-May 29, 1806; Mar. 21 -Sept. 14, 1808; 
Aug. 1, 1809- Jan. 31, 1810; Sept. 26, 1810-June 10, 1811. 
Hist. Soc. Penn. has Aug. 1, 1809-Mar. 13, 1810; Mar. 5- 
May 31, 1811. Phil. Lib. Co. has Jan. 1-June 30, 1810, 
of the daily, and Aug. 29, 1807 -Sept. 1, 1810, of the tri- 
weekly. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Sept., 1808 -Mar., 1809; Mar. 
-May, 1810. Harvard has Mar. 25, 1805-Dec. 31, 1808, 
of the tri-weekly. British Museum has Mar., 1805 -Mar., 
1808; Sept., 1809-Dec, 1810. A. A. S. has: 

1805. (Daily) 
Mar. 25, 28. 

1806. (Tri-weekly) 
Feb. 22. 
Aug. 12. 

1807. (Tri-weekly) 
Jan. 3 m . 
Feb. 17. 

1809. (Tri-weekly) 
July 1, 15. 
Aug. 29™. 

1810. (Daily) 
Aug. 22. 

1810. (Tri-weekly) 

Jan. 11, 18, 23, 25. 
May 9, 15. 
June 2. 
July 31. 
Sept. 1. 
Oct. 18. 
Nov. 3, 8. 
Dec. 22. 

1811. (Tri-weekly) 
Jan. 3. 
Apr. 16, 18. 
May 11. 



150 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

[Baltimore] Federal Gazette, 1796-1820+. 

Daily. A continuation, but without change of num- 
bering, of the " Federal Intelligencer," the change of title 
occurring with the issue of Jan. 1, 1796. Published by 
Yundt & Brown (Leonard Yundt and Matthew Brown). 
The full title was "Federal Gazette & Baltimore Daily 
Advertiser." This firm dissolved and with the issue of 
Jan. 1, 1807, the paper was published by John Hewes. 
It was then transferred to William Gwynn, who began 
publishing it with the issue of Jan. 1, 1813, and continued 
it until after 1820. A country paper, tri-weekly, was also 
issued. 

Md. Hist. Soc. has a fine file, Jan. 1, 1796-1820+. 
Peabody Inst, has Jan. 1, 1796-Dec. 31, 1811; July 1, 
1817-Dec. 31, 1818; July 1, 1819-Dec. 30, 1820+. Bos- 
ton Athenamm has Jan. 3, 1806-Dec. 31, 1808. Bost. 
Pub. Lib. has July 18-Dec. 31, 1800; Jan. 2, 1804-June 

30, 1805; Jan. 1, 1806-Dec. 30, 1807; Jan. 2, 1809-Dec. 

31, 1812. Harvard has Jan. 4-Mar. 31, 1796; Apr. 6- 
Dec. 31, 1801; and a few scattering issues from 1797 to 
1807. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 1-June 30, 1796; Sept. 
25, 1797-Nov. 23, 1798; July 21 -Dec. 31, 1807; May 8, 
1809-Dec, 1812. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Jan. 1, 1796-Mar. 
10, 1797. Yale has Jan. 1-June 30, 1796; Dec. 13, 1798- 
Apr. 24, 1799; July 1-Dec. 30, 1803; 1806-1807. Hist. 
Soc. Penn. has July 2-Dec. 30,1795; July 1-Dec. 31, 
1796; July 2, 1798-1804. Phil. Lib. Co. has Jan. 11 -Aug. 
18, 1796, scattering; Sept. 24, Oct. 6, 25, 1798; 1810-1812, 
country edition. Lib. Cong, has Jan. 2, 1796 -Feb. 17, 
1800; Mar. 9- June 30, Aug. 4-Dec. 29, 1801; Jan. 1, 
1803-Dec. 31, 1813; also 11 country issues 1807-1814. 
Wis. Hist. Soc. has Jan., 1796-June, 1797; Aug.-Dec, 
1799; Jan., 1801-May, 1802; Jan. -June, 1803 ;*Jan. -June, 
1804; Nov.-Dec, 1808; Apr.-Oct., 1820. British Mu- 
seum has 1796; Jan.-June, 1805; 1806; July, 1807-June, 
1808; 1809; 1810; July, 1811-June, 1812; Jan.-June, 
1813; Jan., 1814-June, 1815; July, 1816-June, 1817; 
Jan.-June, 1818; 1819-1820+. A. A. S. has: 



1915.] 



Maryland. 



151 



1797. Feb. 10™, 11, 23. 

1798. Mar. 16* 29'". 
Apr. 24, 26, 27. 
May 5. 

June 21™. 
Sept. 18™. 
Oct. 2, 9, 25. 
Nov. 6. 

1799. Mar. 29. 
Dec. 3, 4. 

1800. Mar. 26. 
May 10. 
Nov. 24, 28. 
Dec. 3, 30, 31. 

1801. Jan. 1, 2, 5, 10, 17, 20. . 
Feb. 3, 5, 7-28. 

Apr. 27. 
May 16. 

1804. Mar. 6. 

1805. Feb. 28. 

1806. Feb. 8. 
Aug. 21. 
Nov. 11. 

1808. Jan. 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 18, 19. 

Feb. 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 

22, 23, 24, 25. 
Mar. 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 

22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 29, 30, 31. 
Apr. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18, 19, 

20, 21, 22, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30. 
May 2, 3, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 16, 17, 18, 19, 

20, 21, 24, 28. 
June 13™, 14, 15, 16, 17, 21. 

1809. Apr. 13 m . 
Dec. 6. 

1810. Feb. 8™, 9. 
Mar. 8™. 
May 18. 
Aug. 24™, 25. 



152 . American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Sept. 1, 22. 

1811. Jan. S m . 
Feb. 2, 4. 
Mar. 16 m . 
Sept. 27 w . 

1812. (Daily) 
Mar. 6™. 
Apr. 8, 20. 
July 3. 

1812. (Tri-weekly) 
July 7. 

1814. (Daily) 
Dec. 26". 

1815. (Daily) 
Jan. 25. 
July 18 w . 

1818. (Tri-weekly) 
Aug. 28. 

[Baltimore] Federal Intelligencer, 1794-1795. 

Daily. A continuation, but without change of num- 
bering, of the " Baltimore Daily Intelligencer/' the change 
of title occurring with the issue of Oct. 30, 1794, vol. 2, 
no. 312. The full title was "Federal Intelligencer, and 
Baltimore Daily Gazette." Published by Yundt and 
Brown (Leonard Yundt and Matthew Brown). The last 
issue with this title was that of Dec. 30, 1795, the paper 
being continued as the "Federal Gazette," which see. 

Md. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 30, 1794-Dec. 30, 1795. Pea- 
body Inst, has Oct. 30, 1794-Dec. 30, 1794. Lib. Cong, 
has Oct. 30, 1794 -Nov. 9, 1795. Harvard has Apr. 9, 
June 11-25, 1795. Bost. Athenaeum has July 2 -Dec. 
30, 1795. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Jan.2, June29, 1795. N. Y. 
Pub. Lib. has May 20, 1795. Hist. Soc. Penn. has Aug. 
24 -Dec. 23, 1795, scattering. Phil. Lib. Co. has Aug.- 
Dec, 1795, scattering. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Nov. -Dec, 
1794; July 14, 22, 29, 31, Aug. 1, Sept. 2, Oct. 6, 14, 19, 
27, 30, 31, Nov. 11, Dec. 3, 15, 24, 1795. A. A. S. has: 



1915.1 



Maryland. 



153 



1794. Nov. 13, 20. 
Dec. 22, 30. 

1795. Jan. 3. 
Feb. 4, 5. 
May 5. 
Aug. 26. 
Dec. 21. 

[Baltimore] Federal Republican, 1808-1812, 1816-1820-h 

Tri-weekly and daily. Established July 4, 1808, under 
the title of " Federal Republican & Commercial Gazette," 
printed and published for the Proprietors by Joseph Rob- 
inson. From Apr. 5 to Apr. 21, 1809, no printer's name 
was given. Although announced as a daily, it was pub- 
lished as a tri-weekly until Apr. 24, 1809, when a daily 
and tri-weekly country paper were issued. With this 
issue, moreover, it was printed and published for the 
Proprietors by John L. Cook. With the issue of Oct. 5, 
1809, it was united with the "North American." The 
name of " Federal Republican & Commercial Gazette" 
was retained, but a new volume numbering was adopted 
and the name of printer was omitted. Thomas states in 
his 1810 list that the paper was printed for the propri- 
etors by Wagner & Hanson (Jacob Wagner and Alex- 
ander C. Hanson), and the Baltimore Directory of 1810 
gives Jacob Wagner as "one of the editors of the Federal 
Republican." Because of the demolition of its office by 
a mob on June 22, 1812, the paper was removed to George- 
town, D. C, where it was published for nearly four years 
(see under District of Columbia — Georgetown). The 
last issue published at Georgetown was that of Apr. 3, 
1816, vol. 12, no. 1750. With the issue of Apr. 4, 1816, the 
paper was united with the "Baltimore Telegraph" under 
the new title of "Federal Republican and Baltimore 
Telegraph" published in Baltimore by Paul Allen & Co. 
It adopted a new volume numbering and issued a daily, 
also a semi-weekly country paper, the latter with the 
regular title and a numbering of its own. With the issue 
of Dec. 2, 1816, the paper was published by Allen, Edes, 



154 American Antiquarian Society. * [April, 

& Co., it being announced that Messrs. Allen & Hanson 
(Paul Allen and Alexander C. Hanson) had purchased of 
Thomas H. Hill his share in the paper, and had taken in 
Benjamin Edes as partner. With the issue of Aug. 14, 
1818, the paper was published by Benjamin Edes & Co. 
With the issue of Jan. 4, 1819, the paper was published 
by Benj. Edes & Jas. P. Heath, it being announced that 
Heath had purchased from A. C. Hanson his one- third 
interest in the paper. With the issue of Feb. 22, 1820, 
Heath retired and the paper was published by Benjamin 
Edes. Continued after 1820. 

Md. Hist. Soc. has July 6, 1808 -June 5, 1809, scatter- 
ing; June 19, 1809-June 22, 1812; Apr. 4, 1816-Dec. 31, 
1817; Jan. 4, 25, 27, Feb. 11, 1819. Peabody Inst, has 
Oct. 5, 1809-Dec. 31, 1811. Bost. Athenaeum has Jan. 
2, 1809-Dec. 31, 1810, partly daily and partly tri-weekly 
country issues; 1817-1818, semi-weekly. Bost. Pub. Lib. 
has Dec. 17, 1810-Feb. 28, 1811, with a few scattering 
later issues. Harvard has July 20 -Dec. 14, 1808, scat- 
tering. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 5, 1809-Dec. 31, 1810; 
Apr. 6, 1816 -Apr. 4, 1820. N. Y, Pub. Lib. has July 29, 
Aug. 26, Sept. 14, Oct. 3-7, 1808; Nov. 14, 1808-June 20, 
1812. Lib. Cong, has of the daily, Aug. 12, 1809 -Sept. 
17, 1810, scattering; Dec. 31, 1816-Aug. 20, 1817; and of 
the country paper, Oct. 20, 1809 -Jan. 31, 1812; Apr. 6- 
Nov. 29, 1816; Jan. 10, 1817-Mar. 31, 1818, with a few 
other scattering issues. Univ. of Chicago has Oct. 5, 
1811-Apr. 6, 1812. A. A. S. has: 

1809. Mar. 24. 

1810. (Daily) 
June 29. 
July 30. 

1810. (Tri-weekly) 
Feb. 16™. 

Mar. 12-, 13-, 19-. 
June 9, 23. 

1811. (Daily) 
Jan. 14. 



1915.] 



Maryland. 



155 



1811. (Tri-weekly) 
Sept. 26. 

1812. (Daily) 
Feb. 4, 5. 
Apr. 7, 17. 
June 18. 

1812. (Tri-weekly) 

May 11™. 
1816. (Daily) 

Apr. 27. 
1816. (Semi-weekly) 

Apr. 13™, 17, 24, 27. 

May 1, 4, 8, 11, 15, 18". 

June 5, 12™, 15, 29. 

July 13, 17, 31. 

Aug. 10™, 14, 17, 21. 

Sept. 25. 

Oct. 2, 8, 18, 29. 

Nov. 1, 15, 19, 22. 

Dec. 3, 10, 20, 24. 

(Semi-weekly) 

Jan. 28. 

Feb. 11™. 

June 3. 

(Semi-weekly) 

July 31. 

Sept. 4, 11, 22, 25. 

Oct. 9, 13. 

Nov. 10, 17™, 20. 
1820. (Semi-weekly) 

Jan. 7. 



1817. 



1818. 



[Baltimore] FelPs=Point Telegraphe, 1795. 

Tri-weekly. Established Mar. 4, 1795, according to 
the first issue located, that of Mar. 6, 1795, vol. 1, no. 2, 
published by John W. Allen, and of quarto size. The 
last issue located is that of June 1, 1795, and the paper was 
undoubtedly soon thereafter discontinued, as Allen be- 



156 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

came a joint editor of the " Maryland Journal," June 18, 
1795. 
Harvard has Mar. 6, 9, May 13, 1795. A. A. S. has: 
1795. Mar. 13. 

Apr. 17, 20. 
May 20, 29. 
June 1. 

[Baltimore, German Newspaper] 1786. 

No copy of this paper has been located, nor is its name 
known, but its existence is authenticated by the following 
advertisement in the "Maryland Journal" of June 16, 
1786. "The subscriber respectfully informs his Friends 
in particular, and the Public in general, that he commenced 
the Publication of his German Newspaper Yesterday, 
and intends to continue it Weekly. Subscriptions for the 
same, are taken in by him, at his Printing-Office in Mar- 
ket-Street, nearly opposite the Green-Tree, at the small 
Price of Ten Shillings per Annum; Five Shillings of which 
is paid at the time of Subscribing, the better to enable bun 
to prosecute his Undertaking. All Kinds of Printing, in 
the German, performed, by Henry Dulheuer. Baltimore, 
June 15, 1786." 

Baltimore Intelligencer, 1798-1799. 

Tri-weekly. Established by William Pechin, Mar. 7, 
1798. The paper was of quarto size and the full title was 
"The Baltimore Intelligencer." The issue of Mar. 7, 
1798, is vol. 1, no. 1, and that of June 4, 1798, is vol. 1, no. 
39, but that of Oct. 31, 1798, is vol. 3, no. 103. Possibly 
Pechin made his volume numbering refer to the estab- 
lishment of his " Eagle of Freedom, " begun in 1796. The 
last issue located is that of Jan. 26, 1799, although the 
paper was undoubtedly continued to May, 1799, when it 
was transferred to Alexander Martin, who began pub- 
lishing the "American," May 14, 1799. Martin states 
in his initial issue that he is distributing his paper to the 
former subscribers of the " Intelligencer, " lately conducted 
by Mr. Pechin. 



1915.1 



Maryland. 



157 



Md, Hist. Soc. has Mar. 7 -June 4, 1798. ^ Harvard has 
Oct. 31, Nov. 12, Dec. 3, 10, 27, 1798; Jan. 15, 26, 1799. 
A. A. S. has: 

1798. Dec. 12. 

[Baltimore] Maryland Censor, 1818-1819. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 19, 1818, by William F. 
Redding. The last issue located is that of Jan. 20, 1819, 
and the paper was discontinued soon afterwards, as its 
office was bought out by the "American Farmer/' the 
first number of which was published Apr. 2, 1819. 

Univ. of Chicago has Jan. 5, 1819. A. A. S. has: 

1818. Aug. 19, 26. 
Sept. 2, 16, 30. 
Oct. 21, 28. 
Nov. 11, 18 m , 25. 
Extra: Sept. 19. 

1819. Jan. 20". 

[Baltimore] Maryland Gazette, 1778-1779, 1783-1791. 

Weekly and semi-weekly. A continuation of "Dun- 
lap's Maryland Gazette." The first issue with the new 
title of "The Maryland Gazette, and Baltimore General 
Advertiser" appeared on Sept. 15, 1778, published by 
James Hayes, Junior. The last Baltimore issue located 
is that of Jan. 5, 1779, vol. 4, no. 163 (should be 193). 
Hayes went to Annapolis, where in April, 1779, he estab- 
lished "The Maryland Gazette, and Annapolis Adver- 
tiser" (see under Annapolis). The Baltimore paper was 
revived by John Hayes, May 16, 1783, with a new volume 
numbering, and with practically the same title, the 
"Maryland Gazette: or, the Baltimore General Adver- 
tiser." With the issue of Oct. 31, 1783, Jacob A. Killen 
was admitted to partnership under the firm name of \J. 
Hayes and J. A. Killen, later changed to Hayes and Killen. 
With the issue of Apr. 9, 1784, the partnership was dis- 
solved, and the paper published by John Hayes. With 
the issue of May 24, 1785, the paper became a semi- 
weekly. With the issue of Jan. 10, 1786, the title was 



158 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

altered to the "Maryland Gazette; or, the Baltimore 
Advertiser." It reverted to its weekly issue on May 23, 
1786, but again became a semi-weekly on Feb. 27, 1787. 
The last issue located is that of Dec. 30, 1791. 

Md. Hist. Soc. has Sept. 15, 1778- Jan. 5, 1779; May 16, 
1783-Dec. 30, 1791. Peabody Inst, has May 16, 1783- 
May 7, 1784; Jan. 5 -Oct. 26, 1790. Harvard has June 
20-Sept. 10, 1784; Feb. 11 -Dec. 23, 1785; Dec. 16, 1788; 
June 21 -July 29, 1791. Yale has Dec. 27, 1785- Jan. 17, 
1786. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Oct. 24, Nov. 14, 1783; May 
24, 1785 -May 16, 1788; Jan. 22, 1790-Nov. 18, 1791. 
Lib. Cong, has Jan. 5, 1779; June 27, 1783 -May 13, 1785; 
June 27, 1786; Jan. 23-May 8, 1787, scattering; May 22- 
Dec. 28, 1787; 1788-1790, a few issues. British Museum 
has Sept. 15-Oct. 27, 1778; June 28, 1785-Nov. 6, 1789, 
a few scattering issues. A. A. S. has: 
. 1785. Apr. 29. 

1786. Jan. 31. 
Mar. 24™, 31™. 
Apr. 25 m . 
June 13 m . 
Aug. 1. 

Oct. 24™. 
Nov. 28. 
Dec. 26™. 

1787. Jan. 2, 9, 23. 
Feb. 27™. 

Mar. 6, 9™, 13, 20, 27. 
Apr. 3™, 6™, 10™, 24™. 
May 4™, 8™, 11, 18. 
June 1. 
July 6, 13, 27. 
Aug. 17. 

[Baltimore] Maryland Journal, 1773-1797. 

Weekly, semi- weekly, tri-weekly and daily. Estab- 
lished Aug. 20, 1773, by William Goddard, under the title 
of "The Maryland Journal, and the Baltimore Adver- 
tiser." Goddard's name was omitted from the imprint 



1915.] Maryland. 159 

from Feb. 13 to May 3, 1775, and beginning with the issue 
of May 10, 1775, the paper bore the imprint of his sister, 
M. K. Goddard (Mary K. Goddard). On June 15, 1779, 
Goddard announced that Eleazer Oswald was admitted 
to partnership, but there was no change in the imprint, 
and the partnership kept up for only a short while. 
The paper was changed to a semi-weekly with the issue 
of Mar. 14, 1783. With the issue of Jan. 2, 1784, William 
Goddard resumed the editorship and the paper was pub- 
lished by William and Mary Katherine Goddard, al- 
though this was the only issue published by them as a 
firm, the issue for Jan. 6, and thenceforth, being published 
by William Goddard alone. With the issue of Jan. 25, 
1785, Goddard admitted Edward Langworthy to part- 
nership and the paper was published by Goddard and 
Langworthy. This firm was dissolved, and with the 
issue of Jan. 31, 1786, the paper was published by Will- 
iam Goddard. With the issue of Aug. 7, 1789, he took 
James Angell into partnership and the paper was pub- 
lished by W. Goddard and James Angell. With the issue 
of Feb. 22, 1793, James Angell became sole publisher. 
With the issue of Nov. 1, 1793, the paper was published 
by James Angell & Paul J. Sullivan, and was issued tri- 
weekly. With the issue of June 11, 1794, James Angell 
again became sole publisher, and with the issue of Oct. 17, 
1794, the paper reverted to a semi-weekly. With the 
issue of Oct. 31, 1794, Angell disposed of his interest to 
Francis Brumfield & Co. With the issue of Jan. 1, 1795, 
the paper was united with "Edwards's Baltimore Daily 
Advertiser," under the name of the " Maryland Journal, 
and Baltimore Universal Daily Advertiser, " and was pub- 
lished as a daily by Philip Edwards & Co. With the issue 
of June 18, 1795, the firm name was changed to P. Ed- 
wards & J. W. Allen (Philip Edwards and John W. Allen). 
The title was changed to "Maryland Journal & Baltimore 
Advertiser, " with the issue of Oct. 2G, 1795. The part- 
nership was dissolved and the paper published by Philip 
Edwards with the issue of June 20, 1796. With the issue 
of Aug. 2, 1796, Edwards took William C. Smyth into 



160 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

partnership under the firm name of Edwards & Smyth, 
and changed the title to " Maryland Journal & Baltimore 
Daily Advertiser." This partnership terminated on 
Sept. 8, 1796, and the paper- was continued by Philip 
Edwards. The paper was suspended because of a fire 
upon Dec. 4, 1796, but resumed publication upon Jan. 2, 
1797, being published by D. Finchete Freebairn. The 
paper was suspended with the issue of Feb. 28, 1797, but 
resumed publication under the proprietorship of Philip 
Edwards, with the issue of Mar. 21, 1797, the title being 
shortened to " Maryland Journal." It was discontinued 
with the issue of July 1, 1797. 

Md. Hist. Soc. has Aug. 20, 1773-July 1, 1797. Bal- 
timore American office has an imperfect file, 1782; Feb. 
22, 1785-Dec. 18, 1792; 1794. Peabody Inst, has Nov. 
5, 1782- Oct. 10, 1783; Apr. 18, 1786. Bost. Pub. Lib. 
has Jan. 12-Dec. 14, 1779. Harvard has Jan. 14, 1783- 
Sept. 17, 1793, fair; Jan. 1, 25, Sept. 19, 1796; Apr. 10, 
17, 1797. Mass. Hist. Soc. has a few scattering issues, 
July 17, 1776-Apr. 23, 1790. Yale has Jan. 4-Dec. 30, 
1785. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has a few scattering issues, 1773- 
1777; Jan. 8, 1778, -Jan. 26,1779, fair; July.9-Oct. 29, 
1782; 1783, scattering; Jan. 4, 1785- Jan. 7, 1791. N. Y. 
Pub. Lib. has Sept. 4, 1776; Mar. 18, 1777-Dec. 29, 1778, 
fair; 1785, fair; June 1, Aug. 31, 1787; Jan. 1, 1788-Dec. 
30, 1793. Phil. Lib. Co. has a few scattering issues, 
1793-1796. Hist. Soc. Penn. has Mar. 18-May 10, 
May 27, June 10, 1777; Jan. 2, 1784 -July 18, 1788; 
Jan. 2, 1789 -Oct. 28, 1791. Lib. Cong, has a few scat- 
tering issues, 1773-1782; 1783, fair; 1784-1785, scattering; 
Jan. 24, 1786-Nov. 25, 1794, fair; Wis. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 
1781 -July, 1783, with a few other scattering issues. Brit- 
ish Museum has Aug. 21, 1776-July 27, 1790, scattering 
file. A. A. S. has: 
1773. Aug. 20. 

Sept. 4, 9 m . 

Facsim. Aug. 20. 

1775. Postscript. May 22. 

1776. Mar. 20-, 
Oct. 9. 



1915,] Maryland. 161 

1777. Apr. 29. 

1778. Sept. 15-, 22*\ 
Oct. 20. 
Extraordinary: Nov. 2. 

1779. Jan. 5™. 
Feb. 9. 
Mar. 23™ 
Apr. 6™, 20. 
May 11, 18. 
June 8. 
July 6, 27. 
Oct. 19, 26. 
Nov. 16. 

1780. Feb. 1, 8. 
June 13 m , 20. 
July 4, 11, 18. 
Aug. 1. 

Extraordinary: June 12. 
Supplement: July 4. 

1781. Mar. 27. 
Apr. 3, 10. 
Oct. 2. 
Dec. 25. 
Extraordinary: July 10 m . 

1782. Jan. 7, 22, 29. 
Apr. 30. 
May 21, 28. 
June 25. 
July 30. 
Sept, 10, 17. 
Oct. 22. 
Nov. 19. 

1783. Jan. 14, 28. 
March 25, 28. 
Apr. 1, 4.. 
June 10, 24, 27. 
July 29. 

Aug. 1, 15, 19, 22-, 29. 
Sept. 2, 5, 9, 12, 16, 19, 30. 






162 



American Antiquarian Society. 



[April, 



Oct. 3, 10, 14, 17, 28, 31. 
Nov. 11, 14, 18™ 
1784. Feb. 17. 

1786. Feb. 17, 28™. 

Mar. 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 24, 28. 
. Apr. 4, 7, 14, 18, 21, 25, 28. 
May 2, 9, 16, 19, 23. 
June 2, 6, 9, 13, 16, 20, 27, 30. 
July 4, 7, 11, 14, 18,21, 28. 
Aug. 1, 4. 
Nov. 28. 
Dec. 1, 19. 

1787. Jan. 16. 
Feb. 2. 
Apr. 20. 
May 1, 29. 
June 1, 29. 

July 3, 6, 10, 13, 17, 20, 24, 27. 

Aug. 3, 7, 10, 14, 21. 

Sept. 4, 7, 11, 21, 25. 

Oct. 2, 9, 12, 16, 19, 23, 26, 30. 

Nov. 9, 20. 

Dec. 4, 11, 21. 

Supplement: July 13, 20. 

Extraordinary: Aug. 3, 14, 31. 

1788. Feb. 15. 
Mar. 7, 21, 28. 
Apr. 1, 8, 18. 
May 6 m . 
Sept. 30. 
Dec. 23. 

Extraordinary: Feb. 15, Apr. 1. 

1789. Jan. 2, 6, 23, 27. 
Feb. 6, 13, 20, 24. 

Mar. 6™, 10, 13, 17, 20, 24. 
Apr. 14,21. 
May 12. 
June 23. 
July 21™, 31. 



1915.] 



Maryland. 



163 



Aug. 11, 25, 28. 

Sept. 4, 8, 11, 18, 22, 29. 

Oct. 27, 30. 

Nov. 10, 13, 17, 20, 24. 

Dec. 4, 11, 18, 22, 25, 29. 

1790. Jan. 1, 5, 8, 12, 19, 22. 
Feb. 9, 12, 16, 19, 26. 
Mar. 23, 20. 

Apr. 9, 23, 27, 30. 
Mar. 4, 14, 21, 28. 
JuneS, 11, 15, 25, 29. 
July 2, 9, 13, 20-, 27, 30. 
Aug. 3-, 6, 10, 13, 17, 20™, 31. 
Sept. 3, 7, 10, 14, 28. 
Oct, 1, 8, 12, 29. 
Nov. 12, 16, 19, 26, 30. 
Dec. 28. 

1791. Jan. 4, 28. 

Feb. 1, 11, 15, 22. 

Mar. 1, 18, 22, 25. 

Apr. 5, 8, 29. 

May 6, 10, 13, 17, 24, 27, 31. 

June 7, 21, 28. 

July 1, 12, 15, 19, 22, 26, 29. 

Aug. 2, 5, 12, 16, 19, 23, 26. 

Sept. 6, 16, 20, 23, 27, 30. 

Oct. 14, 18. 

Nov. 1, 4, 15, 18, 22. 

Dec. 2, 9, 13. 

1792. Jan. 13, 24, 31. 
Feb. 3, 24, 28. 
Mar. 2, 6, 9, 13, 27. 
Apr. 3", 6, 20, 24, 27. 

May 1, 4, 8, 11, 15, 18, 22, 25, 29. 
June 1, 5, 12, 15, 19, 22, 26, 29. 
July 3, 6, 13, 17, 20, 24, 27. 
Aug. 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, 24, 28, 31. 
Sept. 4, 7, 11, 14, 18, 21, 25, 28. 
Oct. 2, 5, 9, 12, 16, 19, 23, 26. 



164 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Nov. 6, 9, 13, 16, 20, 23, 27, 30. 
Dec. 4, 7, 11, 14, 18, 21, 25. 
Extra: Apr. 3. 
Supplement: Nov. 16. 

1793. Jan. 1, 4, 8, 15, 18, 22, 25, 29. 
Feb. 1, 5, 8 m , 12, 15, 19, 22. 
Mar. 5, 12, 15, 19, 22, 26, 29". 
Apr. 9, 12, 16, 19, 23, 26, 30. 
May 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, 24, 31. 
June 4, 7, 11. 

Aug. 2, 23, 27. 

Oct. 11. 

Dec. 2, 18, 23, 25, 27. 

1794. Jan. 6, 17, 22, 27. 
Feb. 7, 14, 19, 26. 
June 6. 

July 28, 30. 
Aug. 20 m . 
Oct. 24. 

1795. Jan. 6. 
Feb. 6, 7. 
June 19, 30. 
July 7, 31. 

Aug. 4, 7, 11, 18, 21, 25, 28. 

Sept. 19. 

Nov. 3, 6, 13, 17. 

1796. Jan. 16, 23. 
Apr. 6, 8, 12, 15. 
May 10™, 23, 24. 
June 3, 7, 14, 24-, 28. 
Sept. 17. 

Oct. 11, 15, 22. 

Nov. l m , 4, 8, 11, 15 m , 18. 

1797. Jan. 10 m . 

[Baltimore] Mechanics' Gazette, 1815. 

Daily. Established Mar. 14, 1815, by Thomas Wilson 
& Co., under the title of the "Mechanics' Gazette; and 
Merchants' Daily Advertiser." With the issue of July 



1915.] Maryland. 165 

7, 1815, M'Evoy was admitted to the firm under the 

name of Wilson & M'Evoy, and the size of the paper en- 
larged from quarto to folio. A tri-weekly country paper 
was also established. With the i^sue of Aug. 26, 1815, 
this firm was dissolved and the paper edited by Thomas 
Wilson for John Robb. The last issue located is that of 
Sept. 13, 1815. 

Md. Hist. Soc. has May 4-Sept. 13, 1815. A. A. S. 
has: 

1815. Mar. H, 29. 

Apr. 27 w . 

May 17, 18. ' 

July 12. 

[Baltimore] Morning Chronicle, 1819-1820+. 

Daily. Established Apr. 8, 1819, with the title of 
"Morning Chronicle & Baltimore Advertiser." It was 
edited by Paul Allen, and printed and published by Schaef- 
fer & Maund (Frederick G. Schaeffer and Thomas Maund). 
A tri-weekly country paper was also published. With the 
•issue of Sept. 30, 1820, the paper was printed by Thomas 
Maund, Allen continuing as editor. Continued after 
1820. 

Md. Hist. Soc. has Apr. 8, 1819 -Dec. 30, 1820+ . Mass. 
Hist. Soc. has May 5, 1820. Lib. Cong, has Apr. 8 -Oct. 
7, 1819 of the daily, and Sept. 1, 2, Dec. 3, 4, 1819, of the 
tri-weekly. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Apr., 1819-Apr., 1820; 
Oct.-Dec, 1820+. A. A. S. has: 

1819. (Daily) 
Apr. S m . 

1820. (Tri-weekly) 
Nov. 16. 

[Baltimore] North American, 1808-1809. 

Daily. Established Jan. 11, 1808, by Jacob Wagner, 
with the title of "The North American and Mercantile 
Daily Advertiser." The colophon on last page stated 
that it was "Printed for the Editor by Peter K. Wagner." 
A tri-weekly country. paper was also published. The last 



166 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

issue was that of Oct. 3, 1809, after which it was merged 
with the "Federal Republican," which see. 

Md. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 11, 1808-July 8, 1809; Aug. 5- 
Oct. 3, 1809. Peabody Inst, has July 1-Oct. 3, 1809. 
Bost. Athenaeum has Jan. 11 -Dec. 31, 1808 of the daily; 
and Jan. 11 -Oct. 3, 1809, of the tri-weekly. Lib. Cong.' 
has Jan. 11 -Dec. 15, 1808; Mar. 4, 14, Apr. 14, July 13, 
18, 21, 27, 1809, of the daily; Jan. 26, 1808-Sept. 21, 1809, 
of the tri-weekly. A. A. S. has: 

1808. (Daily) 

Jan. 11 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Jan. 15-Feb. 13, Apr. 26, June 
30, July 13, Nov. 5, 25. 

Missing: Jan. 11, 12, 13, 14, Feb. 2, 9, 15, 
19, 20, 22, 29, Mar. 1, 4, 5, 10, 12, 16, 28, 
29, 30, Apr. 4, 6, 22, 27, 28, 29, 30, May 
13, 16, 17, 21, 27, 28, June 4, 8, 10, 14, 20, 
21, 23, 27, July 1, 2, 4, 5, 18, Aug. 8, 15, 
17, 19, 29, 30, Sept. 19, 21, 23, 24, 28, 29, 
Oct. 3, 4, 10, 14, 21, 24, 25, Nov. 1, 8, 9, 
Dec. 9-31. 

1808. (Tri-weekly) 
Nov. 17. 

1809. (Daily) 
Mar. 21. 

[Baltimore] Palladium of Freedom, 1787. 

Daily. Established Aug. 2, 1787, judging from the 
first and only issue located, that of Aug. 8, 1787, vol. 1, 
no. 6, published by Maurice Murphy and Richard Bowen, 
with the full title of "The Palladium of Freedom; or, the 
Baltimore Daily Advertiser." A contemporaneous in- 
scription on this copy, apparently in the hand of William 
Goddard, says, "First Daily Paper at Bait., continued a 
few weeks. The Publishers abdicated under Cover of 
the Night." 

A. A. S. has: 
1787. Aug. 8. 



1915.] Maryland. 167 

[Baltimore] Patriot, 1812-1820+ . 

Daily. Established Dec. 28, 1812, by Ebenezer French 
& Co. With the issue of Aug. 18, 1813, the size of the 
paper was enlarged and the title changed to "Baltimore 
Patriot & Evening Advertiser." With the issue of Mar. 
31, 1814, the paper was published by Munroe & French 
(Isaac Munroe and Ebenezer French). French disposed 
of his interest to John Norvell, and with the issue of May 
22, 1815, the publishing firm became Munroe & Norvell. 
Norvell removed from Baltimore and with the issue of 
Feb. 12, 1817, the paper was published by Isaac Munroe. 
With the issue of May 1, 1817, the title was changed to 
"Baltimore Patriot & Mercantile Advertiser." Con- 
tinued by Munroe after 1820. A tri-weekly country pa- 
per, without heading, was also published from 1812 to 
after 1820. 

Md. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 28, 1812-Dec. 30, 1815; Jan. 
2, 1817 -Dec. 30, 1820+ of the daily; 1818-1819 of the 
tri-weekly. Bost. Athenaeum has Jan. 1, 1814 -June 30, 
1817; Jan. 1, 1818-1820+. Lib. Cong, has Mar. 13-Aug. 
17, 1813; Sept. 1, 1814-Aug. 31, 1815; Jan. 1, 1818-Dec. 
30, 1820+ of the daily; Sept. 10, 1813-Aug. 18, 1814; 
May 27-Dec. 28, 1815 of the tri-weekly. N. Y. Hist. 
Soc. has Dec. 28, 1812-Aug. 17, 1813. Wis. Hist. Soc. 
has 1813-1815. A. A. S. has: 
1813. (Daily) 

Feb. 9. 

Apr. 21. 

May 13. . ■ 

1813. (Tri-weekly) 
Jan. 14. 
May 18. 

Aug. 17, 24, 28. 

1814. (Daily) 
Oct. 26. 

1814. (Tri-weekly) 
Feb. 3. 
Mar. 8. 
Apr. 16. 



168 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Dec. 31. 
1815. (Daily) 
June 29. 
July 13. 

1818. (Tri-weekly) 
Dec. 8. 

1819. (Daily) 
Apr. 8 m . 
May 11, 17. 
Dec. 30. 

1820. (Daily) 
May 18. 

[Baltimore] People's Advocate, 1816. 

A democratic paper repeatedly referred to in the file of 
the "People's Friend" for May- Sept., 1816. Mentioned 
as " ceased to exist" in the issue of Sept. 13, 1816. 

[Baltimore] People's Friend, 1816. 

Weekly. Established May 25, 1816, printed for the 
proprietors at 39 Water Street, the office of the "Federal 
Republican." A federalist paper issued to combat the 
democratic party during the election of 1816. The last 
issue located is that of Sept. 27, 1816. 

Md. Hist. Soc. has May 25 -Sept. 27, 1816. 

Baltimore Price=Current, 1803-1820 +. 

Weekly. Established Feb. 14, 1803, by Joseph Esca- 
vaille and printed at the Anti-Democrat office. With 
the issue of Aug. 13, 1803, it was printed at no. 14 So. 
Charles Street; with the issue of Feb. 4, 1804, by Wane 
and Murphy (John Wane and Thomas Murphy) ; with the 
issue of Aug. 29, 1805, by G. Dobbin & Murphy (George 
Dobbin and Thomas Murphy) ; with the issue of Feb. 26, 
1810, by Hunter & Robinson (James A. Hunter and Joseph 
Robinson); and with the issue of Apr. 21, 1810, by Joseph 
Robinson. Escavaille published it throughout this period 
and until after 1820. The title was changed to "Balti- 
•more Weekly Price Current" with the issue of Jan. 3, 1805, 



1915.] Maryland. 169 

and to "Baltimore Price Current" with the issue of June 
26, 1813. It was a paper of quarto size. 

Md. Hist. Soc. has Feb. 14, 1803I-1820+. Phil. Lib. 
Co. has Jan. 1, 1807-Dec. 26, 1812. 

Baltimore Recorder, 1810. 

Weekly. Established June 9, 1810, judging from the 
first and only issue located, that of June 16, 1810, vol. 1, 
no. 2. The full title was "The Recorder; or, Summary 
of Foreign, Domestic, and Literary Intelligence/' and the 
paper was printed by John Westcott, Jun. 

A. A. S. has: 
1810. June 16. 

[Baltimore] Republican, 1802-1804. 

Daily and tri-weekly. Established as a daily Jan. 1, 
1802, under the title of "The Republican; or, Anti-Demo- 
crat," by Prentiss and Cole (Charles Prentiss and John 
Cole). With the issue of May 14, 1802, it was changed 
to a tri-weekly. A country paper was also established. 
With the issue of Aug. 4, 1802, the firm was dissolved and 
the paper published by Charles Prentiss. Prentiss sold 
out to George L. Gray, who began publishing the paper 
with the issue of June 1, 1803. It was discontinued with 
the issue of Dec. 30, 1803. It was Gray's intention to 
start a daily, but lack of support made him give up the 
project, and on Jan. 14, 1804, he issued a "Valedictory 
address" of four pages. 

Md. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 1, 1802-Jan. 14, 1804. Pea- 
body Inst, has Jan. 1-Dec. 30, 1802. Harvard has Jan. 9 
1802-Jan. 14, 1804, imperfect file; also June 29, July 7, 
Sept. 15, 1802, and Feb. 17, 23, Apr. 20, 1803, of the week- 
ly country paper. Yale has Oct. 19 -Nov. 21, 1803. N. 
Y. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 1-Dec. 30, 1802. N. Y. Pub. Lib. 
has Jan. 29-Dec. 29, 1802; Mar. 16-23, Apr. 6-13, June 
8-July 6, 1803. Lib. Cong, has Jan. 23-Oct. 22, 1802. 
Wis. Hist. Soc. has Jan. -Mar., July-Dec, 1802. A. A. S. 
has: 



170 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

1802. Jan. 4. 
Feb. 6. 

Mar. 8, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 

25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 31. 
Apr. 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 

24, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30. 
May 1, 3, 4, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 14, 17, 19, 21, 24, 

28, 31. 
June 2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, 16, 18, 21, 23, 25, 28, 30. 
July 2, 5, 9, 12, 14, 16, 19, 21, 26, 28, 30. 
Aug. 2, 4, 6, 11, 16, 18, 30. 
Sept. 1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 15, 17, 22, 24, 27, 29. 
Oct. 1, 4, 6, 8, 11, 13, 15, 18, 20. 

Mutilated: Mar. 8-Oct. 20. 

1803. (Tri-weekly) 
Feb. 14™, 21. 
Oct. 19. 
Nov. 2. 

1803. (Weekly) 

Sept. 7 m , 21, 28. 

Extra: no. 28 m , [no date]. 

Supplement: Sept. 7. 

[Baltimore] Scourge, 1810. 

Weekly. Established May 26, 1810, judging from the 
date of the first issue located, that of June 2, 1810, vol. 
1, no. 2. The heading reads " By Titus Tickler, Esq. & 
Co.," and the imprint ''Printed and Published by Samuel 
Magill, agent for the Proprietors." .The last issue lo- 
cated is that of Oct. 13, 1810. 

Md. Hist. Soc. has June 2 -Oct. 13, 1810. A. A. S. has: 
1810. Aug. 18. 
[Baltimore] Sun, 1811-1812. 

Daily. Established by Thomas Wilson on June 25, 
1811, judging from the date of the first issue located, that 
of July 11, 1811, vol. 1, no. 15. It was the immediate 
successor of the " Baltimore Evening Post," the last issue 
of which was on June 22, 1811, and bore the inscription 
"Late Baltimore Evening Post" in the heading. The 



1915.] Maryland. 171 

last issue located of "The Sun" is that of Nov. 18, 1812. 
A tri-weekly country paper was also issued. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Dec. G, 1811. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has 
Nov. 18, 1812, Lib. Cong, has Sept. 26, Nov. 2, 1811, of 
the tri-weekly. A. A. S. has: 
1811. (Daily.) 
July 11. 

1811. (Tri-weekly) 
Aug. 24. 

Sept. 17, 19, 21, 26. 
Oct. 15, 26. 
Dec. 5, 14'\ 

1812. (Daily) 
Apr. 2, 8. 

1812. (Tri-weekly) 

Jan. 11, 16, 30. 
Feb. 15, 25. 
Mar. 17, 21. 
Apr. 2. 

[Baltimore] Sunday Monitor, 1796. 

Weekly. Established Dec. 18, 1796, by Philip Ed- 
wards, who refers to this issue as "a specimen of what he 
humbly hopes will entitle him to future favour." Per- 
haps the only number issued. 

Md. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 18, 1796. 

Baltimore Telegraphe, 1795-1807. 

Daily. Established Mar. 23, 1795, published by Clay- 
land, Dobbin, & Co. (Thomas E. Clay land and Thomas 
Dobbin), the exact title being "The Baltimore Tele- 
graphe." About Jan. 1, 1797 (surely between Dec. 19, 
1796, and Feb. 11, 1797), the title was changed to "City 
Gazette* and Daily Telegraphe," but without any change 
in the volume numbering. Between Apr. 12 and June 
22, 1797, the title was changed to "The Telegraphe and 
Daily Advertiser" and the firm name to T. E. Clayland 
& T. Dobbin, the volume numbering still being continuous. 
Clayland died Dec. 4, 1797, but there was no immediate 



172 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

change in the imprint. Beginning with the issue of Jan. 
1, 1799, the paper was published by Thomas Dobbin, 
who continued it as far as the last issue located, that of 
Feb. 6, 1807. Dobbin died Feb. 10, 1808. 

Peabody Inst, has Mar. 23, 1795 -Sept. 23, 1796; July 
1797-June 30, 1798; July 1, 1799-Dec. 31, 1800; July 2, 
1804-June 29, 1805. Md. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 2, 1797- 
Dec. 31, 1806. Harvard has Apr. 11, June 18, 26, 1795; 
Jan. 7-Mar. 31, Apr. 21, May 27, 28, June 17, 18, Oct. 7, 
Dec. 19, 1796; Mar. 16-Apr. 12, 1797; June 22, 1797- 
Jan. 22, 1800, scattering; Apr. 14, 1800-Feb. 6, 1807, 
fair. Phil. Lib. Co. has Mar. 15-Aug. 20, 1796; Jan. 15- 
Dec. 18, 1806. Lib. Cong, has May 11-16, Aug. 26, Nov. 
9, Dec. 7-10, 1795; Mar. 1, 17, Sept. 22, Oct. 18, 1796; 
June 28, 1797; July 4, 6, Aug. 1, 7, 1798; Mar. 12, Dec. 
17, 1799; Feb. 18, 20, 1801; Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1805. Wis. 
Hist. Soc. has July -Dec, 1805. A. A. S. has: 

1795. May 14. 

June 22, 23, 30 ro . 

July 6, 7, 13, 14, 15, 16. 

Aug. 4r, 11, 14, 15, 26, 27. 

Sept. 9, 10. 

Dec. 28, 29. 

1797. Oct. 13, 27-. 
Nov. 18. 

1798. Jan. 17. 
Feb. 16. 

Mar. 15, 21, 23. 
Apr. 16, 30. 





May 26. 




Nov. 28. 


1799. 


Feb. 2. 


1*800. 


Jan. 3. 




Mar. 26. 




Apr. 16. 




May 10. 




Sept. 5, 10' 




Oct. 22, 31 



20. 



1915.] Maryland. * 173 

Nov. 6, 8. 
Dec. 3, 23. 

1801. Feb. 2. 
May 4. 

Aug. 15-, 21, 26. 
Sept. 15, 29. 
Oct. 7. 
Nov. 10, 11. 
Dec. 21. 

1802. Apr. 3. 
June 2, 7. 
Oct. 6, 13. 
Nov. 30. 

Dec. 1, 3, 7, 8, 9, 29. 

1803. Jan. 24". 

Feb. 4, 14, 23, 26. 

Mar. 2, 16. 

Apr. 2, 13, 18, 26. 

May 13. 

June 4, 16, 25. 

July 15-, 21. 

Aug. 2» 11, 13, 16, 18, 20, 23, 25, 27, 30. 

Sept. 1, 3, 8, 10, 13, 15, 22, 29. 

Oct. 14. 

Nov. 5, 17. 

Dec. 5. 

1804. Jan. 28 m . 
Feb. 28. 
Mar. 2, 13. 

June 6, 12, 14, 28. 
Aug. 10, 22. 
Sept. 6, 8. 
Oct. 5. 
Dec. 1, 25. 

1805. Feb. 21. 
Apr. 23. 

1806. Feb. 18. 
May 9. 
July 15. 



174 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Nov. 20. 
Dec. 5, 9. 
1807. Jan. 11. 

Baltimore Telegraph, 1814-1815. 

Daily. Established by Allen & Hill (Paul Allen and 
Thomas H. Hill) on May 17, 1814, judging from the vol- 
ume numbering and advertisements of the first issue lo- 
cated, that of June 9, 1814, vol. 1, no. 21. The full title 
was " Baltimore Telegraph and Mercantile Advertiser. " 
Tha last issue located is that of Dec. 30, 1815. A paper 
"for the country" was also issued. 

Lib. Cong, has June 9, July 4, Aug. 24, 1814. N. Y. 
Hist. Soc. has June 23, 1814-Apr. 18, 1815. Hist. Soc. 
Penn. has Jan. 2 -Dec. 30, 1815. 

[Baltimore] Weekly Museum, 1797. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 8, 1797, judging from the 
first issue located, that of Feb. 5, 1797, vol. 1, no. 5. It 
was printed by John Smith and Christopher Jackson, un- 
der the title of "The Weekly Museum,'' and was issued 
on Sunday. Each issue contained eight pages numbered, 
and the size was octavo. Although published in maga- 
zine form, it contained current news and advertisements, 
and should be considered a newspaper. The only other 
issue located is that of Feb. 12, 1797. 

Harvard has Feb. 5, 12, 1797. 

Baltimore Weekly Price Current, see Baltimore Price- 
Current. 

[Baltimore] Whig, 1807-1814. 

Weekly and daily. Established, under the title of 
"Whig, or Political Telescope," on Sept. 24, 1807, judging 
from the date of the first issue located, that of Oct. 15, 
1807, vol. 1, no. 4. The earliest advertisements, how- 
ever, are dated Sept. 28, 1807, and this was possibly the 
date of the first issue. The paper was at first issued as a 
weekly, but beginning with the issue of Oct. 22, 1807, it 



1915.] Maryland. 175 

was published daily. It was ostensibly published by the 
"Democratic Republican Association, or, Whig Club," 
but the editor, as is shown by the issues of Nov. 9 and 16, 
1807, was Baptist Irvine. With the issue of Dec. 7, 1807, 
the title was changed to "The Whig, " although the head- 
ing of the editorial column continued under the old title 
until Feb. 6, 1808. The issue of Oct. 15, 1807, was printed 
by John W. Butler. Beginning with the issue of Oct. 22, 
1807, the paper was "Printed at No. 3, N. Gay-Street"; 
with the issue of Feb. 6, 1808, it was "Printed & Pub- 
lished (for the Proprietors,) by Joseph Robinson/' and 
with the issue of May 23, 1808, it was "Printed & Pub- 
lished by B. Irvine. " With the issue of July 2, 1810, the 
title was changed to the "Baltimore Whig." With the 
issue of Oct. 22, 1810, Samuel Barnes was admitted to 
partnership and the paper published by Irvine & Barnes. 
In August, 1813, Barnes removed to Fredericktown, and 
the paper was transferred to Cone and Norvell (Spencer 
H. Cone and John Norvell). The last issue located is 
that of May 6, 1814, and according to other Baltimore 
papers, it was discontinued early in May. A country 
paper was issued tri-weekly throughout most of this period. 
N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Oct. 15, 1807 -Dec. 31, 1810, fair. 
Md. Hist. Soc. has June 1, 1808-June 30, 1812; also tri- 
weekly country paper for 1811, 1813. Harvard has Nov. 
3, 1807; Sept. 19*- Dec. 27, 1808; mostly tri-weekly. Yale 
has July 9-Dec. 27, 1811. Lib. Cong, has Nov. 16, 26, 27, 
Dec. 11, 1807; Jan. 15, 1811; Nov. 23, 1812- July 14, 1813; 
Sept. 6 -Nov. 30, 1813; May 3-6, 1814, of the daily; and 
a few scattering issues, 1809-1811, of the tri-weekly. Wis. 
Hist. Soc. has Apr. 1809-Apr., 1810. Hist. Soc. Penn. 
has Jan. 1 -Aug. 10, 1811. A. A. S. has: 

1807. (Daily) 
Oct. 22. 

Nov. 5, 6, 9, 12, 16, 20, 27, 28, 30. 
Dec. 2. 

1807. (Tri-weekly) 

Dec. 5, 8, 29, 31. 



176 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

1808. (Daily) 
Apr. 26. 
May 27. 
Dec. 27. 

1808. (Tri-weekly) 
Jan. 7, 14, 16. 
Feb. 25, 27. 

Mar. 12, 17, 19, 29, 31. 

Apr. 7. 

Aug. 16, 23, 30. 

Sept. 1, 3, 6, 10, 13, 15, 17, 22. 

Oct. 13, 20, 25, 27. 

Dec. 3. 

1809. (Daily) 
July 6. 

1809. (Tri-weekly) 
Feb. 21, 25. 
Mar. 4. 
May 20. 
June 29. 
Nov. 18. 

1810. (Daily) 
Mar. 30. 
June 9. 
July 4. 
Dec. 1, 8. 

1810. (Tri-weekly) 
Mar. 10. 
June 7. 
Aug. 2, 9, 21. 
Oct. 4. 
Nov. 13. 

1811. (Daily) 
Jan. 2, 11. 
Feb. 11, 20. 
Mar. 13. 
Dec. 2. 

1811. (Tri-weekly) 
Jan. 1, 15, 31. 



1915.] Maryland. 177 

Apr. 25. 
June 18. 
July 18. 
Aug. 17, 22, 29. 
Sept. 7, 17. 
Oct. 1. 

Nov. 7, 16, 29. 
Dec. 20. 
. 1812. (Daily) 

Apr. 3, 2(K 

1812. (Tri-weekly) 
Jan. 31. 
Mar. 4, 
Apr. 20. 
Sept. 3. 

1813. (Daily) 
July 24. 
Oct. 28. 
Nov. 16, 18. 
Dec. 8. 

1813. (Tri-weekly) 
Feb. 16. 

1814. (Daily) 
Mar. 22, 23. 

[Chestertown] Apollo, 1793. 

Semi- weekly. Established Mar. 19, 1793, judging from 
the date of the first issue located, that of Mar. 26, 1793, 
vol. 1, no. 3. It was published by G. Gerrish and R. 
Saunders, Jr., with the full title of "The Apollo; or, 
Chestertown Spy." With the issue of Apr. 19, 1793, it 
was published by Robert Saunders, Jr., who changed 
the title to "Chestertown Gazette" with the issue of July 
26, 1793. The last issue located is that of Dec. 31, 1793. 
Harvard has July 23, 1793. M. E. Myers has Mar. 26- 
Dec. 31, 1793. 

[Cumberland] Allegany Freeman, 1813-1816. 

Weekly. Established by S[amuel] Magill on Nov. 20, 
1813, judging from the date of the first issue located, that 



17 * [April, 

of De dL 1, no. 4. The last issue located is 

thai of July B 
lfd. Hist Soe. has /one 29, Jul . 

MIX Dec. 11. 

I-i4. .5. 

Cumberland; Alleghany Federalist, 1S1.S-B16. 

Weekly. The only issue located is that of July 6, 1816, 
vol. 2 ~ . published by Wm. Magruder. 
Md. Hist. Boc has Jury 6, 1816. 

Cumberland] American Eagie, 1*j09. 

Weekly. Established Feb. 8, 1809, by G. P. W But- 
ler A Co., to succeed Butler's other paper, ^Cumberland 
Impartialist.'' The only known issue of ''The American 
de" is that of Feb. 15, 1809, voL 1, no 1 
A. A. S. has: 
1 v/J. I I 

Cumberland Impartialist, l*te-l*09. 

Weekly Established in January, 1808, judging from 
the date of the only issue located, that of Jan. 24, 1809, 
voL 1, no. 52, publish, 
tinued with this issue and succeeded by ''The 

A. A - ;.,-. 
Iv.v .... ., 

Xumberland; Western Herald, 1818-1819. 

Weekly. Established in March, 1818, judging from 

J no. 4, published by Joseph Smith. The only other 

L^.-r :.•..-, . _, -:-- .: A;.: 1J l-ll- 
. of Chicago has .-.;; 5 U 

Easton Gazette. U 17-1830+. 

Week;. EsTii.-^:. ~'e: l-.~ -"- 

from the date of the first issue located, tint of 
1818, voL 2, no. 53. Published by AW a nder 



1915.] Maryland. 179 

under the title of "Easton Gazette, and Eastern Shore 
Intelligencer." Continued after 1820. 

Md. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 14, 1818 -Dec. 30, 1820+ . 

[Easton] Herald, see [Easton] Maryland Herald. 

Easton] Maryland Herald, 1790-1804. 

Weekly. Established May 11, 1790, judging from the 
date of the first issue located, that of May 18, 1790, vol. 
1, no. 2. Published by James Cowan, the full title being 
"The Maryland Herald, and Eastern Shore Intelligencer." 
The title was changed to " Herald and Eastern Shore In- 
telligencer" on Oct. 29 or Nov. 5, 1799. Cowan discon- 
tinued the paper with the issue of Nov. 13, 1804. 

Md. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 18 -Nov. 22, 1791, scattering; 
May 1, 1792 -Nov. 13, 1804, fair. Harvard has June 7- 
July 19, Nov. 15, 1791; Feb. 24-June 16, 1795; Nov. 10, 
1795 -Apr. 18, 1797, all scattering issues. Lib. Cong, 
has July 24, 1792; Aug. 26, 1794; Dec. 16, 1800. 
Phil. Lib. Co. has Oct. 27, Nov. 3, 10, Dec. 1, 1795. 
Wis. Hist. Soc. has Feb. 19 -Oct. 22, 1799, scattering. 
A. A. S. has: 

1790. May 18, 25. 

June 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. 
July 6, 13, 20, 27. 
Aug. 3, 10, 17, 31. 
Sept. 7, 21, 28. 
Oct. 5, 19. 
Nov. 16 m . 
Dec. 14, 21. 

1791. Mar. 8. 
Apr. 12, 26. 
June 28. 
Aug. 16, 30. 
Sept. 6, 13. 
Oct. 4. 

1792. Jan. 24, 31. 
Feb. 7. 
May 8. 



180 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

June 19, 26. 

July 3, 17, 31. 

Sept. 18. 
1793. Feb. 12. 

Mar. 12. 

July 16. 
1804. Jan. 17. 

Mar. 13. 

June 26. 

[Easton] People's Monitor, 1809-1815. 

Weekly. Established Mar. 4, 1809, judging from the 
date of the first issue located, that of Mar. 25, 1809, vol.1, 
no. 4. The numbers from Mar. 25 to Nov. 4, 1809, are 
published by Samuel B. Beach; those from July 7, 1810, 
to Apr. 13, 1811, by Henry W. Gibbs; and those from Jan. 
9, 1813 to Dec. 23, 1815, by Nicholas S. Rowlenson. Ow- 
ing to the absence of papers for the intervals between these 
periods the exact dates of change of proprietorship cannot 
be determined. The last issue located is that of Dec. 23, 
1815. 

Harvard has Mar. 25, Apr. 1, 1809. Yale has Sept. 2, 
16, Oct. 7, 1809. Ct. Hist. Soc. has Feb. 2, 23, Apr. 13, 
1811. N. Y. State Lib. has Apr. 29, 1809. Md. Hist. 
Soc. has Nov. 4, 1809; Jan. 7 -Dec. 23, 1815. Wis. Hist. 
Soc. has Jan. 9 -Dec. 25, 1813. A. A. S. has: 

1810. July 7, 14. 

[Easton] Republican Star, 1799-1820+ . 

Weekly. Established in September, 1799, judging 
from the date of the first issue located, that of Dec. 23, 
1800, vol. 2, no. 68, published by Thomas Perrin Smith. 
The full title was "Republican Star, or, Eastern Shore 
Political Luminary." With the issue of Sept. 7, 1802, 
the paper was brought out in new form and with the title 
"Republican Star or Eastern Shore General Advertiser." 
An alternate system of numbering was begun, vol. 1, no. 
1, and vol. 4, no. 157. With the issue of Sept. 20, 1814, 
the title was changed to the "Republican Star;" with that 



1915.] Maryland. 181 

of Sept. 27, 1814, to " Republican Star or General Adver- 
tiser;" and with that of Jan. 7, 1817, to "Republican Star 
and General Advertiser." Smith continued the paper 
until after 1820. 

Md. Hist. Soc. has Sept. 7, 1802-1820+. Lib. Cong, 
has Dec. 23, 1800; Jan. 5, 1819-1820+. Harvard has 
Oct. 16, 1804 -June 24, 1806, scattering. Wis. Hist. Soc. 
has Sept. 7, 1802-1820+. A. A. S. has: 
1804. Mar. 13. 



1805. 


Jan. 15. 


1806. 


June 17. 


1810. 


July 10. 


1811. 


Feb. 26. 




Mar. 12. 




Aug. 6. 


1814. 


May 31. 




June 21, 28. 




July 26. 




Aug. 2, 16, 23 




Sept. 13. 


1815. 


June 13. 



[Elizabethtown] Maryland Herald, 1797-1820+. 

Weekly. Established Mar. 2, 1797, by Thomas Grieves, 
under the title of "The Maryland Herald, and Elizabeth- 
Town Advertiser. " Beginning with the issue of June 8, 
1797, the imprint reads "Elizabeth (Hager's) Town." 
With the issue of Feb. 26, 1801, the title was changed to 
"The Maryland Herald, and Elizabeth-town Weekly Ad- 
vertiser," and with the issue of Feb. 22, 1804, to "The 
Maryland Herald, and Hager's-Town Weekly Advertiser," 
Hagerstown replacing Elizabethtown in the imprint. With 
the issue of Mar. 10, 1813, Stewart Herbert was taken 
into partnership and the paper published by Thomas 
Grieves & Stewart Herbert. They continued the paper 
until after 1820. 

Md. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 2, 1797-Feb. 15, 1805; Sept. 
17, 1817. Harvard has Mar. 2, 9, 16, 30, Apr. 13, 20, 



182 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

1797. Wash. Co. Lib., Hagerstown, has Mar. 31, 1802- 
Dec. 26, 1820+. A. A. S. has: 
1810. Aug. 15. 

[Elizabethtown] Washington Spy, 1790-1797. 

Weekly. Established in June, 1790, judging from the 
date of the first issue located, that of Aug. 2G, 1790, no. 9, 
published by Stewart Herbert under the title of "The 
Washington Spy," and with the' imprint of "Elizabeth- 
(Hager's) Town." Herbert died on Mar. 3, 1795, and 
the issue of that day was published by Phebe Herbert. 
Beginning with the issue of Mar. 10, 1795, the paper was 
published by Phebe Herbert and John D. Gary. This 
partnership was dissolved with the issue of Apr. 21, 1796, 
and the paper printed by Phebe Herbert as sole publisher. 
With the issue of July 27, 1796, the name of the publisher 
was omitted from the imprint, which referred only to the 
" Office of the Washington Spy." The last issue located 
is that of Feb. 1, 1797. The paper was succeeded, Mar. 
2, 1797, by the " Maryland Herald. " 

Md. Hist. Soc. has Aug. 26, 1790 -Jan. 18, 1797. Har- 
vard has June 15 -July 6, Sept. 21, 28, Nov. 23, 1791; 
Mar. 10, June 16, 1795; May 25- June 29, 1796; Feb. 1, 
1797. Phil. Lib. Co. has June 15, 22, 29, 1796. A. A. S. 
has: 

1790. Oct. 28. 
Nov. 25. 
Dec. 2, 9. 
1795. June 2. 

[Fredericktown] Bartgis's Federal Gazette, 1794-1800. 

Weekly. A continuation of "Bartgis's Maryland Ga- 
zette," with same numbering, but new title of "Bartgis's 
Federal Gazette, or the Frederick-Town and County, 
Weekly Advertiser." The new title was undoubtedly 
assumed in 1794, although the first issue located is that of 
Feb. 26, 1795, vol. 3, no. 145, published by Matthias Bart- 
gis. With the issue of Aug. 30, 1797, the title was changed 
to "Bartgis's Federal Gazette, or the Frederick County 



1915.] Maryland. 183 

Weekly Advertiser." The last issue of this title located 
is that of Apr. 23, 1800, vol. 7, whole no. 415, and before 
the end of the year the title was changed to "Bartgis' 
Republican Gazette," which see. 

Harvard has Feb. 26-June 11, 1795; Jan. 7, Mar. 17, 
Apr. 14, May 26, June 2, 30, Aug. 4, 179G; Aug. 28, 1799; 
Feb. 12, Apr. 23, 1800. Md. Hist. Soc. has July 21, 1796- 
Sept. 25, 1799. Phil. Lib. Co. has Apr. 21, 28, June 9, 
1796. A. A. S. has: 
1799. Jan. 23. 

[Fredericktown] Bartgis's Maryland Gazette, 1792-1794. 

Weekly. Established by Matthias Bartgis, May 22, 
1792, under the title of " Bartgis's Maryland Gazette, 
and Frederick-Town Weekly Advertiser." It was of 
small quarto size, but was enlarged to folio with the issue 
of Apr. 4, 1793, and reduced again to quarto with the issue 
of May 23, 1753. The last issue located is that of Jan. 
23, 1794, soon after which the title was changed to "Bart- 
gis's Federal Gazette, " which see. 

Md. Hist. Soc. has a fair file, May 22, 1792-Jan. 23, 
1794. 

[Fredericktown] Bartgis's Republican Gazette, 1800-1820-f-. 

Weekly. A continuation of " Bartgis's Federal Ga- 
zette," the volume numbering being the same, but the 
title changing to "Bartgis's Republican Gazette." The 
new title was undoubtedly assumed in 1800, although the 
first issue located is that of Feb. 11, 1801, vol. 8, no. 30, 
whole no. 457, published by Matthias Bartgis. The title 
changed to "Bartgis's Republican Gazette, and General 
Advertiser" between Jan. 22 and Mar. 12, 1814; to "The 
Republican Gazette and General Advertiser" between 
Jan. 7, 1815, and Mar. 23, 1816; and back to "Bartgis's 
Republican Gazette, and General Advertiser" between 
Mar. 30, 1816 and Apr. 6, 1817. The name of the pub- 
lisher, at first Matthias Bartgis, was changed to M. Bart- 
gis & Son between Sept. 23, 1815, and Mar. 16, 1816; 
to M. Bartgis & Company between Dec. 21, 1816, and 



184 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Mar. 8, 1817; to M. Bartgis & Burke between July 12 and 
Aug. 23, 1817; and to Matthias Bartgis between Sept. 5 
and Nov. 21, 1818. Published by Bartgis until after 1820. 
Md. Hist. Soc. has Feb. 11, 18, Apr. 8, May 20, Aug. 5, 
Dec. 9-30, 1801; Jan. 6-Apr. 28, 1802; Aug. 6, 1802-July 
13, 1804; Sept. 21, 1804-Dec. 31, 1808, scattering; Jan. 
7, 1809-Dec. 1813, fair; 1814-1818, scattering; 1819, good; 
1820, scattering. Harvard has Nov. 25, 1801; Oct. 29, 
1802-Apr. 24, 1807, scattering. Lib. Cong, has Feb. 18, 
1801; July 22, 1809; Feb. 17, Nov. 24, Dec. 8, 15, 1810; 
Feb. 9-Dec. 28, 1811, scattering; Apr. 18, May 2, Oct. 
10, 1812; Apr. 17, July 10, 1813; Mar. 23, 1816; Apr. 6, 
Aug. 30, 1817; Dec. 19, 1818; Jan. 9 -May 22, Oct. 23, 
1819. A. A. S. has: 
1801. June 17. 

1803. Jan. 21™. 
Feb. 18, 25™. 
Mar. 18 m . 
Oct. 28. 
Nov. 18. 
Dec. 9. 

1804. Mar. 2. 
Aug. 10. 

1805. Jan. 18. 
Feb. 1. 

1806. Mar. 7. 
July 1. 

1809. Mar. 4. 

1810. May 26. 

1813. Apr. 10. 

1814. Dec. 31. 
1819. Feb. 13. 

May 22. 

[Fredericktown] Freiheitsbothe, 1810. 

Weekly. Established Apr. 7, 1810. The only copy 
located is entitled "Der Frieheitsbothe, " Apr. 14,1810, 
vol. 1, no. 2, published by C. T. Melsheimer. Melsheimer 
was publishing the "Plain Dealer" in 1813. In 



1915.] Maryland. 185 

"Bartgis's Republican Gazette" for Feb. 13, 1819, is an 
advertisement dated Nov. 28, 1818, which may refer to 
this paper. It is signed by M. Bartgis and reads: "Ail 
those that are indebted to the subscriber, for the German 
Newspaper, that was printed from the year 1810 to 1813, 
which was three years, " etc. 
A. A. S. has: 
1810. Apr. 14. 

Frederick=Town Herald, 1802-1820+ . 

Weekly. Established by John P. Thompson, June 19, 
1802, and continued by him until after 1820. 

Md. Hist. Soc. has June 19, 1802-June 11, 1803, with 
Index of 3 pp; Feb. 25, 1804; Sept. 12, Oct. 3, 24, Nov. 31, 
1812; Mar. 27, Oct. 23, 1813; May 7, 1814; Jan. 28, Oct. 
14, 1815; Apr. 19, 1817; Jan. 30, Oct. 2, 1819; Feb. 5, Apr. 
8, 1820. Univ. of Chicago has Apr. 30, May 28, 1803; 
Feb. 4 -Dec. 15, 1804, fair. Wis. Hist. Soc. has June 
1802-June, 1804. Harvard has Apr. 7, Nov. 10, 1804. 
Yale has Mar. 24, 1804. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 4, 
1805; Jan. 11, 18, Feb. 1, Apr. 5, 1806. A. A. S. has: 

1803. Aug. 20. 

Index to vol. 1. 

1804. Mar. 10, 17. 

1805. Jan. 26. 
Feb. 2, 23. 
Apr. 13. 

1807. Apr. 11. 

1810. June 23. 

Aug. 11. 

[Fredericktown] Hornet, 1802-1814. 

Weekly. Established June 22, 1802, under the title of 
"The Hornet," published by M. Bartgis, and of small 
quarto size. The issue of Nov. 9, 1802, announced that 
in future the paper would be edited by Bartgis and Un- 
derwood (Matthias Bartgis and William B. Underwood). 
Between this date and Jan. 11, 1803, Underwood evident- 
ly resigned and the paper was conducted by Matthias 
Bartgis. With the issue of June 21, 1803, the title was 



186 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

changed to "Hornet" and the size to folio, and the whole 
of the last page was printed in German. Upon Dec. 23, 
1806, the paper was sold to "one of its original editors," 
William B. Underwood, and the German page was given 
up. Either then or by Jan. 13, 1807, a new volume num- 
bering was adopted, for the issue of Mar. 17, 1807, pub- 
lished by William B. Underwood, is vol. 1, no. 10. The 
last issue of this series located is that of June 23, 1807, 
and the paper was suspended immediately afterwards, 
to be succeeded by the "Independent American Volun- 
teer" established by Underwood on July 8, 1807. 

On Feb. 1, 1809, "The Hornet" was revived, published 
by M. Bartgis and with a new volume numbering. The 
size was small quarto. With the issue of Aug. 9, 1809, 
the size was enlarged to folio and the title changed to "The 
Hornet; or, Republican Advocate." With the issue of 
Aug. 22, 1810, the paper was published by M. E. Bartgis. 
The last issue located of this series is that of Oct. 9, 1811. 
It was again revived in July, 1813, under the title of "The 
Hornet," judging from the issue of Dec. 22, 1813, vol. 1, 
no. 23, printed by M. Bartgis and Co., and of small quarto 
size. It was discontinued with the issue of July 6, 1814. 

Md. Hist. Soc. has July 12, 1803 -Mar. 25, 1806; Aug. 

5, 1806; Aug. 9, 1809-Oct. 9, 1811. Harvard has Oct. 
12, 1802; Jan. 11, 25, Apr. 12, May 24, June 14, 21, 1803; 
Aug. 9, 1803- June 11, 1805, scattering; Dec. 2, 1806; Jan. 

6, Mar. 17 -June 23, 1807, scattering. Lib. Cong, has 
Mar. 19, Dec. 17, 1805; Nov. 28, Dec. 12, 1810; Jan. 9, 23, 
Apr. 24, June 12, 19, July 3, Aug. 7, 1811. A. A. S. has: 

1802. June 29. 
Nov. 9. 

1803. Mar. 15. 
June 21. 
July 5. 
Sept. 13. 
Oct. 4, 22. 

1804. Mar. 6. 

1805. Apr. 9. 
Dec. 3. 



1915.] Maryland. 187 



1809. 


Feb. 1. 




July 12. 


1810. 


Jan. 17. 




July 4. 




Nov. 14. 


1813. 


Dec. 22. 


1814. 


Mar. 23. 




Apr. 6, 27 




June 29. 



[Fredericktown] Independent American Volunteer, 1807- 
1808. 

Weekly. Established by William B. Underwood, July 
8, 1807, with the title of "The Independent American 
Volunteer." Underwood resigned his proprietorship 
and beginning with the issue of Jan. 6, 1808, the paper was 
published "at the office of the Republican Gazette. " The 
last page began to be printed entirely in German, having 
at the heading "Gedruckt: bey M. Bartgis." With the 
issue of June 15, 1808, the paper was published at M. 
Bartgis' Printing-Office. The last issue located is that of 
Dec. 28, 1808. 

Md. Hist. Soc. has July 22, 1807 -Dec. 28, 1808, fair. 
Harvard has Sept. 9 -Nov. 18, 1807; Jan. 20 -Aug. 24, 
1808, scattering. A. A. S. has: 
1807. July 8, 15. 
Aug. 19, 26. 

[Fredericktown] Maryland Chronicle, 1786-1788. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 4, 1786, by Matthias Bart- 
gis, under the title of "The Maryland Chronicle, or the 
Universal Advertiser. " The last issue located is that of 
May 28, 1788. 

Bartgis also published a. German newspaper here at this 
time, although no copy has been located. In the "Mary- 
land Chronicle" of Jan. 18, 1786, he announced his inten- 
tion of establishing a post to carry "my English and Ger- 
man News-papers" to nearby towns. Another advertise- 
ment in the same paper, dated June 4, 1787, advertises for 



188 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

a partner to take the management of the ' 'Printing-Office 
in the English and German language, and two public pa- 
pers in this town." Bartgis was already then preparing 
to establish printing offices at Winchester, Va., and York, 
Penn. 

Md. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 18, 1786 -Dec. 12,1787. A.A.S. 
has: 

1787. June 27. 
July 4. 

Aug. 8, 15, 22, 29. 
Sept. 19, 26. 
Oct. 10, 17, 24, 31. 
Nov. 14, 21. 
Dec. 5. 

1788. May 28. 

[Fredericktown] Maryland Gazette, 1790-1792. 

Weekly. Established in February, 1790, judging from 
the date of the first issue located, that of Dec. 11, 1790, 
vol. 1, no. 43. This issue was entitled "The Maryland 
Gazette, and Frederick Weekly Advertiser, " and was pub- 
lished by John Winter. Sometime in the first half of the 
year 1791, the name "Frederick" in the title was changed 
to "Frederick-Town." The last issue located is that of 
Oct. 4, 1791. Bartgis evidently obtained the paper in 
May, 1792. 

Harvard has July 5-Aug. 2, Sept. 20, Oct. 4, 1791. 
A. A. S. has: 

1790. Dec. 11, 18, 25. 

[Fredericktown] Plain Dealer, 1813-1814. 

Weekly. Established in June, 1813, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of July 29, 1813, vol. 
1, no. 7, published by C[harles] T. Melsheimer & Co. Be- 
tween May 25 and Oct. 19, 1814, the title was changed to 
"Plain Dealer & Political Intelligencer," published by 
C. T. Melsheimer. The last issue located is that of Oct. 
26, 1814 



1915.] Maryland. 189 

Md. Hist. Soc. has July 29, Aug. 19, 26, Sept. 16, 1813; 
Oct. 19, 26, 1814. Harvard has May 25, 1814. Lib. 
Cong, has July 29, 1813. A. A. S. has: 
1813. July 29. 
Aug. 19. 
Sept. 30. 

[Fredericktown] Political Examiner, 1813-1820+ . 

Weekly and semi-weekly. Established Aug. 9, 1813, 
by Samuel Barnes. The second number was on Aug. 18, 
and from then to Sept. 29, publication was semi-weekly. 
With the following number the weekly issue was resumed 
and continued. With the issue of Feb. 16, 1814, the title 
was changed to " Political Examiner & Public Adver- 
tiser. " Continued by Samuel Barnes until after 1820. 

Harvard has Aug. 9, 18, Oct. 15, 1813. Md. Hist. Soc. 
has July 13, Oct. 5, 1814; Sept. 27, Nov. 1, 1815; Nov. 4, 
1818; Feb. 10, 1819; Aug. 9, 1820. Lib. Cong, has Jan. 
6,1819-1820+. A. A. S. has: 

1813. Aug. 9, 18, 21, 28. 
Sept. 8. 

Oct. 15, 29. 
Nov. 12, 26. 
Dec. 3, 10, 17, 24. 

1814. Jan. 26. 
Feb. 2, 9, 16. 
Mar. 16, 23. 
Apr. 6, 13, 20, 27. 
June 15, 29. 
July 27. 

Aug. 10, 31. 
Sept. 7, 14, 21, 28. 
Oct. 12. 
Nov. 23. 
Dec. 7 m . 

1815. Mar. 22. 
May 3. 
Nov. 22, 29. 
Dec. 27. 



190 American Antiquarian Society'. [April, 

1816. Feb. 28. 

Apr. 10, 17. 
May 15. 
July 24. 
Dec. 18. 

[Fredericktown] Republican Advocate, 1802-1808. 

Weekly. Established Dec. 6, 1802, by John B. Colvin. 
In the issue of Dec. 12, 180G, Colvin announced his re- 
tirement as editor, and this was the last issue to bear his 
name in the imprint. The four subsequent issues bore 
no publisher's name, but in the issue of Jan. 16, 1807, the 
paper was bought and published by Silas Engles. The 
last issue located is that of Dec. 15, 1808. 

Harvard has Dec. 6, 1802-Nov. 26, 1807; Aug. 4-Dec. 
15, 1808, both scattering. Lib. Cong, has Dec. 6, 1802- 
Nov. 15, 1805. A. A. S. has: 

1803. Jan. 28. 
Oct. 14. 
Nov. 11, 18. 

1804. Feb. 17. 
Mar. 23. 
July 27. 
Aug. 10. 
Oct. 5. 

1805. June 14. 
Nov. 15. 

1807. Jan. 16. 

Feb. 6, 27. 
Mar. 6, 27. 
Apr. 3, 17. 
Nov. 5. 

[Fredericktown] Republican Gazette, see Bartgis's Repub- 
lican Gazette. 

[Fredericktown] Rights of Man. 1794-1800. 

Weekly. Established by John Winter on Jan. 22, 1794, 
judging from the first issue located, that of Feb. 5, 1794, 
vol. 1, no. 3. The next issue found is that of Nov. 26, 



1915.] Maryland. 191 

1794, published by John Winter and John D. Cary. Be- 
tween Mar. 4 and May 13, 1795, the paper was again ac- 
quired by John Winter. The last issue located is that of 
Nov. 5, 1800, published by Winter. Many of the issues 
had no volume numbering. 

Md. Hist. Soc. has Feb. 5, Nov. 26, 1794; Aug. 1, Sept. 
5, 12, 1798; June 18, Nov. 5, 1800. Harvard has Mar. 4, 
1795 -Apr. 12, 1797, scattering. 

[Fredericktown] Star of Federalism, 1816-1819. 

Weekly. The earliest issue located is that of June 26, 
1818, which has on one margin "no. 83, " and on the other 
"Uniontown, vol. 3, no. 10, total 114." The paper was 
presumably established at Uniontown, Penn., in April, 
1816, and removed to Fredericktown in November, 1816. 
The 1818 issues were published by Charles Sower and 
there are references to him as a Fredericktown editor in 
December, 1816. The last issue located is that of Aug. 
27, 1819. See under Uniontown, Penn. 

Md. Hist. Soc. has June 26, 1818-Aug. 27, 1819. 

Hagers=Town Gazette, 1809-1813. 

Weekly. Established May 16, 1809, by William 
Brown. The last issue located is that of June 15, 1813. 

Lib. Cong, has May 23, 1809-June 15, 1813. N. Y. 
Pub. Lib. has Jan. 26, 1813. A. A. S. has: 

1809. Dec. 19. 

1810. June 12. 
Aug. 28. 

[Hagerstown] Torch Light, 1814-1820+. 

Weekly. Established in November, 1814, according 
to a reference to it in the "Political Examiner" of Fred- 
ericktown of Nov. 23, 1814. This would also agree with 
the date of the first issue located, that of June 15, 1819, 
vol. 5, no. 32, published by William D. Bell, and entitled 
"The Torch Light & Public Advertiser." It was con- 
tinued after 1820. 

Lib. Cong, has June 15, 1819. 

[Hagerstown] Westliche Correspondenz, 1799-1820+ . 

Weekly. Established in June, 1799, judging from the 



192 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

date of the earliest issue located, that of Mar. 12, 1801, 
no. 90. An issue of Dec. 30, 1825, however, numbers it 
as "31st year, no. 27," which would carry the date of es- 
tablishment back to June, 1795. Scharf, in his "History 
of Western Maryland," vol. 2, p. 1141, states that John 
Gruber went to Hagerstown in 1795, and started there a 
German paper called the "German Washington Correspon- 
dent," which though continued a number of years, was not 
a permanent success. It is possible therefore that the 
paper referred to by Scharf was established in 1795 and 
succeeded in 1799 by the "Westliche Correspondenz, " 
which later adopted the volume numbering of the earlier 
German paper. The issue of Mar. 12, 1801, which is the 
only issue located before 1820, was published by Johann 
Gruber and entitled "Die Westliche Correspondenz." 
The paper is mentioned frequently in contemporaneous 
prints from 1804 to 1811, and is listed by Thomas in his 
1810 list (Amer. Antiq. Soc. Trans, vol. 6, p. 301) as pub- 
lished by John Gruber. In 1811 Gruber took D. May as 
a partner in his printing firm under the firm name of Gru- 
ber & May. The issue of " Die Westliche Correspondenz" 
of Dec. 30, 1825, was published by J. Gruber & D. May. 
Lib. Cong, has Mar. 12, 1801. 

Hagerstown, see also Elizabethtown. 

[Havre=de=Grace] Bond of Union, 1818. 

Weekly. Established in January, 1818, judging from 
the date of the first issue located, that of Apr. 23, 1818, 
vol. 1, no. 16, published by William Coale. The only 
other issue located is that of Apr. 30, 1818. 
A. A. S. has: 

1818. Apr. 23, 30. 

[Rockville] Maryland Register, 1807. 

Weekly. Established by Matthias E. Bartgis on Mar. 
20, 1807, judging from the date of the first and only issue 
located, that of Apr. 3, 1807, vol. 1, no. 3. The size of 
the paper was quarto, and the full title "The Maryland 
Register & Montgomery Advertiser." 
A. A. S. has: 
1807. Apr. 3. 



1915.1 Massachusetts. 193 



MASSACHUSETTS 
[Boston] Agricultural Intelligencer, 1820. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 7, 1820, by William S. 
Spear, under the title of " Agricultural Intelligencer, and 
Mechanic Register." It was of small quarto size, with 
numbered pages. Though primarily agricultural, the 
paper included current news, both local and national, 
marriage and death notices, and advertisements. 
A. A. S. has: 

1820. Mar. 31. 

[Boston] American Apollo, 1792-1794. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 6, 1792, by Belknap A 
Young (Joseph Belknap and Alexander Young). It was 
of octavo size, each number containing eight or twelve 
pages consecutively numbered, and including also a 
separately paged issue of the publications of the Mass- 
achusetts Historical Society. The partnership was dis- 
solved, and with the issue of May 18, 1792, the paper 
was published by Joseph Belknap, and with that of May 
25, 1792, by Belknap & Hall (Joseph Belknap ami Thomas 
Hall). The issue of Sept. 28, 1792, vol. 1, no. 39, was 
the last published in magazine size and the last to contain 
the extra pages of Historical Society publications. (See 
Mass. Hist. Soc. Proc, vol. 1, p. xxv). The first issue 
to be published in folio newspaper form was that of Oct. 5, 
1792, vol. 2, no. 1, published by Belknap and Hall. With 
the issue of July 10, 1794, this partnership was dissolved 
and the paper published by Joseph Belknap. The issue 
of Dec. 25, 1794, vol. 3, no. 69, was unquestionably the 
last published. 

Boston Pub. Lib., Boston Athenaeum and Mass. Hist. 
Soc. have complete files. Harvard has July 12, 1793- 
Dec. 25, 1794. N. Y. State Lib. has Oct. -Dec, 1792; 



194 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

1793-1794, scattering. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Aug. 1G, 
30, Oct. 25, 1793; Apr. 17, June 19, Nov. 6, 1794. Phil. 
Lib. Co. has April 11, 18, 1793. Lib. Cong, has 1792- 
1794, nearly complete. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Jan. -Sept., 
1792; Mar. 22, Oct. 18, Nov. 15, 1793; Mar. 6-Dec. 25, 
1794, fair. A. A. S. has: 

1792. Jan. 6 to Dec. 28. 
Extraordinary: Dec. 31. 

1793. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 
Supplement: Apr. 19. 
Extra: Apr. 28. 

Mutilated: Dec. 6, 27. 

1794. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

Mutilated: June 12. 

[Boston] American Herald, 1784-1788. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of number- 
ing, of the " Boston Evening Post." The full title was 
"The American Herald: and the General Advertiser," 
published by Edward E. Powars, and the first issue was 
on Jan. 19, 1784, vol. 3, no. 117. Beginning with the 
issue of Apr. 5, 1784, the title was shortened to "The 
American Herald, " and with the issue of Apr. 26, 1784, 
it was published by Powars and Willis (Edward E. 
Powars and Nathaniel Willis). With the issue of Sept. 
20, 1784, the title was shortened to "American Herald." 
With the issue of July 17, 1786, the paper was published 
by Edward Eveleth Powars, changed in the imprint to 
Edward E. Powars with the issue of Aug. 14, 1786, and 
reverting to Edward Eveleth Powars on Nov. 20, 1786. 
With the issue of Jan. 14, 1788, the title was changed to 
"The American Herald: and Federal Recorder," but 
with the succeeding issue of Jan. 21, reverted to "Ameri- 
can Herald," and thenceforth throughout 1788, the word 
"The" was alternately omitted from and included in the 
title. With the issue of Feb. 28, 1788, the paper became 
a semi-weekly. The paper was discontinued at Boston 
with the issue of June 30, 1788, vol. 7, no. 367, and re- 



1915.] Massachusetts. 195 

moved to Worcester, where it was re-established with the 
issue of Aug. 21, 1788, vol. 8, no. 368. See under Wor- 
cester-American Herald. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 19, 1784 -June 30, 1788, 
almost complete. Boston Athenaeum has Jan. 19, 
1784-Jan. 2, 1786. Boston Pub. Lib. has Jan. 19-Dec. 
27, 1784, good; Jan. 17, 1785 -June, 1788, scattering. 
Harvard has Jan. 19 -Dec. 27, 1784. N. Y. Hist. Soc. 
has Apr. 5, 1784-May 29, 1788, scattering. N. Y. Pub. 
Lib. has Sept. 20, 1784 -Apr. 10, 1788, a few issues. N. Y. 
State Lib. has June 28, 1784 -Mar. 16, 1788, scattering. 
Lib. Cong, has Feb. 16, 1784 -Dec. 25, 1786, incomplete; 
Jan. 14, 28, Feb. 11, 18, 25, 1788. Wis. Hist. Soc. has 
1785-1787. A. A. S. has: 

1784. Jan. 19 to Dec. 27. 
Supplement: May 31, June 14. 

Mutilated: June 7. 

Missing: Jan. 19, 26, Feb. 9, 16, 23, Mar. 

22, 29. 

1785. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 

Mutilated: Feb. 28, Aug. 29, Oct. 17, Nov. 

7, Dec. 5, 19, 26. 
Missing: Apr. 11, May 9, 30, June 13, Aug. 

15, Sept. 12, 26. 

1786. Jan. 2 -Dec. 25. 
Supplement: Sept. 25. 

Mutilated: Feb. 6, June 5, July 2, Oct. 

23, Nov. 20. 

Missing: Jan. 9, 23, 30, Aug. 7, Nov. 27. 

1787. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Mar. 5, 12, 26. 

Missing: Jan. 8, 15, 29, Feb. 5, 26, June 

11, 25, July 2, 9, 23, Sept. 10, 24, Oct. 1, 

Nov. 12. 

1788. Jan. 7 to June 30. 

Mutilated: May 1. 

Missing: Mar. 13, Apr. 3, May 22, 26, 29, 
June 12, 23, 26, 30. 



196 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

[Boston] American Herald, 1790, see Saturday Evening 
Herald. 

[Boston] American Journal, 1785. 

Weekly. Established Feb. 22, 1785, judging from the 
date of the first issue located, that of Mar. 15, 1785, vol. 1, 
no. 4, published by William Barrett, with the full title 
of "The American Journal and Suffolk Intelligencer." 
The last issue located is that of July 12, 1785. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has Apr. 19, July 5, 1785. Essex 
Inst, has June 21, 1785. Lib. Cong, has Mar. 29, 1785. 
Harvard has July 5, 12, 1785. A. A. S. has: 
1785. Mar. 15, 22. 
June 7 m . 
July 12 m . 

[Boston] American Republican, 1809. 

Weekly. Established Mar. 13, 1809, by Everett & 
Munroe (David Everett and Isaac Munroe), as a weekly 
edition of their "Boston Patriot. " Meeting with little 
support, it was discontinued with the issue of Apr. 3, 1809. 
Boston Pub. Lib. has Apr. 3, 1809. A. A. S. has: 
1809. Mar. 20™. 
Apr. 3. 

[Boston] Argus, 1791-1793. 

Semi-weekly and weekly. A continuation, without 
change of numbering, of the "Herald of Freedom," the 
first issue with the new name of "The Argus" being 
published by John Howel on July 22, 1791, vol. 6, no. 36. 
With the issue of Sept. 2, 1791, all volume numbering was 
omitted. With the issue of Oct. 25, 1791, the paper was 
published by Edward Eveleth Powars. The paper was 
changed from a semi-weekly to a weekly with the issue 
of July 3, 1792, but reverted to a semi-weekly with the 
issue of Apr. 16, 1793. The last issue located is that of 
June 28, 1793. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has a good file, July 22, 1791 -June 28, 
1793. Boston Athenaeum has July 26, 1791 -June 14, 



1915.] Massachusetts. 197 

1793, fair. Boston Pub. Lib. has July 26, 1791 -Oct. 16, 

1792, scattering; Jan. 8, 15, May 14, 17, 28, 1793. Har- 
vard has July 22 -Dec. 23, 1791; June 19, 1792 -Mar. 12, 

1793. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Mar. 23, 1792. Lib. Cong, 
has July 29-Dec. 23, 1791, scattering; Mar. 13, Oct. 16, 
1792; Mar. 19, June 25, 1793. A. A. S. has: 

1791. July 22 to Dec. 30. 
Supplement: Aug. 30. 

Mutilated: July 22. 

1792. Jan. 3 to Dec. 25. 

Mutilated: Nov. 6, 20. 

1793. Jan. 1 to June 28. 

Missing: May 31. 

[Boston] Auction Advertiser, 1816. 

Daily. Established Oct. 10, 1816, judging from the 
only copy located, that of October 11, 1816, vol. 1, no. 2, 
published by Tileston & Parmenter (Ezra B. Tileston 
and James Parmenter). It contained only advertise- 
ments and was issued free of charge. It was of small 
quarto size. 

Boston Pub. Lib. has Oct. 11, 1816. 

[Boston] Censor, 1771-1772. 

Weekly. Established Nov. 23, 1771, with the title 
of "The Censor" published by E[zekiel] Russell. It 
was a political magazine rather than a newspaper, some- 
what in the style of the "Tatler" or "Spectator," but its 
occasional "Postscripts" bore every appearance of being 
newspapers and contained certain local news and a large 
number of advertisements. It was of folio size and paged. 
The last issue located is that of May 2, 1772, vol. 2, no. 7. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. and Boston Pub. Lib. have Nov. 23, 
1771 -May 2, 1772. Boston Athenaeum has Nov. 23, 
1771 -Apr. 11, 1772. Lib. Cong, has Nov. 23, 1771 -Feb. 
22, 1772. 

Boston] Christian Watchman, 1819-1820+ 

Weekly. Established May 29, 1819, by True & 
Weston (Benjamin True and Equality Weston). It was 



198 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

of quarto size and paged. With the issue of Nov. 20, 
1819, vol. 1, no. 26, this size was discontinued, and upon 
Dec. 4, 1819, the paper was enlarged to folio size and the 
title changed to " Christian Watchman & Baptist Regis- 
ter." It was thus continued until after 1820. 

Harvard has Dec. 4, 1819-1820. Boston Athenaeum 
has May 29-Nov. 20, 1819; Dec. 16-30, 1820. N. E. 
Hist. Gen. Soc. has Jan. 1-Dec. 30, 1820. Yale has May 
29-Nov. 20, 1819; Dec. 4, 1819-1820. Lib. Cong, has 
Feb. 12, 1820. Ohio St. Lib. has May 29, 1819-1820. 
Western Reserve Hist. Soc. has June-Nov. 1819; Cong- 
regational Lib., Boston has May 29, June 12, 1819; Jan. 
8, Apr. 8 -Oct. 28, 1820, imperfect. A. A. S. has: 

1819. May 29 to Dec. 25. 
Prospectus: Apr. 29, 1818. 

1820. Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 

Missing: Jan. 29, Feb. 5. 

Boston Chronicle, 1767-1770. 

Weekly and semi-weekly. Established Dec. 21, 1767, 
by Mein and Fleeming (John Mein and John Fleeming) 
with the title of "The Boston Chronicle." It was a 
weekly, of quarto size, paged and each issue containing 
eight pages. With the issue of Jan. 2, 1769, it was en- 
larged to folio size and issued semi-weekly. It was dis- 
continued with the issue of June 25, 1770. Of the three 
volumes published, each had a title-page and the first 
had an Index of six pages. 

Boston Athenaeum, Boston Pub. Lib., Mass. Hist. 
Soc, N. Y. Hist. Soc. and Wis. Hist. Soc. have practically 
complete files, Dec. 21, 1767 -June 25, 1770. Mass. State 
Lib. and British Museum have Dec. 21, 1767 -June 7, 
1770. N. E. Hist. Gen. Soc. has Dec. 21, 1767-Dec. 26, 

1768. Harvard and N. Y. Pub. Lib. have Dec. 21, 1767- 
Dec. 28, 1769. Essex Inst, has Dec. 21, 1767-Dec. 18, 

1769. Lib. Cong, has Dec. 21, 1767-Dec. 28, 1769, with 
a few issues in 1770. Yale has Dec. 21, 1767 -Oct. 26, 
1769. Conn. Hist. Soc, Long Id. Soc, and Hist. Soc 
Penn. have Dec. 21, 1767-Dec 26, 1768. N. Y. State 



1915.] Massachusetts. * 199 

Lib. has Dec. 21, 1767 -Dec. 28, 1769, with a few issues in 
1770. A. A. S. has: 

1767. Dec. 21, 28. 
Supplement: Dec. 21. 

1768. Jan. 4 to Dec. 26. 

Extraordinary: Jan. 7, July 28, Sept. 29, 

Nov. 17, Dec. 2. 
Supplement: Feb. 15, May 2, 9, 16, 23, June 

6, Oct. 17, 31. 
Supplement: May 30. 

1769. Jan. 2 to Dec. 28. 
Supplement: Oct. 2, 9, 12. 

Missing: Apr. 24, Title-page. 

1770. Jan. 1 to June 25. 

Missing: Title-page. 

[Boston] Columbian Centinel, 1790-1820+ 

Semi-Weekly. A continuation, without change of 
numbering, of the " Masachusetts Centinel/ ' the first 
issue with the new name being on June 16, 1790, vol. 13, 
no. 27, published by Benjamin Russell. With the issue 
of Oct. 5, 1799, the title was altered to " Columbian 
Centinel & Massachusetts Federalist." The character 
"&" in the title was changed to "and" with the issue of 
Nov. 13, 1799, altogether omitted with the issue of July 5, 
1800, "and" restored with the issue of May 4, 1803; 
changed to "&" with the issue of June 8, 1803; and alto- 
gether omitted with the issue of Sept. 5, 1804. With the 
issue of Sept. 6, 1809, the imprint read "Printed by Wil- 
liam Burdick for the Proprietor," changed on Oct. 25, 
1809, to "Printed by William Burdick for B. Russell." 
With the issue of May 18, 1814, it was merely ''Printed 
for Benjamin Russell," and on Jan. 17, 1816, it was 
"Printed for Benjamin Russell by E. G. House" [Eleazer 
G. House.] With the issue of Jan. 3, 1818, the title was 
shortened to "The Columbian Centinel," changed again 
on Jan. 21, 1818, to "Columbian Centinel. American 
Federalist." With the issue of Mar. 4, 1818, the paper 
was "Printed for Benjamin Russell," changed on Jan. 2, 



200 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

1819, to " Printed by Thomas Hudson for Benjamin 
Russell." Continued after 1820. 

Mass. Hist. Soc, Boston Pub. Lib., Boston Athenaeum, 
N. E. Hist. Gen. Soc., Mass. State Lib., Harvard, Essex 
Inst., Dartmouth, Long Id. Hist. Soc., N. Y. Hist. Soc, 
Lib. Cong., Wis. Hist. Soc. and British Museum have 
practically complete files, 1790-1820. Yale has 1791- 

1820. Conn. Hist. Soc. has July 3 -Dec. 29, 1790; Mar. 
13 -Dec. 28, 1793; Mar. 12, 1794 -Sept. 5, 1795; Jan. 6, 
1796- June 24, 1797; Jan. 31 -June 27, 1798; Jan. 2, 1799- 
Mar. 1, 1806; Aug. 2-Dec. 31, 1806; Aug. 1, 1807-Dec. 
31, 1817; Jan. 2, 1819-1820. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has June 
16, 1790-Dec. 31, 1814; July 1, 1815-Dec. 28, 1816; 
May 16-Dec. 23, 1818, fair; 1819, scattering; 1820. 
N. Y. State Lib. has June 16, 1790-1820, excepting 1798 
and 1803 are incomplete. Hist. Soc. Penn. has 1791- 
1794, 1796-1803, 1805-1820, fair. Phil. Lib. Co. has 
1792-1798, scattering; 1800-1819, fair. Cincinnati Pub. 
Lib.has 1788-1793; May 1794; 1800; Nov. 1804-Dec. 1805; 
July 1806 -July 1808; July 1809 -July 1810. Western 
Reserve Hist. Soc. has 1806, 1808, 1810, 1811, with 
a few other scattering issues. Va. State Lib. has Jan. 
1797-Jan. 1799. 

A. A . S. has: 

1790. June 16 to Dec. 29. 

1791. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Extra: Apr. 14, Dec. 19. 

1792. Jan. 4 to Dec. 29. 

Extra: Apr. 28, May 12, 26, Nov. 7, 14. 
Continuation: June 13. 

1793. Jan. 2 to Dec. 28. 
Extraordinary: May 22. 

1794. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Extra: Sept. 13. 

1795. Jan. 3 to Dec. 30. 
Extraordinary: July 8. 

1796. Jan. 2 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Feb. 20. 

1797. Jan. 4 to Dec. 30. 



200 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

1819, to " Printed by Thomas Hudson for Benjamin 
Russell." Continued after 1820. 

Mass. Hist. Soc, Boston Pub. Lib., Boston Athenaeum, 
N. E. Hist. Gen. Soc., Mass. State Lib., Harvard, Essex 
Inst., Dartmouth, Long Id. Hist. Soc., N. Y. Hist. Soc, 
Lib. Cong., Wis. Hist. Soc. and British Museum have 
practically complete files, 1790-1820. Yale has 1791- 

1820. Conn. Hist. Soc. has July 3-Dec. 29, 1790; Mar. 
13 -Dec. 28, 1793; Mar. 12, 1794 -Sept. 5, 1795; Jan. 6, 
1796- June 24, 1797; Jan. 31 -June 27, 1798; Jan. 2, 1799- 
Mar. 1, 1806; Aug. 2-Dec. 31, 1806; Aug. 1, 1807-Dec. 
31, 1817; Jan. 2, 1819-1820. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has June 
16, 1790-Dec. 31, 1814; July 1, 1815-Dec. 28, 1816; 
May 16-Dec. 23, 1818, fair; 1819, scattering; 1820. 
N. Y. State Lib. has June 16, 1790-1820, excepting 1798 
and 1803 are incomplete. Hist. Soc. Penn. has 1791- 
1794, 1796-1803, 1805-1820, fair. Phil. Lib. Co. has 
1792-1798, scattering; 1800-1819, fair. Cincinnati Pub. 
Lib.has 1788-1793; May 1794; 1800; Nov. 1804-Dec. 1805; 
July 1806 -July 1808; July 1809 -July 1810. Western 
Reserve Hist. Soc. has 1806, 1808, 1810, 1811, with 
a few other scattering issues. Va. State Lib. has Jan. 
1797-Jan. 1799. 

A. A . S. has: 

1790. June 16 to Dec. 29. 

1791. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Extra: Apr. 14, Dec. 19. 

1792. Jan. 4 to Dec. 29. 

Extra: Apr. 28, May 12, 26, Nov. 7, 14. 
Continuation: June 13. 

1793. Jan. 2 to Dec. 28. 
Extraordinary: May 22. 

1794. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Extra: Sept. 13. 

1795. Jan. 3 to Dec. 30. 
Extraordinary: July 8. 

1796. Jan. 2 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Feb. 20. 

1797. Jan. 4 to Dec. 30. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 201 



1798. 


Jan. 3 to Dec. 29. 
Extraordinary: Apr. 16. 
Extra: May 19. 




1799. 


Jan. 2 to Dec. 28. 
Carrier's Address, Jan. 1. 
Supplement: Feb. 6. 

Mutilated: June 22, Dec. 14. 

Missing: Aug. 17. 




1800. 


Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 






Missing: Mar. 8, May 17, Aug. 9, 


13, Oct, 




4, Nov. 8. 




1801. 


Jan. 3 to Dec. 30. 




1802. 


Jan. 2 to Dec. 29. 
Carrier's Address, Jan. 1. 
Extra: Mar. 24, Apr. 7. 
Missing: Sept. 15. 




1803. 


Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Extra: Dec. 7. 
Missing: May 21. 




1804. 


Jan. 4 to Dec. 29. 




1805. 


Jan. 2 to Dec. 28. 




1806. 


Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Missing: Jan. 18. 




1807. 


Jan. 3 to Dec. 30. 
Extra: May 13, 20. 




1808. 


Jan. 2 to Dec. 31. 




1809. 


Jan. 4 to Dec. 30. 
Mutilated: Mar 29. 




1810. 


Jan. 3 to Dec. 29. 
Mutilated: Mar. 10 
Missing: Apr. 11. 




1811. 


Jan. 2 to Dec. 28. 
Extra: July 3. 




1812. 


Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 




1813. 


Jan. 2 to Dec. 29. 




1814. 


Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 




1815. 


Jan. 4 to Dec. 30. 





203 

m* i 

l'.17. ...-.., 

Can - Address, Jan. 1 

. . - 

i. \-*.u. . . . 

tfMJ Columbian Detector, UN 

andSerr ftrtabtiahed Nw. 18, 130&, 

<.<.-■■ ';.-,;,/ .-:--: :.'-,-/ : >..- ; <-.-/■.---..- ::,-.• v ',:-,--. *..-:.* 

wa 'oh— Hm Detector," printed for the editors 

Snelling kWrnnm (8ynl a giiiiMfcig ami Wflfcat 

-.— ,, a-, v/; .-v.;: o: :;-// >' :>•>. \-.;-.y,s- ,, 

wmamtdprmtf 
and with the issue of Jan. - 

tors. I 

: issue ef Feb. If ItH .tie was change . 

to semi-weekly. The paper was discontinued with the 
issue of May 10, 1800, when it was sold oat 
oston Patriot." 

Mass. I :*». 

.ton Pob Lib. Ikm . %0t>. 

enemn has 1£». 

-vardhasN 

:..-■. 

ing. Lib. Cong, has N . *io 

1809. feb. 14, 17, 21 : - - 
Mar. 3, 7- 



1915.] Massachusetts. 203 

[Boston] Commercial Gazette, 1797, see Boston Price Current. 

Boston Commercial Gazette, 1816-1820, see Boston Gazette, 

1800-1820. 

[Boston] Compass, 1818. 

First issued on June 6, 1818, with the title of "The 
Compass," published by "Paul and Others." The New 
England Galaxy of June 12, 1818, in referring to this issue 
of the paper, said that its "professed object is to advocate 
the claims of Mr. Clay to the presidency." The issue 
of Aug. 1, 1818, vol. 1, no. 2, has in the imprint "pub- 
lished weekly," but states "We shall not yet commence 
the regular publication of this paper, but as soon as a 
sufficient number of subscribers are obtained to warrant 
its regular publication, we shall go on with it. Until 
then it will be issued occasionally, and notice will be given 
in the papers of the time it will appear." The issue of 
Aug. 1, 1818, is the only one which has been examined, 
although the Boston Public Library had issues of June 6, 
July 3, Aug. 1 and 21, 1818, which have been lost sight 
of for several years. 
A. A. S. has: 
1818. Aug. 1. 

[Boston] Constitutional Telegraph, 1799-1802. 

Semi-weekly. Established Oct. 2, 1799, with the 
title of "The Constitutional Telegraph," published at 
Parkers Printing Office (Samuel S. Parker). With the 
issue of Jan. 1, 1800, the title was changed to "The 
Constitutional Telegraphe." With the issue of July 19, 
1800, the paper was published by Jonathan S. Copp for 
the proprietor. With the issue of Oct. 1, 1800, the paper 
was published by John S. Lillie. In March, 1802, Lillie 
was sentenced to three months imprisonment for libel, 
and with the issue of Apr. 10, 1802, the paper was pub- 
lished by J[ohn] M. Dunham. It was discontinued with 
the issue of May 22, 1802, vol. 4, no. 276, and the " Repub- 
lican Gazetteer" published in its stead. (See Bucking- 
ham's "Specimens of Newspaper Literature," vol. 2, 



204 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

p. 308; and " Diary of William Bentley," vol. 2, p. 319, 
and vol. 3, p. 254). 

Harvard has Oct. 2, 1799 -Oct. 1, 1800; Sept. 26, 
1801 -May 22, 1802, incomplete. Mass. Hist. Soc. has 
Oct. 5, 1799 -May 22, 1802, scattering. Boston Athe- 
naeum has Oct. 2, 1799 -May 19, 1802, good. Boston 
Pub. Lib. has Jan. 1, 1800 -May 22, 1802. Essex Inst, 
has Jan. 18, Mar. 12, 15, July 9, 30, Aug. 13, 23, 1800; 
Apr. 7 -May 22, 1802. Dartmouth has Nov. 23, 1799; 
Jan. 1, 1800-May 29, 1802, fair. Yale has Oct. 5, 1799- 
Dec. 24, 1800. Ct. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 28, 1799. N. Y 
Pub. Lib. has May 23, 1801. Long Id. Hist. Soc. has 
July 26, Aug. 9, 16, Oct. 25, Dec. 27, 1800; Jan. 3, Mar. 
18, 1801. Lib. Cong, has Oct. 2, 1799-Jan. 8, 1800; 
May 16, 30, June 6, July 8, 29, Sept. 5, 1801 ; Jan. 2 -May 
22, 1802. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Sept. 19, 1801; May 1-22, 
1802. A. A. S. has: 

1800. Apr. 2, 12, 16. 
June 11. 
Sept. 13, 24. 
Oct. 11. 

1801. Jan. 14. 
Apr. 8. 
June 13, 17. 

Sept. 9, 16, 19, 23, 26™, 30. 
Oct. 3, 7, 10, 14. 
Dec. 2. 

1802. Jan. 16-. 
Mar. 17. 

[Boston] Continental Journal, 1776-1787. 

Weekly. Established May 30, 1776, by John Gill 
under the title of "The Continental Journal, and Weekly 
Advertiser." Gill disposed of the paper to James D. 
Griffith, who began publishing it with the issue of Apr. 
28, 1785, slightly changing the title to "The Continental 
Journal, and the Weekly Advertiser." Because of the 
State tax on advertisements, he discontinued the paper 
with the issue of June 21, 1787. 



1015.] Mi -its. 205 

Mass. Hist. Boe. has May 30, 1776-Tjec. 30 ; 17*4 
good file; Jan. 6. 1785- Apr S 1781 scattering. Boston 
Pub. Lib. has June 20, 1776 -Dec. 27, 1781; Jan. 10, Mar. 
14, Apr. 26. May 2, 16 ; Oct. 2, Dec 10, 17-2: Jan. 16, 
17- - 34, 1785, I e Mar. 2-Oct. 12, I7H 

scattering: . 29 May 17 1787. Boston Athenaeum 

has May 90 1776*1 b 14. 17'-.- go I Aug. 15. 1782- 
Apr. 2-. I78G n i ftf i irfl Bai ad lias May 4, 1781; 
Jan.3-Nov. 7, 1782. N. E. Hist. G .. ~ . . few 

scattering Issue-. 1777. Paffi b I hsH a few- 

scattering Issues, chiefly in 1779. Dartmou May 

I . 1776-Dec. 28, 1780, fair. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Aug. 
8, 1776-DeeJg; 1780, fair; 1781-1786, scattering issues. 
N. Y. Hist. 8pe has Aug. 2; 1776-J H 1777 nth a 
few later issues. N Lit has a scattering file, 

May 30, 1776-Apr. 13, 1788. Hist. Soc E m has Mar.' 
13 -Nov. 27, 1777, scattering; Jan. 8, 1778 -Apr. 21, 1786 
Lib. Cong, ha.^ June 27, 1776 -Dei M 1779 las 1780- 
Dec.26 ; 1782, fair; Jan. 2 : 1783 -D-c. . -. 1786. Wis. Hist. 
Soc. has Aug. 15, Oct. 10. 1776; July, 17, 1777-Ap. _ 
1778, scattering; May 7, 1778-May 4, 1780; 1781, scat- 
tering; v,.; 1785-Map 1781 A A § 

1776. :. tfl Dec. _. 

Lg:May 30, June 6 13 

1777. Jan. 2 to D _' 

Missing: Aug. 21. 

1778. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

an. 15, June 11. 
Missis F. ' . _ Apr. 23, May 

14, 21, June 4, July 16,23 B 
Dec. 17 I] 

1779. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

Mated: July 22, Aug. 19, Sept. 2 ; . 
18. 
Missing: May 20, June 10, July 15, 29, 
A i£ ; Sept. 9, Nov. 11, 25, Dec. 16, 30. 

1780. Jan. E U E 

Mutilated: Apr. 20, July 13, Sept. 7. 
Missing: Jan. 20, 27, Feb. 3 



206 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

25, June 15, Aug. 3, 10, 17, 24, Nov. 9, 
16, Dec. 14. 

1781. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 

Mutilated: Apr. 5, May 4, June 7, Nov 

15, Dec. 14, 27. 
Missing: Jan. 25, Feb. 22, Mar. 29, Apr. 

12, June 14, Aug. 2, 9, 16, Nov. 29. 

1782. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 

Mutilated: Mar. 21, May 16, Dec. 5, 26. 
Missing: Jan. 24, 31, Mar. 7, Apr. 11, 

18, July 4, 11, 18, 25, Oct. 10, 24, Nov. 7, 

21, 28, Dec. 12. 

1783. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

1784. Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 

1785. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: Nov. 10. 

Missing: Aug. 25, Sept. 22, 29, Nov. 3, Dec. 
8, 22. 

1786. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated: Jan. 19, Feb. 23, May 25, Sept. 

28. 
Missing: Jan. 5, 12, 26, Feb. 2, 9, Mar. 9, 

June 29, Aug. 10, 17, 24, Sept. 7, 21, 

Nov. 16, Dec. 7, 14, 21. 

1787. Mar. 8, 15, 23, 29. 
Apr. 5, 12, 19, 26. 
May 3, 10, 17, 31. 
June 7, 14, 21. 

IBoston] Courier, 1795-1796. 

Semi-weekly. Established July 1, 1795, by Sweetser 
& Burdick (Benjamin Sweetser and William Burdick), 
under the title of "The Courier. " With the issue of Oct. 
21, 1795, the title was changed to "The Courier. Boston 
Evening Gazette and Universal Advertiser." With the 
issue of Dec. 12, 1795, the partnership was dissolved, the 
paper published by Benjamin Sweetser alone, and the 
title altered to "The Courier. Boston Evening Gazette, 
and General Advertiser." The last issue published was 



:>:.! 




Ik. la* Jdk 1-Dfec 
Mi« 0^ 17*5: FA, IX 
L*l has 5*r_ 4, 1715 : Fc*l »l », 0ML X Y. 

i- ■ _ ...-:, .- ■: ?'^i i -_ . -: : : 



J 




208 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Boston Pub. Lib. has June 13, 1805-June 11, 1807. 
Boston Athenaeum has July 4 -Aug. 15, 1805; Oct. 30, 
1806; Feb. 19, Apr. 8, 16, May 7 -June 18, July 9-30, 
Nov. 25, Dec. 2, 24, 1807; Jan. 14 -Feb. 11, Apr. 14, Aug. 
11, 1808 -May 4, 1809, imperfect file. Harvard has 
June 13, 1805; Dartmouth has July 31, 1805; Nov. 20, 
1806; Jan. 8 -Sept. 17, 1807, fair. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has 
Apr. 8-Dec, 1808. Lib. Cong, has July 11, 1805-July 
31, 1806; Sept. 3, 1807-Feb. 11, 1808. A. A. S. has: 

1805. June 13 to Dec. 26. 

Mutilated: June 13. 

1806. Jan. 2, 9, 16, 30. 
Feb. 6, 13. 
July 31™. 

Aug. 7, 14, 21, 28. 
Sept. 4, 11™, 18, 25. 
Oct. 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 
Nov. 6, 13, 20, 27. 
Dec. 4, 11, 18, 25. 

1807. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Feb. 5, July 16. 

1808. Jan. 7 to Dec. 29. 

Missing: Feb. 18, Apr. 21. 

1809. Jan. 5, 12. 
Feb. 2, 16, 23. 
Mar. 2, 16, 23, 30. 
Apr. 13, 20, 27. 
May 4. 

[Boston] Courier and General Advertiser, 1796, see Federal 
Orrery. 

[Boston] Courier de Boston, 1789. 

Weekly. Established Apr. 23, 1789, printed by Samuel 
Hall. It was of quarto size, paged and eight pages to the 
issue. The name of the editor is not given in the imprint, 
but Isaiah Thomas, in his " History" of Printing," 1874, 
vol. 1, p. 178, states that the paper was printed for Joseph 
Nancrede who taught French at Harvard College. It 
was discontinued with the issue of Oct. 15, 1789, no. 26. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 209 

Files are to be found at Mass. Hist. Soc, Boston Pub. 
Lib., Boston Athenaeum, Harvard, Essex Inst., N. Y. 
Hist. Soc, Lib. Cong., and Wis. Hist. Soc. A. A. S. has: 
1789. Apr. 23 to Oct. 15. 

Missing: Sept. 10, Oct. 8. 

[Boston] Courier Politique, 1792. 

Weekly. Established Dec. 10, 1792, with the title of 
"Le Courier Politique de l'Univers. " No copy of this 
paper has been located, but the prospectus is published 
in the "Columbian Centinel" of Dec. 12, 1792, in which 
it is stated "The paper will be published on the Monday 
of every week, and consist of four pages quarto . . . 
Subscriptions will be received at Boston, by J. Bumstead, 
Printer." In the same issue of the "Centinel" is the 
statement "A new paper commenced publishing in this 
town, on Monday last, called the ' Political Courier of the 
World, ' in French and English, in columns corresponding 
with each other .... The Editor is a man of talents. " 
There is a reference to the issue of Dec. 24, 1792, in the 
"Centinel" of Dec. 26, 1792. There are also references 
to the paper in the "Writings of J. Q. Adams/' vol 1, p. 
125, and in the "Diary of William Bentley," vol 1, p. 415. 

Boston Daily Advertiser, 1796-1797, see Polar Star. 

[Boston] Daily Advertiser, 1809. 

Daily. Established June 5, 1809, with the title of 
"The Daily Advertiser/' B. Parks, printer. This initial 
issue, which is of quarto size, is the only one located. 
Benjamin Parks may have published this one issue in the 
form of a prospectus. 

A. A. S. has: 
1809. June 5. 

Boston Daily Advertiser, 1813-1820+ . 

Daily. Established Mar. 3, 1813, under the name 
of "Boston Daily Advertiser," published by Wm. 
W. Clapp and edited by Horatio Biglow. It was issued 



210 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

in connection with the ''Repertory," the latter paper 
being really a tri-weekly issue of the "Daily Advertiser." 
The heading at the top of the first column on the second 
page was "Daily Advertiser, and Repertory." With the 
issue of Apr. 30, 1813, the paper was "published by Clapp 
& Biglow," changed on May 1, 1813, to "W. W. Clapp 
& H. Biglow." With the issue of Apr. 7, 1814, the 
paper was sold to Nathan Hale, who became the pub- 
lisher, W. W. Clapp continuing as printer. With the 
issue of Mar. 17, 1815, Clapp's name disappeared from 
the imprint, and with the issue of Sept. 16, 1817, S[olomon] 
G. Low became the printer. Nathan Hale continued as 
publisher until after 1820. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. and Boston Athenaeum have Mar. 3, 
1813-1820. Boston Pub. Lib. has Mar. 3, 1813 -May 31, 
1814; Sept. 1, 1814-1820. N. E. Hist. Gen. Soc. has 
Mar. 29, 1813-July 30, 1818; Nov. 8-Dec, 1820. Mass. 
State Lib. has Dec. 1, 1813-Feb. 26, 1814. Harvard 
has Jan. 12, 1815; May 19, 1819-Mar. 2, 1820. Essex 
Inst, has Mar. -Dec, 1813; 1814-1820, scattering issues. 
N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 3-Dec. 31, 1813; July 1, 1814- 
Apr. 4, 1816. N. Y. State Lib. has Mar. 3 -May 28, 
Dec. 10, 1813; 1814-1816, a few scattering issues. Lib. 
Cong, has Mar. 3-Dec. 31, 1813; 1814-1816, scattering; 
Jan. 3-Nov. 28, 1817; Jan. 6-June 29, 1818, scattering; 
July 1, 1818 -Sept. 26, 1820. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Mar.- 
May, 1813; Oct. 1813-Nov., 1814; May -Nov., 1815; 
1818; Sept., 1819-1820. A. A. S. has: 

1813. Mar. 3 to Dec. 31. 
Extra: May 1. 

Mutilated: May 18, 19, Aug. 10, Nov. 11, 

Dec. 14. 
Missing: Dec. 25. 

1814. Jan. 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 

18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31. 
Feb. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 

18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28. 
Mar. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 

18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 29, 30, 31. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 211 

Apr. l m , 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 
18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26. 

May 16, 24, 27. 

July 15. 

Sept. 14. 

Oct. 27. 

Dec. 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 
23, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31. 

1815. Jan. 2 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Feb. 25, Mar. 4, May 30. 
Missing: Jan. 19, Feb. 23, Apr. 7, June 8, 
17,23, July 6, Aug. 18, 19, Sept. 9, Nov. 3. 

1816. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Extra: May 1, 3, 9, 15, 18. 

Mutilated: Apr. 13, 27, May 13, 23, Aug. 

10, Sept. 24, Oct. 7, Nov. 21, Dec. 24, 

30, 31. 
Missing: Mar. 5, 20, June 8, 11, 25, 28, July 

1, 8, 20, Aug. 3, 24, Oct. 4, Nov. 4, 7. 

1817. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Missing: Feb. 21, Sept. 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 
12, 13, 15, 16, 17, Sept. 19-Dec. 31. 

1818. Jan. 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 29, 

30, 31. 
Feb. 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 24, 

28. 
Mar. 21™, 3}. 
Apr. 27. 
May 28, 29, 30. 
June 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 12, 13. 
July 3, 4. 

Aug. 6, 13, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29. 
Sept. 11, 12, 14, 18, 26, 28. 
Oct. 1, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 16, 22, 24. 
Nov. 2, 7, 12, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20. 

1819. Jan. 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 

23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30. 
Feb. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 
17, 18, 19, 20. 



212 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Apr. 19. 

May 1* 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 24, 25, 27, 28, 

29, 31. 
June 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7* 8, 10, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19. 
July 8, 14. 
Sept. 25. 
Oct. 13, 20. 
Nov. 3, 8, 18, 20. 
Dec. 7, 8, 10, 16. 
1820. Jan. 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 21, 22, 24, 25, 27, 28, 

29, 31. 
Feb. 1, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 17, 18, 

19, 21, 23, 24, 25. 
Mar. 14, 31. 
Apr. 12, 15. 
June 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 

17. 
July 4. 
Sept. 21, 25. 

Nov. 20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30. 
Dec. 1. 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 

19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30. 

[Boston] Degrand's Boston Weekly Report, see Boston Weekly 
Report. 

[Boston] Democrat, 1804-1809. 

Semi-weekly and tri-weekly. Established Jan. 4, 1804, 
by True & Parks (Benjamin True and Benjamin Parks), 
who bought the " Gazetteer" and established "The Demo- 
crat" in its place. Associated with them as editor was 
John M. Williams, who wrote under the pseudonym of 
"Anthony Pasquin." Williams soon had a disagree- 
ment with the proprietors and published an unfriendly 
advertisement in the "Columbian Centinel" of June 27, 
1804, which advertisement was repudiated by True 
& Parks in the "Democrat" of June 30, 1804. Williams's 
connection with the paper evidently ceased at this time. 
With the issue of Jan. 1, 1806, the firm was dissolved and 



1915.] Massachusetts. 213 

the paper published by Benjamin Parks alone. With the 
issue of Aug. 1, 1807, Parks engaged Selleck Osborn to 
take editorial charge of the paper, but Osborn's illness 
apparently did not allow him to serve in this capacity 
for more than a few weeks. At no time did his name 
appear in the imprint. Beginning with the issue of May 
9, 1809, the paper was issued tri-weekly and on a single 
sheet. The last issue located is that of May 25, 1809, 
vol. 6, no. 43, and the paper was undoubtedly discon- 
tinued soon after. Beginning with June 13, 1805, a 
weekly country edition of the "Democrat" was published 
under the name of the " Boston Courier." 

Boston Athenaeum has Jan. 4, 1804 -May 25, 1809. 
Harvard has Jan. 4, 1804-Dec. 31, 1808, fair. Mass. Hist. 
Soc. has. Jan. 7, 1804 -May 16, 1809, scattering. Boston 
Pub. Lib. has Jan. 7 -Feb. 11, 22, 25, July 14, Sept. 1, 
1804; Mar. 16, 1805; Jan. 22, Mar. 12, Aug. 23, 1806; 
Jan. 17, June 13, Aug. 1, 1807-Dec. 31, 1808; Jan. 4-May 
25, 1809. Essex Inst, has 1805-1806, scattering; 1807- 
Feb. 1, 1809, good file. Yale has Jan. 4 -Mar. 4, 1809. 
N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 14, 1807 -Apr. 27, 1808. N. Y. 
State Lib. has Apr., 1805 -Apr., 1809, imperfect. Lib. 
Cong, has Jan. 4, 1804 -Mar. 22, 1809, imperfect. Wis. 
Hist. Soc. has Feb. 22, 1804; July 27, Sept. 17, Nov. 23, 
1805; Apr. 12, June 14, 18, July 12, Sept. 6, 20, 24, 1806. 
A. A. S. has: 

1804. Jan. 4, 7, 18, 25, 28. 

Feb. 1, 4, 8, 11, 15, 18, 22, 25, 29. 

Mar. 7, 14, 28, 31. 

Apr. 4, 11, 18. 

June 23, 30. 

July 7, 11, 14, 21, 28. 

Aug. 18 m . 

Sept. 1, 22. 

Oct. 3", 13. 

Nov. 3, 10", 17. 

Dec. 5, 8, 22, 26, 29. 

1805. Jan. 23. 
Feb. 20". 



214 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Mar. 2, 6, 16. 
May 4, 8, 18. 
June 5, 8, 12, 15. 
Oct. 5. 

1806. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: May 24, June 14, 18, July 2, 

Aug. 6, Sept. 6. 
Missing: Apr. 12, 19, May 14, 28, July 9, 

12, 16, Aug. 9, 16, Sept. 3, 27, Oct. 1, 18, 

22, Nov. 12, 15, 22. 

1807. Jan. 3 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Apr. 18, July 22. 
Missing: Feb. 18, May 6, 20, 23, June 20, 
July 25. 

1808. Jan. 2 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Jan. 13, 16, Feb. 10, Apr. 9, 
June 1, 29, Aug. 6, Sept. 10, Oct. 19, 
Nov. 12, Dec. 24. 

Missing: Apr. 27, May 11, June 8, Aug. 20, 
Oct. 8, Nov. 9. 

1809. Jan. 4, 7, 11, 14, 25", 28. 
Feb. 1, 4, 8, 11, 18-, 25™. 
May 18, 23. 

[Boston] Evening Gazette, 1814-1816. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 20, 1814, by William Bur- 
dick, with the title of "Evening Gazette, and General 
Advertiser." With the issue of Feb. 24, 1816, the paper 
was printed by E[phraim] C. Beals, for Wm. Burdick, 
but with the issue of Apr. 27, 1816, it was again printed 
and published by William Burdick. The last issue with 
this title was that of Aug. 10, 1816, vol. 2, no. 52, after 
which it was continued as the "Boston Intelligencer, " 
which see. 

Boston Athenaeum, Boston Pub. Lib. have Aug. 20, 
1814-Aug. 10, 1816. Mass. Hist. Soc. has Aug. 20, 
1814-Sept. 9, 1915; Jan. 27, Feb. 3, 10, Mar. 30, June 1, 
8, 15, 1816. Essex Inst, has Aug. 20, 1814-Dec. 29, 1815. 
N. Y. Pub. Lib. lias Sept. 16, 1815 -Aug. 10, 1816, fair. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 215 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. ha^ July 15, 1815- Aug. 10, 1816. Hist. 
Soc. Perm, has Oct. 21, 1815 -Aug. 10, 1816. Lib. Cong, 
has Sept. 3-Nov. 12, Dec. 3, 1814; Jan, 28, 1815 -Aug. 10, 
1816. Wis. Hist. Soc. has 1814-1816. A. A. S. has: 

1814. Aug. 20 to Dec. 31. 
Supplement: Aug. 27. 

Missing: Oct. 1, 8. 

1815. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

1816. Jan. 6 to Aug. 10. 

Boston Evening Post, 1735-1775. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 18, 1735, by T[homas] 
Fleet under the title of "The Boston Evening-Post." 
The paper was really a continuation of "The Weekly 
Rehearsal," since Fleet's last number of "The Weekly 
Rehearsal" was on Aug. 11, 1735, no. 202, and the first 
issue of "The Boston Evening-Post" was on Aug. 18, 
1735, no. 203. The second issue of the "Post," however, 
on Aug. 25, 1735, was no. 2, and thereafter the numbering 
was continuous. Thomas Fleet died July 21, 1758, and 
the issue of July 24, 1758, was published by his sons 
Thomas Fleet and John Fleet, although it was not until 
the issue of July 31, 1758, that the change of names 
occurred in the imprint. \ With the issue of Jan. 5, 1761, 
the firm name was changed in the imprint to T. and J. 
Fleet. In defiance of certain provisions of the Stamp Act, 
the issues from Nov. 4, 1765, to May 19, 1766, inclusive, 
refrained from giving the imprint with the names of the 
publishers. The paper was discontinued with the issue 
of Apr. 24, 1775, no. 2065. 

The best file of the "Post," and one of the most com- 
plete files of any colonial newspaper existing, is th at owned 
by the American Antiquarian Society, which lacks but 
32 out of over 2000 issues. The next best file is that in 
the Mass. Hist. Soc. which has 1736-1737, fair; 1738-1742, 
scattering file; 1743, good; 1744, scattering; 1745-1754, 
good; 1755-1758, scattering; 1759-1761, good; 1762-1775, 
almost complete. Boston Athenaeum has 1740-1751, 
scattering; 1754, good; 1758-1760, fair; 1765-1774, fine; 



216 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

1775, scattering. Boston Pub. Lib. has 1736-1742, a 
few issues; 1743-1757, good; 1758-1761, scattering; 1762- 
1775, fine. Harvard has 1746-1754, scattering; 1769- 
1770, good; 1771-1775, scattering. Essex Inst, has 1743- 

1747, scattering; 1750-1752, scattering; 1753-1754, good; 
1755-1757, fair; 1758-1760, good; 1761, scattering; 1762- 
1769, good; 1770-1773, scattering; 1774-1775, good. 
Yale has Aug. 12, 1765 -Oct. 20, 1766, with a few other 
scattering issues. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Sept. 29, 1746; 

1748, fair; 1750-1764, scattering issues; 1765-1766, fair; 
1767, scattering, 1768-1770, good; 1771-1773, scattering; 
1774-1775, good. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has a few scattering 
issues 1742, 1746-1749, 1753, 1764, 1769; 1770, good; 
1773-1775, scattering. N. Y. State Lib. has a few scat- 
tering issues, 1739-1774. Phil. Lib. Co. has 1741-1752, 
scattering. Lib. Cong, has 1741-1751, scattering; 1753- 
1754, fair; 1755, scattering; 1756, fair; 1757-1760, scatter- 
ing; 1761-1762, good; 1763-1765, scattering; 1766-1775, 
good. Wis. Hist. Soc. has 1741, fair; 1750-1754, 1758- 
1759, 1763, scattering; 1765-1766, fair; 1769-1771, fair; 
1772-1773, scattering; 1774, fair; 1775, scattering. British 
Museum has 1743-1775, scattering issues. A. A. S. has: 

1735. Aug. 18 to Dec. 29. 

1736. Jan. 5 to Dec. 27. 

1737. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 

Missing: Jan. 3, Aug. 22. 

1738. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

Missing: July 3, Dec. 4. 

1739. Jan. 1. to Dec. 31. 

1740. Jan. 7 to Dec. 29. 

Missing: Jan. 14, Aug. 11. 

1741. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 

1742. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 
Supplement: Sept. 27. 

Mutilated: Mar. 22, July 19. 
Missing: June 7. 

1743. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 
Supplement: Apr. 4, Dec. 12. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 217 

1744. Jan. 2 to Dec. 31. 

Supplement: Aug. 27. 
Missing: Jan. 2, 9, 23. 

1745. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

Supplement: June 3, July 15, 22, Aug. 19, 
Sept. 9, Oct. 21, Nov. 25, Dec. 16. 

1746. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 

Supplement: Jan. 6, 13, Apr. 14, May 12, 
June 2, Oct. 13. 

1747. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 
Supplement: July 27, Oct. 5. 

1748. Jan. 4 to Dec. 26. 
Supplement: Sept. 19. 

Missing: Oct. 17. 

1749. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

Missing: Mar. 13, June 5, Dec. 4. 

1750. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

1751. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Jan. 7. 
Missing: Apr. 29, Dec. 23. 

1752. Jan. 6 to Dec. 25. 

Mutilated: Feb. 24. 
Missing: June 29. 

1753. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Mar. 26, July 23. 
Missing: Mar. 12, 19, Apr. 2, 9, 16, July 16, 
30, Dec. 17. 

1754. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

Missing: Dec. 23. 

1755. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 
Supplement: Sept. 15, Oct. 6, 20. 

Missing: Dec. 29. 

1756. Jan. 5 to Dec. 27. 

Supplement: Feb. 23, Mar. 8, 15, Apr. 12, 26, 
May 31, June 7, 28, July 5, Aug. 16, Sept. 
27. 

1757. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 

Supplement: Feb. 14, Mar. 14, Apr. 18, 25, 



218 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

May 2, Aug. 29, Sept. 5, Dec. 19, 26. 
Mutilated: Jan. 3. 

1758. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

Mutilated: Jan. 16. 

1759. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Postscript: Jan. 15, Sept. 3, 17. 
Postscript Extraordinary: July 30. 
Supplement: Jan. 22, Feb. 5, 19, 26, Mar. 19, 

May 21, June 4, Aug. 20. 

1760. Jan. 7 to Dec. 29. 
Supplement: Feb. 4. 

1761. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 

1762. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 

1763. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 

Supplement: Feb. 7, May 23, Sept. 12. 

1764. Jan. 2 to Dec. 31. , 
Supplement: Mar. 26, May 7, June 25. 

1765. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

Supplement: June 3, Oct. 28, Dec. 30. 
Missing: Dec. 23. 

1766. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 

Supplement: Mar. 31, Apr. 21, 28, May 12, 
June 9, 16, July 14, Oct. 20, 27, Nov. 10, 
24, Dec. 1. 

1767. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 

Supplement: Apr. 20, 27, May 4, June 15, 
July 6, 20, Oct. 19, 26, Nov. 2, Dec. 28. 
Missing: Jan. 5. 

1768. Jan. 4 to Dec. 26. 

Supplement: Jan. 11, 25, Feb. 1, Mar. 7, 28, 
Apr. 18, 25, May 2, 16, 23, June 6, 20, 
July 18, Aug. 1, 8, 22, Sept. 5, 26, Oct. 10. 

1769. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

Supplement: Jan. 16, 23, Feb. 13, Mar. 6, 
Apr. 10, May 15, June 5, July 3. 

1770. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Supplement: Feb. 19, Mar. 12, Apr. 23, 30, 
May 14, June 18, 25, July 23, Nov. 26. 
Missing: Dec. 31. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 219 

1771. Jan. 7, to Dec. 30. 

Supplement: Feb. 4, May 13, 27, June 3. 

1772. Jan. 6, to Dec. 28. 

Supplement: Apr. 27, June 1, Nov. 30. 

1773. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 

Supplement: Jan. 11, Mar. 8, May 10, 24, 

June 21, Dec. 20. 
Extraordinary: Feb. 1. 
Supplement: Extraordinary: June 28. 

1774. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 

Supplement: Feb. 21, Mar. 14, May 2, 16, 
23, June 6, July 11, Sept. 5, 19. 

1775. Jan. 2 to Apr. 24. 

[Boston] Evening Post, 1778-1780. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 17, 1778, by White and 
Adams (probably James White and Thomas Adams), 
with the title of "The Evening Post; and the General 
Advertiser." The last issue with this title was that of 
Feb. 26, 1780, and with the issue of Mar. 9, 1780, the title 
was changed to "The Morning Chronicle; and the General 
Advertiser," although the numbering was continuous. 
The issues of Mar. 23 and Apr. 20, 1780 were of smaller 
size and have the shortened title of "The Morning Chron- 
icle & General Advertiser. " The paper was discontinued 
with the issue of May 11, 1780. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 17, 1778-May 11, 1780. 
Boston Pub. Lib. has Oct. 17, 1778-May 11, 1780, imper- 
fect file. Boston Athenaeum has Nov. 28, 1778; Apr. 3, 
17, May 8, 22, June 5, July 24, 1779; Mar. 9, 1780. N. Y. 
State Lib. has Nov. 7, 1778 -Feb. 26, 1780, fair. N. Y. 
Pub. Lib. has Apr. 24, July 31, 1779. Lib. Cong, has 
Jan. 16, 1779 -Jan. 22, 1780. A. A. S. has: 

1778. Oct. 17 to Dec. 26. 

Missing: Nov. 14, Dec. 12. 

1779. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

Mutilated: July 24. 

Missing: Mar. 6, July 17, Nov. 20. 



220 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

1780. Jan. 1 to May 11. 

Missing: Mar. 23, 30, Apr. 13. 

Boston Evening Post, 1781-1784. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 20, 1781, by Edward E. 
Powars, under the title of "The Boston Evening-Post: 
and the General Advertiser. " With the issue of Jan. 10, 
1784, vol. 3, no. 116, Powars changed the name of the 
paper to the "American Herald," which see. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 20 -Dec. 29, 1781; Jan. 12, 
Dec. 14, 1782, imperfect; Jan. 4, 1783 -Jan. 10, 1784, 
scattering. Boston Athenaeum has Oct. 27, 1781 -Dec. 
27, 1783. Boston Pub. Lib. has Dec. 8, 1781 -Dec- 27, 

1783, imperfect. Harvard has Nov. 17, 24, 1781; Jan. 3, 

1784. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has May 18, 1782 -Dec. 20, 1783, 
scattering. N. Y. St. Lib. has Nov. 10, 1781; Jan. 19, 
May 11, 25, June 1, July 12, 20, 27, Aug. 24 -Sept. 28, 
Oct. 5, 12, 1782; May 24, 1783. Hist. Soc. Penn. has 
Sept. 28 -Oct. 26, Nov. 23, Dec. 21, 1782; 1783, scatter- 
ing. Lib. Cong, has Oct. 20, 1781 -Jan. 10, 1784. A.A.S. 
has: 

1781. Oct. 20 to Dec. 29. 

1782. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 

1783. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 

Mutilated: Apr. 12, 19, May 3. 
Missing: Jan. 4, 18, Feb. 15, 22, May 10. 

1784. Jan. 3, 10. 

[Boston] Exchange Advertiser, 1784-1787. 

Weekly. Established Dec. 30, 1784, by Peter Edes, 
with the title of "The Exchange Advertiser." Because 
of the advertisement tax it was reduced in size to small 
folio with the issue of Aug. 3, 1786. It was discontinued 
with the issue of Jan. 4, 1787. There is a humorous 
account of its "decease" in the "Massachusetts Cen- 
tinel" of Jan. 6, 1787. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 30, 1784- Jan. 4, 1787, nearly 
complete. Boston Pub. Lib. has Dec. 30, 1784; May 26, 
June 16, July 21, 1785; Jan. 5, Feb. 2, 1786. N. Y. Hist. 






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222 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

1798, scattering. Harvard has Jan. 8-12, 22, 1798. 
Long Id. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 1-Feb. 28, 1798. Phil. 
Lib. Co. has Feb. 9 -Mar. 19, 1798. Lib. Cong, has 
Jan. 2-24, 1798, scattering. A. A. S. has: 
1798. Jan. 1 to Mar. 26. 

Supplement: Jan. 19, 23. 
Mutilated: Mar. 1. 

[Boston] Federal Orrery, 1794-1796. 

Semi-weekly. Established Oct. 20, 1794, edited by 
Thomas Paine, and printed by Weld and Greenough 
(Ezra W. Weld and William Greenough) . With the issue 
of Apr. 23, 1795, the paper was printed by Ezra W. Weld, 
and with the issue of June 1, 1795, by Alexander Martin. 
With the issue Apr. 21, 1796, Paine sold the paper to 
Benjamin Sweetser, who became both editor and pub- 
lisher. With the issue of Nov. 3, 1796, Sweetser changed 
the name of the paper to "The Courier and General 
Advertiser, " continuing, however, the volume numbering. 
The paper was undoubtedly discontinued with the issue 
of Dec. 8, 1796. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 20, 1794-Dec. 8, 1796. Bos- 
ton Pub. Lib. has Oct. 20, 1794-Dec. 8, 1796, nearly 
.complete. Boston Athenaeum has Oct. 20, 1794-Dec. 1, 
1796. N. E. Hist. Gen. Soc. has May 30, Dec. 8, 1796. 
Harvard has Oct. 20, 1794-Dec. 8, 1796. Essex Inst, 
has Nov. 27, 1794 -Apr. 18, 1796, scattering. N. Y. Pub. 
Lib. has Oct. 20, 1794-Dec. 8, 1796. N. Y. State Lib. 
has Oct., 1794 -Oct., 1796, scattering. Long Id. Hist. 
Soc. has Jan. 26, 1795; Sept. 8 -Oct. 24, 1796. Phil. Lib. 
Co. has Feb. 19, 23, Sept. 14, Nov. 2, 20, 26, 30, 1795; 
Jan. 4, 25, Mar. 14 -Aug. 8, 1796, scattering. Hist. Soc. 
Penn. has Oct. 20, 1794 -Oct. 15, 1795. Lib. Cong, has 
Oct. 20, 1794-Dec. 5, 1796, fair. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Oct., 
1794-Apr., 1796. A. A. S. has: 

1794. Oct. 20 to Dec. 29. 

1795. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

1796. Jan. 4 to Dec. 8. 

Mutilated: Jan. 21, Mar. 17, Apr. 28. 
Missing: Oct. 13. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 223 

[Boston] Fredonian, 1810. 

Weekly. Established Feb. 20, 1810, published for 
the editors by E[leazer] G. House with the title of "The 
Fredonian." The names of the editors are not given. 
The paper was discontinued with the issue of May 15, 
1810. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has Feb. 20, 27, Mar. 13, 20, Apr. 3 
1810. Boston Pub. Lib. has Mar. 20, 1810. Lib. Cong 
has May 8, 1810. A. A. S. has: 
1810. Feb. 20 to May 15. 

Boston Gazette, 1719-1798. 

Weekly. Established Dec. 21, 1719, printed by 
J[ames] Franklin , and published by William Brooker. 
Brooker's name does not appear in the imprint but he 
acknowledges his proprietorship in the issue of Jan. 11, 
1720. The title was "The Boston Gazette, " although 
the words "New-England" were printed in smaller type 
above the title and were so printed through 1752. In 
August, 1720 (with the issue of either Aug. 8, 15, or 22), 
the paper was printed by S[amuel] Kneeland. With the 
issue of Sept. 26, 1720, the paper was printed by S. Knee- 
land for Philip Musgrave. Musgrave died May 18, 1725, 
and since the next known issue after this event, that of 
July 19, 1725, is printed by S. Kneeland for Thomas 
Lewis, it is probable that Lewis immediately succeeded 
Musgrave as publisher. With the issue of Apr. 25, 1726, 
the paper was published by Henry Marshall and Thomas 
Lewis, no printer's name being given. Lewis died of an 
apoplectic fit on Jan. 14, 1727 (see the account of his 
death in the "American Weekly Mercury" of Feb. 7, 
1727), and was succeeded by Henry Marshall as sole 
publisher. No printer's name was given, although it is 
probable that Bartholomew Green, Jr., was the printer. 
With the issue of June 19, 1727, the paper was printed by 
B. Green, Jun., for Henry Marshall. Marshall died 
Oct. 4, 1732, and the next known issue, that of Nov. 20, 
1732, which is printed by B. Green, Jun., for John Boy- 
dell, would show that he was immediately succeeded by 



224 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Boy dell. The last known issue printed by B. Green is 
that of Sept. 13, 1736, and the next issue located, that of 
Oct. 11, 1736, is published by John Boy dell and printed 
by S. Kneeland and T. Green (Samuel Kneeland and 
Timothy Green). Boydell died Dec. 11, 1739, and the 
issue of Dec. 17, 1739, announces that the paper would 
be carried on for the benefit of the family of the late 
publisher. Hannah Boydell, the widow, died Oct. 15, 
1741, and with the issue of Oct. 19, 1741, S. Kneeland and 
T. Green became the proprietors. They incorporated 
with it the "New-England Weekly Journal," changing 
the title on Oct. 20, 1741, to "The Boston Gazette, or 
New England Weekly Journal," altered on Oct. 27, 1741, 
to "The Boston Gazette, or, Weekly Journal." With 
the issue of Jan. 3, 1753, S. Kneeland began publishing 
the paper alone (although his name did not appear in the 
imprint during 1753) and altered the title to "The Boston 
Gazette, or, Weekly Advertiser." With this issue, 
moreover, he commenced a new volume numbering. 
Kneeland sold out the paper to Benjamin Edes and John 
Gill, who began publishing it with the issue of Apr. 7, 
1755. With this issue they commenced a new volume 
numbering and changed the title to "The Boston Ga- 
zette, or Country Journal," altered with the issue of Apr. 
5, 1756, to "The Boston-Gazette, or, Country Journal," 
and with the issue of Apr. 12, 1756, to "The Boston- 
Gazette, and Country Journal." Owing to the exigencies 
of war, Edes & Gill temporarily suspended the paper with 
the issue of Apr. 17, 1775, and their partnership was 
dissolved. Benjamin Edes went to Watertown and 
began prnting the paper with the issue of June 5, 1775, 
the title being the same and the numbering continuous. 
The last Watertown issue was that of Oct. 28, 1776, after 
which Edes returned to Boston and continued the paper 
with the issue of Nov. 4, 1776. With the issue of Apr. 12, 
1779, Benjamin Edes took his two sons, Benjamin, Jr. 
and Peter, into partnership, publishing the paper under 
the firm name of Benjamin Edes and Sons, and altering 
the title to "The Boston Gazette, and the Country 



1915.] Massachusetts. 225 

Journal." Peter Edes withdrew from the partnership 
with the issue of Nov. 1, 1784, and the paper was pub- 
lished by Benjamin Edes and Son (Benjamin Edes, Jr.). 
With the issue of Jan. 6, 1794, they changed the title to 
"The Boston Gazette, and Weekly Republican Journal." 
The partnership was dissolved and with the issue of 
June 30, 1794, the paper was published by Benjamin 
Edes. It was discontinued with the issue of Sept. 17, 1798. 
Mass. Hist. Soc. has 1719-1747, scattering; 1748-1753, 
fair; 1754-1758, good; 1759-1760, scattering; 1761-1784, 
good; 1785-1790, scattering; 1791-1798, good. Boston 
Pub. Lib. has 1720-1759, scattering; 1760, good; 1761- 
1764, scattering; 1765-1784, good; 1785, scattering; 
1786, good; 1787-1788, scattering; 1789-1791, good; 1792- 
1793, scattering; 1794-1798, fair. Boston Athenaeum 
has 1736-1751, scattering; 1753-1754, good; 1755-1756, 
scattering; 1760-1778, good; 1779-1782, scattering; 1795- 
1796. N. E. Hist. Gen. Soc. has 1768, 1778, 1796. 
Harvard has Apr. 7, 1755-Mar. 29, 1756; 1760-1767, 
scattering; 1768-1784, good; May 30 r 1796-Sept. 10, 
1798. Essex Inst, has 1755-1764, good; 1766-1786, 
scattering. Dartmouth has 1775-1783, fair, with a few 
other scattering issues. Yale has 1762-1766, fair; 1768- 
1771; 1773; 1777-1778. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Nov. 1, 
1736-Aug. 20, 1739; Aug. 30, 1756-Nov. 6, 1758; 1766- 
1773, fair; 1777-1785, fair; 1787-1798, good. N. Y. Hist. 
- Soc. has 1757-1759, 1769, fair. N. Y. State Lib, has 1747- 
1763, a few issues; 1764-1766; May, 1767-July, 1774. 
Hist. Soc. Penn. has 1770-1772, good; 1775-1777, fair. 
Phil. Lib. Co. has scattering issues in 1765, 1766, 1795, 
1796. Lib. Cong, has 1756-1758; 1761-1798, good. Wis. 
Hist. Soc. has 1724-1731, fair; 1732-1736, scattering; 
1741, fair; 1747-1749; 1753-1756, scattering; 1757-1760, 
good; 1761-1771, scattering; 1772-1773, good; 1774-1775, 
scattering; 1776-1779, fair; 1780-1798, scattering. British 
Museum has May 27, 1765-Feb. 20, 1775, fair. A. A. S. 
has: 

1720. Jan. 4, 11, 18, 25. 
Feb. 15. 



226 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 





Mar. 14. 








Apr. 11, 25. 








May 9, 16, 23, 30. 








June 20, 27. 








July 11, 18. 








Aug. 1, 22, 29. 








Sept. 5, 12, 19, 26. 








Oct. 3, 10, 17, 31. 








Nov. 7, 14, 21. 






• 


Dec. 5, 12. 








Supplement: Mar. 22, 


Apr. 


25, 2S 


1721. 


Jan. 2, 16, 23, 30. 
Feb. 6, 13, 20, 27. 
Mar. 6, 13, 20. 
Apr. 3, 10, 17, 27. 
May 1, 8. 
June 19. 






1722. 


Jan. 1. 

July 2, 23, 30. 

Nov. 12, 19, 26. 






1723. 


Apr. 15. 
June 3, 24. 






1724. 


Apr. 13. 






1725. 


Apr. 26. 






1727. 


Apr. 24. 
Nov. 13. 






1728. 


Jan. 1. 






1731. 


Nov. 15. 






1732. 


Feb. 7. 
May 8. 
June 26. 
Oct. 2. 






1733. 


Jan. 8. 
Oct. 15. 






1735. 


June 23. 






1736. 


May 31. 






1737. 


Mar. 7 m . 
May 23 m . 
Oct. 24. 







1915.] Massachusetts. 227 

1738. Feb 20. 

June 26. 
Sept. 4. 
Nov. 6, 13, 27. 
Dec. 4. 

1739. Jan. 8, 15, 22, 29. 
Feb. 5. 

May 7, 28. 
Aug. 20. 
Dec. 17. 

1740. Feb. 25 ro . 
Apr. 14, 21, .28. 
May 5 m , 26. 
June 9, 30. 

Aug. 4 m , ll m , 18 m , 25 m . 
Sept. 8 m , 29. 

1741. Jan. 5* 12™. 
Apr. 13, 20, 27. 
Aug. 10. 

Oct. 5. 
Nov. 10, 17. 
Dec. 1, 8, 15, 22. 

1742. Feb. 2. 
Mar. 2. 
May 18 m . 
Aug. 10, 24. 

Sept. 7. ■.■•'. 

Nov. 16 ro . 

1743. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 

1744. Jan. 3 to Dec. 25. 
Postscript: Apr. 10. 

Missing: July 10. 

1745. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Feb. 19. 

Missing: Feb. 12, 26, June 4, Aug. 6, Oct. 
1, Dec. 10, 31. 

1746. Jan. 7, 14, 21, 28. 
Feb. 4, 11, 18, 25. 
Mar. 4, 11, 18, 25. 



228 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Apr. 8, 15, 22, 29. 
May 6, 13, 27. 
Sept. 9, 16, 23, 30. 
Oct. 28. 
Nov. 4, 11. 
Dec. 23. 
Supplement: May 13. 

1747. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: May 19. 
Missing: Apr. 28. 

1748. Jan. 5 to Dec. 27. 

Missing: Jan. 5, 12, 26, Feb. 2, Apr. 12, 
Oct. 25. 

1749. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 

1750. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

Missing: Dec. 25. 

1751. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

1752. Mar. 17. 
Nov. 21. 

1753. Jan. 3 to Dec. 25. 

Missing: Dec. 4. 

1754. May 28. 
July 16. 
Aug. 6, 13, 20. 
Sept. 10. 

1755. Jan. 7 to Dec.^29. 

Supplement: Sept. 22, 29, Oct. 6, 13. 
Mutilated: Apr. 7, Dec. 29. 
Missing: Jan. 7, 21, 28, Feb. 4, 11, 18, 
25, Mar. 4, 11, 18, 25, Apr. 1, Nov. 10, Dec. 
1,15. 

1756. Jan. 5 to Dec. 27. 

Supplement: Feb. 9, Apr. 12, 19, Nov. 8. 
Missing: Jan. 5, 19, 26, Feb. 2, Mar. 29, 
May 10, 24, 31, Oct. 4, Dec. 13, 27. 

1757. June 27. 
Oct. 3. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 229 

1758. Jan 2 to Dec. 25. 
Supplement: Jan. 23, May 22. 

Mutilated: June 5, Dec. 25. 
Missing: Jan. 2, 9, Feb. 20, Mar. 27, Apr. 
24, July 3, Oct. 9, 16, 23. 

1759. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Postscript: July 30. 

Missing: Mar. 12, May 28, June 25, July 
2, 16, Oct. 22, 29, Nov. 26, Dec. 3. 

1760. Jan. 7 to Dec. 29. 

Supplement: Jan. 7, Feb. 4, Nov. 17, Dec. 8. 

1761. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated: Jan. 19, Apr. 27, Sept. 28. 
Missing: Jan. 5, Mar. 23, 30, Apr. 6, 13, 

June 8, July 13, 27, Aug. 3, Oct. 5, 12, 

19, Dec. 7, 14, 21, 28. 

1762. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 
Supplement: Mar. 29. 

Mutilated: Jan. 18. 

Missing: Mar. 29, Aug. 2, Sept. 6, Nov. 
8, 22, Dec. 27. 

1763. Jan. 24. 
Apr. 25. 
Aug. 22. 
Oct. 10. 

1764. Feb. 27. 
Mar. 26. 

Apr. 2, 9 m , 16, 30. 

May 7, 14, 21, 28. 

June 4. 

July 16, 23. 

Aug. 6, 13, 20, 27^ 

Sept. 3, 10, 17, 24. 

Oct. 1, 8, 15, 22. 

Supplement: Mar. 26, Sept. 10. 

1765. Jan. 7, 14, 21,28. 
Feb. 4, 11, 18, 25. 
Mar. 4, 11, 18, 25. 
Apr. 22. 



230 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

July 15. 
Supplement: Mar. 4. 

1766. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 

Supplement: Jan. 13, 27, Feb. 17, 24, Apr. 7, 
28, May 5, 12, 26, June 2, 9, 16, July 14, 
21, Aug. 11, Sept. 22, Oct. 6, Nov. 17. 
Missing: Jan. 6, Mar. 3, 31. 

1767. Jan. 19* 26-. 
Feb. 2, 9, 16, 23. 
Mar. 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 
Apr. 6, 13, 20, 27. 
May 4, 11, 18, 25. 
June 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. 
July 6, 13, 20, 27. 
Aug. 3, 10, 17. 

Dec. 28. 

Supplement: Feb. 9, 16, Mar. 9, 16, Apr. 6, 
20, 27, May 4, 11, 25, June 1, 15, Dec. 28. 

1768. Jan. 4 to Dec. 26. 

Supplement: Feb. 29, Apr. 18, 25, May 9, 16, 
30, June 6, Aug. 1, 8, 15, Sept. 19. 
Missing: Mar. 14, 21, 28, May 9, June 20, 
Sept. 26, Oct. 24. 

1769. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

Supplement (Extraordinary) Jan. 23. 
Supplement: Mar. 6, 13, 20, Apr. 10, 17, 

(2 supplements), 24, May 22, June 5, 12, 

Nov. 20. 

Missing:. Jan. 2, 9, May 15. 

1770. Jan. 1, 22, 29. 
Feb. 26. 
Mar. 12, 26. 
Apr. 9. 

June 4, 18. 

Supplement: Feb. 12, 26, Mar. 19, Apr. 2, 9, 
June 4, 18. 

1771. Jan. 14, 28. 
Mar. 18. 
Apr. 1. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 231 

May 20 m , 27. 
June 10, 24. 
July 1. 

Aug. 5, 12, 26. 
Sept. 2, 16. 
Dec. 16, 30. 

Supplement: Apr. 1, Sept. 30, Oct. 7, 21, 28, 
Nov. 18. 

1772. Jan. 6, 20, 27. 
Apr. 27. 
June 1, 15. 

July 6, 13, 20, 27. 

Aug. 3, 10. 

Sept. 14, 21, 28. 

Supplement: Jan. 20, Apr. 20, June 1. 

1773. Feb. 15. 
Mar. 8, 15. 
Apr. 26. 

May 10, 17, 24 m . 
June 7, 14, 28. 

Supplement: Feb. 22, Mar. 15, 29, Apr. 5, 12, 
19, 26, May 3, 10, 17, June 28. 

1774. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 

Supplement: May 2, June 20, Aug. 29, Sept. 5, 
12. 
Missing: Jan. 24, Aug. 15, Nov. 21. 

1775. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

Missing: June 5, 12, July 3, 17, 31. 

1776. Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Oct. 21. 

1777. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: Jan. 6, Dec. 1, 15. 
Missing: Jan. 27, Mar. 31. 

1778. Jan. to Dec. 28. 
Supplement: Dept. 28. 

Mutilated: Mar. 23. 
Missing: Mar. 30, July 20. 

1779. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 
Supplement : Mar. 22. 

Missing: May 24. 



HB [April, 

1780. h 28 

Supplement Apr. 3, Au? 

. 1 >! 

D 

17*1. /an. 1U>T 

7 ; 11, 28, 

xm fa - : . 

'..,...■: . . . ; 

Miaaug 

Ear. 3, 31 ' 

Mur .'Jay 12, J«c 16, 3D, 

• .,; _; 
Miaaing: Ja. " ; Mar. 3, M 

sr. 11, 
17-4. faa ; >I 8 
.ppJement Apr. I 

: . . : ^ n. 

.\; :.i; . ;:. _. ;- 22 i;,r ' .' r i; V. 
i . . . . . >7 . . >2 ; 20 

C 

IW. /an. 3 rx . 

Missing: /a.. ..if> 1, 

; 12 

21 D i - 2$. 
178*. Jan. 2 

Mutilated: Jan. 2, July 1 

Miamkg: Feb. I V, ~ept. 11, 

22 I 

17-7. Jan. 1 u> D 

- 
Miaong June 18, July 30, :r<ept. 3, 

10, Oct. 1 
1788- Jan. 7 

Mutflat 






■btftotoi Mai | 









m 

- i 



■■ 



r^c 



; ,.- r -. 



-. . 



•:. - : - 




__ - 






j __ 



. 






234 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

issue, of which the full title was "Boston Gazette. Com- 
mercial and Political, ,, was that of Oct. 9, 1800, vol. 9, 
no. 11. It was published by John Russell & James 
Cutler, the two having formed a partnership on this date. 
With the issue of Jan. 3, 1803, the title was shortened to 
"Boston Gazette," published by Russell and Cutler. 
With the issue of Sept. 2, 1813, Simon Gardner was taken 
into partnership and the paper published by Russell, 
Cutler & Co. With the issue of Jan. 1, 1816, the title 
was changed to "Boston Commercial Gazette," although 
the word "Commercial" was in much smaller type than 
the rest of the title. With the issue of Jan. 2, 1817, it was 
printed in the same size of type. Cutler died Apr. 29, 
1818, but the surviving partners waited until June 25 
before they announced the continuation of the partner- 
ship, and it was not until the issue of June 29, 1818, that 
the firm name of Russell & Gardner appeared in the 
imprint. The "Boston Commercial Gazette" was con- 
tinued by them until after 1820. 

Mass. Hist. Soc, Boston Pub. Lib., Boston Athenaeum 
and Essex Inst, all have files, 1800-1820. N. E. Hist. 
Gen. Soc. has 1802, 1807, 1808. Harvard has 1800-1812, 
scattering file. Patten Free Lib., Bath, Me., has 1801- 
1806, 1808, 1810-1820. Dartmouth has 1804-1807; 
Aug.-Dec, 1809; 1819. Ct. Hist. Soc. has 1800-1805; 
May 4, 1809-June 1, 1812; 1813-1820. Yale has 1801, 
1808. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has 1800-1806, fair; 1819-1820. 
N. Y. Hist. Soc. has 1801 -Oct. 21, 1813, good; 1814- 
1815, imperfect; 1817-1819. N. Y. State Lib. has 1801; 
1803-1809; Jan. -Apr., 1811; 1813-1819. Penn. State 
Lib. has Oct. 1800-Feb., 1801. Lib. Cong, has 1800- 
1806; 1807, incomplete; 1808-1820. Western Reserve 
Hist. Soc. has 1811, 1812, 1814. Wis. Hist. Soc. has 1801- 
1802; Mar., 1803-Dec, 1806; Oct., 1807-Dec, 1808; 
1810-1813; 1815. British Museum has Oct., 1800-Apr. 
13, 1801. A. A. S. has: 

1800. Oct. 9 to Dec. 29. 

Supplement: Oct. 13, Nov. 3, Dec. 22. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 235 

1801. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
[Supplement] Feb. 2, 16, Sept. 28 m . 
Extra: May 18, Sept. 24. 

Missing: Jan. 1, Feb. 5, June 8, Aug. 17, 
Sept. 28, Oct. 8, Nov. 9, 19, 26, 30, Dec. 
10, 24, 31. 

1802. Jan. 4 to Dec. 30. 

Supplement: Jan. 11, Mar. 22, Apr. 26, 

July 5 W . 
Extra: May 17, 24, June 21, Sept. 6, Oct. 18, 
Dec. 6. 

1803. Jan. 3 to Dec. 29. 

Extra: Jan. 31, May 2, 23, 30, June 6, 13, 
July 11, Sept. 26, Nov. 7, Dec. 5. 
Missing: Oct. 27, Dec. 1. 

1804. Jan. 2 to Dec. 31. 
Extra: Nov. 5. 

Mutilated: Mar. 12. 
Missing: May 28. 

1805. Jan. 3 to Dec. 30. 
Extra: May 13, Dec. 16. 

1806. Jan, 2 to Dec. 29. 
Supplement: Feb. 3. 

Missing: Jan. 23, May 8, Sept. 8, Oct. 16, 
20. 

1807. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: July 13. 

1808. Jan. 4 to Dec. 29. 
Extra: Jan. 11. 
Extraordinary: Nov. 8. 

1809. Jan. 2 to Dec. 28. 
Extra: Mar. 13. 

Missing: Apr. 20, Oct. 26. 

1810. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Extra: Nov. 12. 

1811. Jan. 3 to Dec. 30. 
Supplement: Apr. 22. 

Mutilated: July 22, Dec. 30. 



236 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

1812. Jan. 2 to Dec. 31. 
Extra: Mar. 9, Apr. 2. 
Supplement: Mar. 30. 

1813. Jan. 4 to Dec. 30. 
Supplement: Jan. 25, Mar. 29. 
Extra: Apr. 5. 

Mutilated: Apr. 22. 

1814. Jan. 3 to Dec. 29. 

1815. Jan. 2 to Dec. 28. 

Supplement: Feb. 27, Sept. 11, 25, Oct. 23, 

Nov. 9. 
Extra: Mar. 20, May 1, June 1, Nov. 20, 

Dec. 4, 18. 

Mutilated: Jan. 9, May 8, Dec. 4. 

1816. Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 
Supplement: June 27. 

1817. Jan. 2 to Dec. 29. 
Carrier's Address, Jan. 1. 

1818. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

1819. Jan. 4 to Dec. 30. 
Carrier's Address, Jan. 1. 
Extra: Jan. 25, Oct. 21. 

Mutilated: May 24, Oct. 7, 11. 

1820. Jan. 3 to Dec. 28. 
Carrier's Address, Jan. 1. 

Mutilated: June 29. 

[Boston] Gazetteer, 1803. 

Semi-weekly. A continuation, without change of 
volume numbering, of the "Republican Gazetteer. " 
The first issue of "The Gazetteer" was that of Apr. 2, 
1803, vol. 2, no. 1, published by J[ohn] M. Dunham. 
The word "The" was omitted from the title with the 
issue of Aug. 20, 1803. With the issue of Oct. 29, 1803, 
Dunham admitted Benjamin Parks to partnership, 
under the firm name of Dunham & Parks. The last 
issue was that of Dec. 31, 1803, vol. 2, no. 79, as the 
paper was transferred to True & Parks who established 
"The Democrat" in its place. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 237 

Boston Athenaeum has Apr. 2 -Dec. 31, 1803. Mass. 
Hist. Soc. has Apr. 2-9, 16, 20, July 9, Aug. 10, 24, 27, 
Oct. 15, 19, 22, Nov. 9, 12, 30, Dec. 10, 1803. Lib. Cong, 
has Apr. 9, 30, May 21, June 25, Oct. 5-15, 22, 29, Nov. 
5, 23, Dec. 10, 1803. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Apr. 2-Dec. 31, 
1803. 

[Boston] Green & Russell's Boston Post=Boy, see Boston 
Post=Boy. 

[Boston] Herald of Freedom, 1788-1791. 

Semi- weekly. Established Sept. 15, 1788, by Edmund 
Freeman and Loring Andrews, under the title of "The 
Herald of Freedom, and the Federal Advertiser." With 
the issue of Sept. 15, 1789, the paper was published by 
Edmund Freeman alone. With the issue of Mar. 16, 
1790, the title was shortened to "The Herald of Freedom." 
With the issue of Apr. 5, 1791, Freeman sold out the 
paper to John Howel, who shortened the title to "Herald 
of Freedom." The paper was discontinued with the 
issue of July 19, 1791, vol. 6, no. 35, being replaced by 
"The Argus," which continued the old numbering. See 
under Argus. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. and Harvard have Sept. 15, 1788- 
July 19, 1791. Boston Pub. Lib. has Sept. 18, 1788 -June 
24, 1791, imperfect. N. E. Hist. Gen. Soc. has Sept. 15, 
1788-Nov. 30, 1790; Apr. 8-June 7, 1791. Boston 
Athenaeum has Feb. 10, 1789 -July 19, 1791, scattering 
issues. Mass. State Lib. has Jan. 1-Dec. 29, 1789. 
Essex Inst, has Sept. 18, 1788 -Apr. 12, 1791, scattering. 
N. Y. State Lib. has Sept. 15, 1788- June, 1791, scattering. 
N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Apr. 7, 1789; June 29, Nov. 16, 19, 
Dec. 3, 1790; Apr. 8, June 3, 1791. Hist. Soc. Penn. has 
Jan. 6, 1789; Jan. 12, 22, 29, Feb. 2, 1790. Lib. Cong, 
has Nov. 13, 1788-June 11, 1790, fair; Sept. 7, 1790; Jan. 
21, Apr. 5, 8, 16, 19, June 3, 17, 1791. Wis. Hist. Soc. 
has Jan. -July, 1790. A. A. S. has: 
1788. Sept. 18, 25, 29. 

Oct. 2, 6, 9, 13, 16, 20, 23, 27, 30. 



238 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Nov. 3, 10™ 13*, 17, 20. 
Dec. 8-, 11, 25, 29. 

1789. Jan. 1 to Dec. 29. 

Supplement: May 5, 26, Aug. 14, Sept. 18. 
Missing: Jan. 6. 

1790. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Missing: Mar. 16. 

1791. Jan. 4 to July 19. 
Supplement: Apr. 12. 

Mutilated: Mar. 15, Apr. 22, July 5. 
Missing: Jan. 4, Feb. 4, Mar. 1, July 15. 

[Boston] Idiot, 1818-1819. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 10, 1818, with the title of 
"The Idiot, or, Invisible Rambler." Neither the pro- 
prietor's nor printer's name is given, although it is stated 
to be published by " Samuel Simpleton." With the issue 
of Oct. 17, 1818, there is an announcement, "Subscrip- 
tions for this paper received by N. Coverly, Milk Street," 
which would indicate that Nathaniel Coverly was the 
printer. With the issue of Aug. 29, 1818, the title was 
slightly altered to "The Idiot, or Invisible Rambler." 
It was of quarto size, and since it contained marriage and 
death notices, and current news, both local and domestic, 
could be considered a newspaper. It was discontinued 
with the issue of Jan. 2, 1819, vol. 1, no. 52, its establish- 
ment having been bought out by the "Kaleidoscope." 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 10, 1818-Jan. 2, 1819. Bos- 
ton Pub. Lib. has Jan. 10, 1818-Jan. 2, 1819, lacking four 
issues. A. A. S. has: 
1818. Apr. 18. 
May 23. 
July 11. 

[Boston] Independent Advertiser, 1748-1749. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 4, 1748, by Rogers and 
Fowle (Gamaliel Rogers and Daniel Fowle), with tht 
title of "The Independent Advertiser." There wen 
evidently no issues published between Oct. 2, 1749 



1915.] Massachusetts. 239 

no. 92, and Dec. 5, 1749, no. 93. Discontinued with the 
issue of Dec. 5, 1749. 

Boston Pub. Lib. has Jan. 4, 1748 -Aug. 28, 1749. 
Mass. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 4 -Dec. 12, 1748, scattering 
file; Jan. 2 -Dec. 5, 1749. Boston Athenaeum has June 
27, 1748. Harvard has Feb. 6, May 8, July 10, 31, Sept. 
25, 1749. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 2 -Dec. 5, 1749. 
A. A. S. has: 

1748. Jan. 4 to Dec. 26. 
Supplement: Sept. 5. 

Mutilated: Jan. 4. 

Missing: Feb. 1, 15, 22, 29, Oct. 31. 

1749. Jan. 2 to Dec. 5. 

Missing: Oct. 2, Dec. 5. 

[Boston] Independent Chronicle, 1776-1820+ . 

Weekly and semi-weekly. A continuation of "The 
New-England Chronicle," the first issue with the new 
title of "The Independent Chronicle" being that of 
• Sept. 19, 1776, no. 422, published by Powars and Willis 
(Edward E. Powars and Nathaniel Willis). With the 
issue of Nov. 7, 1776, the title was changed to "The 
Independent Chronicle. And the Universal Advertiser." 
With the issue of Mar. 4, 1779, Powars withdrew from 
the firm and the paper was published by Nathaniel Willis. 
With the issue of Jan. 1, 1784, the paper was purchased 
by Adams and Nourse (Thomas Adams and John Nourse). 
There were slight variations in the punctuation in the 
title on Aug. 16, 1781, Nov. 26, 1784, Mar. 19, 1789, and 
Oct. 1, 1789, and with the issue of Jan. 29, 1789, the title 
was shortened to "Independent Chronicle: and the 
Universal Advertiser." John Nourse died Jan. 2, 1790, 
and with the issue of Jan. 7, 1790, the paper was published 
by Thomas Adams. With the issue of Feb. 17, 1791, 
the title was again "The Independent Chronicle: and the 
Universal Advertiser." With the issue of July 11, 1793, 
Isaac Larkin was admitted to partnership under the firm 
name of Adams and Larkin. With the issue of Aug. 19, 
1793, the issue was changed from weekly to semi-weekly. 



240 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Larkin died Dec. 4, 1797, and with the issue of Dec. 7, 
1797, the paper was published by Thomas Adams. With 
the issue of May 13, 1799, Adams transferred the paper 
and it was printed by Ebenezer Rhoades for the Pro- 
prietor (announced as James White). With the issue of 
i May 15, 1800, White gave up his interests and the paper 
was published by Adams & Rhoades (Abijah Adams and 
Ebenezer Rhoades). With the issue of Dec. 21, 1801, 
the title was shortened to "The Independent Chronicle," 
shortened again on Jan. 2, 1806, to " Independent Chron- 
icle." With the issue of Oct. 20, 1808, Davis C. Ballard 
was admitted to the firm, which became known as Adams, 
Rhoades & Co. With the issue of Jan. 3, 1814, Ballard 
withdrew and the paper was published by Adams & 
Rhoades. With the issue of June 4, 1817, Davis C. 
Ballard and Edmund Wright, Jr., under the firm name of 
Ballard & Wright, bought the paper and consolidated 
with it the "Boston Patriot." They published two 
papers, one the "Independent Chronicle & Boston 
Patriot (for the country) " which was a continuation, in 
volume numbering and otherwise, of the semi-weekly 
"Independent Chronicle"; and the other the "Independ- 
ent Chronicle & Boston Patriot," which started a new 
volume numbering with the issue of June 2, 1817, and 
was a continuation of the daily "Boston Patriot." With 
the issue of Oct. 1, 1817, the semi-weekly dropped the 
words "for the country" from the title, and thenceforth 
for two months, the titles of the semi-weekly and the daily 
papers were the same. W r ith the issue of Dec. 2, 1817, 
vol. 2, no. 157, the daily edition changed its name to the 
"Boston Patriot & Daily Chronicle," for which contin- 
uation see under "Boston Patriot." The semi-weekly 
"Independent Chronicle & Boston Patriot" was contin- 
ued by Ballard & Wright until after 1820. The "&" 
in the title was changed to "and" with the issue of Mar. 1, 
1820. 

N. E. Hist. Gen. Soc. has a fine file 1776-1820. Boston 
Pub. Lib. has 1776-1791, fair; 1792-1816, good; Jan. 13- 
May 1, 1817, scattering; June 4, 1817-1820. Mass. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 241 

Hist. Soc. has 1776-1780, good; 1781-1790, incomplete; 
1791-1812, good; 1813, scattering; 1814-1817, incomplete; 
1817-1819, scattering. Boston Athenaeum has 1776- 
1779, good; 1781-1817; 1819-1820. Mass. St. Lib. has 
1776-1807, good; Nov. 1, 1810-Oct. 31, 1811. Harvard 
has 1781-1789; Aug. 2, 1792-Mar. 12, 1793; Oct. 21, 
1793 -June 9, 1794; 1795-1812, scattering file; Nov. 15, 
1817-Dec. 29, 1819. Essex Inst, has 1776-1781, fair; 
1782-1802, scattering issues; 1803-1809; 1811; 1813; 
1817-1820. Patten Free Pub. Lib., Bath, Me., has 1802- 
1817. Dartmouth has Feb. 13, 1778-1820, fair. Yale 
has Apr. 3, 1777 -Dec. 28, 1780; Feb. 5, 1795 -Dec. 28, 
1809; 1811. Ct. Hist. Soc. has 1809; Nov. 26, 1812-May 
27, 1813. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has 1776-1789, scattering; 
1790-1792, scattering issues; 1793; 1794-1795, scattering; 
1796-1816. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has 1797; Mar. 20, 1800- 
May 11, 1801; 1802-1803; July 16, 1807-Dec. 28, 1809; 
May 10, 1810-Oct. 25, 1813; Jan. 27-July 28, 1814. 
N. Y. State Lib. has 1777-1782, scattering; 1783-1784; 
1785-1788, scattering; 1789; 1791-1792, scattering; 1793- 
1795; 1796, scattering; 1797-1799; 1800, scattering; 
1801-1810; 1811-1815, scattering. Hist. Soc. Penn., has 
Oct. 3, 1776-July 1, 1784; 1784-1786, scattering; Mar. 12, 
1795 -Dec. 28, 1797. Lib. Cong, has Oct. 3, 1776 -Dec. 
30, 1784; 1785-1786, scattering file; 1787-1820. Cincin- 
nati Pub. Lib. has 1805. Western Reserve Hist. Soc. 
has 1808-1809; July -Dec, 1814. Wis. Hist. Soc. has 
1776-1793, scattering; 1794-1806; Feb. -Aug., 1808; 1809- 
1812; Mar., 1813-Mar., 1814; 1815-1816; June, 1817-1820. 
British Museum has July 14, 1785 -Dec. 11, 1788, scat- 
tering; Mar. 11, 1790-Nov. 24, 1791; 1798-1807; Mar.- 
May, 1808; 1810-1812. A. A. S. has: 

1776. Sept. 19 to Dec. 26. 

1777. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

1778. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Nov. 5. 
Missing: Dec. 24. 

1779. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 
Supplement: Apr. 1, 15. 



242 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Mutilated: Sept. 2. 
Missing: May 13, June 10. 

1780. Jan. 6 to Dec. 28. 
Supplement: Mar. 16. 

Missing: Jan. 20. 

1781. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 
Supplement: Nov. 15. 

Mutilated: Jan. 18, Apr. 12. 

1782. Jan. 3, 10, 17, 31. 
Feb. 21. 

Mar. 14, 21. 

Apr. 4. 

May 9, 30. 

June 6, 13, 20 ro . 

July 11. 

Aug. 1, 8, 15 m , 22 m , 29 m . 

Sept. 5, 26. 

Nov. 14™, 29 m . 

Dec. 5, 12, 19, 26. 

Supplement: Feb. 27, June 6, 20. 

1783. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 
Supplement: Mar. 6 m , July 24. 

Mutilated: Jan. 23, Feb. 27, Mar. 27, May 
29, June 12, Sept. 11, 25, Nov. 20. 

Missing: Jan. 9, Feb. 6, Apr. 17, 24, May 
22, Sept. 18, Oct. 16, Dec. 5. 

1784. Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 

Supplement: Mar. 18, 25, Apr. 1, 8, May 20, 
June 3, 17, July 1, 29, Aug. 5, 12, 26, Sept. 
2, 16, 30, Oct. 7, Nov. 11, Dec. 2. 
r ' Missing: Apr. 8. 

1785. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 
Supplement: May 5. 

1786. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 
Extraordinary: Nov. 30. 

Mutilated: Jan. 19, Feb. 16, 23, Mar. 9, 

16, 30, Sept. 21, Oct. 19. 
Missing: Jan. 26, Feb. 9, May 4, 11. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 243 

1787. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 

Mutilated: Jan. 4, May 17, June 7, Aug. 9, 

Sept. 13. 
Missing: Aug. 30. 

1788. Jan. 3 to Dec. 25. 
Supplement: Jan. 3. 

Mutilated: Mar. 20. 
Missing: Feb. 14. 

1789. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Supplement: Mar. 19. 

Mutilated: Jan. 1, Aug. 20. 

1790. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

Extraordinary: Jan. 28, 29, Feb. 18, Apr. 20, 

May 11. 
Supplement: Mar. 4, 18, 25, Apr. 1. 

Mutilated: Feb. 18, Nov. 18. 

1791. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 
Supplement: Feb. 3. 
Postscript: Mar. 3, Apr. 28. • 

Mutilated: May 12, 19, 26, June 30, Aug. 4, 
25, Oct. 6, 13, Nov. 18. 

1792. Jan. 5 to Dec. 27. 
Extraordinary: Jan. 5, Mar. 1. 
Supplement: Nov. 15, Dec. 27. 

Mutilated: Jan. 12, Mar. 30, May 10, 
July 19. 

1793. Jan. 3 to Dec. 30. 
Supplement: Feb. 14, May 16. 
Extraordinary : Mar. 8, Apr. 19 m . 

Mutilated: Feb. 21, Apr. 4, Aug. 8, Sept. 2, 

9, Oct. 3, 24. 
Missing: Aug. 19, Sept. 30, Oct. 28, Nov. 

11, Dec. 16. 

1794. Jan. 2 to Dec. 29. 
Extraordinary: Oct. 10 m . 

Mutilated: Jan. 30, Feb. 6, 10, 13, 27, 
Mar. 3, Apr. 3, May 8, 12, June 19, 
Nov. 3, Dec. 8, 18. 



-l :• •- -l 






_ 



l-L Z- 




. ~ 



^ - 






1915.] Massachusetts. 245 

Extraordinary: Nov. 5, 17, Dec. 13. 

Mutilated: Feb. 20, Mar. 5, Apr. 4, May 
17, June 14, Aug. 2, Sept. 3, 13, 17, 
Dec. 10, 13, 17. 
Missing: Jan. 2, Sept. 10. 

1805. Jan. 3 to Dec. 30. 
Extra: May 27. 

1806. Jan. 2 to Dec. 29. 
Carrier's Address, Jan. 1. 
Supplement: Mar. 17, 31. 
Extra: May 5. 

Mutilated : June 2. 

1807. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Supplement: May 4. 
Extra: May 11. 

Mutilated: Feb. 9, Aug. 17, Sept. 3, Dec. 

24. 
Missing: Feb. 26. 

1808. Jan. 4 to Dec. 29. 

Extra: Mar. 17, Apr. 4, 25, May 23, Nov. 24. 
Supplement: May 2. 

Mutilated: Apr. 21, 25, June 27. 

Missing: Aug. 1. 

1809. Jan. 2 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated: Feb. 9. 

1810. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Jan. 15. 
Missing: July 5, Sept. 24. 

1811. Jan. 3 to Dec. 30. 
Carrier's Address: Jan. 1. 

Mutilated: July 11. 

1812. Jan. 2 to Dec. 31. 
Supplement: Mar. 19 OT . 

Mutilated: Aug. 31, Dec. 28. 
Missing: Dec. 21. 

1813. Jan. 4 to Dec. 30. 
Extraordinary : July 22. 

Mutilated: Apr. 5, 15, Sept. 2, Nov. 4. 
Missing: Aug. 26. 



246 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

1814. Jan. 3 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: Feb. 3, Mar. 14, 21, May 5, 12, 

June 2, Aug. 11. 
Missing: Apr. 4-28. 

1815. Jan. 2 to Dec. 28. 
Newsboy's Address: Jan. 1. 

Mutilated: Aug. 31. 
Missing: Aug. 17, Sept. 11. 

1816. Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 
Carrier's Address: Jan. 1. 
Supplement: Jan. 8, Feb. 26. 

Mutilated: Jan. 1, 8, 11, 15, 18, 22, 25, 
Feb. 5, 8, Sept. 12, 19, Oct. 7. 

1817. Jan. 2 to Dec. 31. 

Missing: Oct. 4. 

1817. (Daily) 

June 2 to Dec. 1. 
Missing: June 6, 10, 11, July 6, Aug. 5, 
Oct. 11. 

1818. Jan. 3 to Dec. 30. 

Missing: Nov. 7. 

1819. Jan. 2 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated : July 3. 
Missing: May 29, July 17. 

1820. Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: June 7, Dec. 20. 
Missing: Aug. 12, Sept. 9, 20, 27, 30, 
Oct. 4, 7, 14. 

Boston] Independent Ledger, 1778-1786. 

Weekly. Established June 15, 1778, by Draper & 
Folsom (Edward Draper and John W. Folsom) with 
the title of "The Independent Ledger, and American 
Advertiser." With the issue of July 20, 1778, the title 
was slightly changed to "The Independent Ledger, and 
the American Advertiser." The partnership between 
Draper & Folsom was dissolved on Nov. 3, 1783, although 
it was not until the issue of Dec. 1, 1783, that the name 
was changed in the imprint to John W. Folsom. With 



1915.] Massachusetts. 247 

the issue of Mar. 29, 1784, the size of the paper was slightly 
increased v and the name in the imprint changed to John 
West Folsom. The paper was discontinued with the 
issue of Oct. 16, 1786. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has June 15, 1778-Oct. 16, 1786. 
Boston Athenaeum has June 15, 1778 -Dec. 26, 1785. 
Boston Pub. Lib. has June 22, 1778-Oct. 9, 1786, scatter- 
ing issues. Essex Inst, has May 17, 1779 -Feb. 14, 1780, 
scattering; July 10, 1780 -Dec. 24, 1781, fair; a few scat- 
tering later issues. Yale has July 13 -Dec. 14, 1778. 
N. Y. Pub. Lib. has June 12, Nov. 20, 1780; Apr. 9, 1781; 
Aug. 10, 1782; Feb. 24-Dec. 22, 1783, scattering; Mar. 
29, 1784-Mar. 28, 1785; May 22, Sept. 4, Oct. 16, 1786. 
N. Y. State Lib. has June 15, 1778-Oct. 9, 1786, scatter- 
ing. Hist. Soc. Penn. has July 6, 1778-Oct. 25, 1779; 
Nov. 20, 1780; July 22, 1782; Dec. 26, 1785; Jan. 2-30, 
Feb. 6, 27, 1786. Lib. Cong, has Aug. 24, 1778 -Dec. 8, 
1783, fair; Jan. 5, 1784-Oct. 16, 1786. A. A. S. has: 

1778. June 15 to Dec. 28. 

Missing: June 15, 22, July 6, 13, 20, Oct. 
19, Dec. 21, 28. 

1779. Jan. 18, 25™. 
Feb. 8 W , 15. 
Apr. 12, 19™, 26. 
May 3, 10, 24, 31. 
June 7 m . 

July 5. 

Aug. 2, 9", 16". 
Sept. 13, 20, 27. 
Oct. 4, 11™. 
Nov. 8, 29™. 
Dec. 20™. 

1780. Jan. 24. 
Feb. 7, 28. 
Mar. 6, 13. 

Apr. 10, 17™, 24™. 
May 8, 15™, 22, 29. 
June 12, 26. 
July 24. 



248 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Aug. 7, 21, 28. 
Sept. 4, 18, 25. 
Oct. 16, 23, 30. 
Nov. 27. 
Dec. 25. 
Supplement: Apr. 24. 

1781. Jan. 1. 
Feb. 12. 
Apr. 30. 
June 4. 
July 30. 
Dec. 17. 

1782. Mar. 11. 
May 13. 
June 10, 17. 
Aug. 12. 
Sept. 16. 
Oct. 21, 28. 
Nov. 18, 25. 
Dec. 23. 

1783. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: Apr. 14. 

Missing: Jan. 6, 20, Feb. 10, 17, Mar. 24, 
Aug. 11. 

1784. Jan. 5 to Dec. 27. 
Supplement: Dec. 6. 

Missing: Feb. 16, Mar. 1, Aug. 9, 23, Nov. 
1, 29. 

1785. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 

Mutilated: Jan. 10, Dec. 26. 

Missing: Jan. 17, Feb. 7, May 16, 30, 
June 27, July 11, 18, 25, Aug. 1, 8, 15, 
29, Sept. 12, 26, Oct. 3, Nov. 7, 14, 21, 
28, Dec. 5, 12. 

1786. Jan. 2 to Oct. 16. 

Missing: Jan. 23, 30, Feb. 13, Mar. 27, 
May 29, June 5, 19, July 10, 24, 31, 
Aug. 28, Sept. 4, 25. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 249 

Boston Intelligencer, 1816-1820+. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of number- 
ing, of the "Evening Gazette," the first issue with the 
new title of "Boston Intelligencer, and Morning & Even- 
ing Advertiser/' being that of Aug. 17, 1816, vol. 3, no. 1, 
published by William Burdick & Co. With the issue of 
Jan. 4, 1817, Burdick relinquished the proprietorship, 
but no transfer to another proprietor was noted in the 
paper until the issue of Mar. 8, 1817, when William W. 
Clapp announced that he had purchased the paper. The 
name of William W. Clapp & Co., first appeared in the 
imprint with the issue of Mar. 15, 1817. No publisher's 
name appeared in the imprint beginning with the issue of 
May 2, 1818, and it was not until the issue of July 25, 

1818, that Clapp's name again appeared, this time with- 
out the "Co." With the issue of Oct. 24, 1818, the title 
was changed to "Boston Intelligencer & Evening Ga- 
zette." Clapp continued the paper until after 1820. 

Boston Pub. Lib. has 1816-1820. Boston Athenaeum 
has Aug. 17, 1816 -Dec. 25, 1819. Mass. Hist. Soc. has 
Oct. 19, 1816; Aug. 16, 1817-Oct. 17, 1818; Feb. 20, Mar. 
13, May 22, July 3, 1819; Jan. -Dec, 1820. Essex 
Inst, has 1816-1820. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has 1816-June 19, 

1819. Hist. Soc. Penn. has Aug. 17, 1816-Dec. 27, 1817. 
Lib. Cong, has 1816-1817; Jan. 30, June 26, Aug. 7, 1819. 
Wis. Hist. Soc. has 1816-Aug., 1819. A. A. S. has: 

. 1816. Aug. 17 to Dec. 28. 

1817. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 
Carrier's Address, Jan. 1. 
Supplement: May 17. 

Mutilated: Jan. 4. 

1818. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 

1819. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 
Carrier's Address, Jan. 1. 

1820. Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 

[Boston] J. Russell's Gazette, 1798-1800, see Russell's Ga- 
zette. 



250 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

[Boston] Kaleidoscope, 1818-1819. 

Weekly. Established Nov. 28, 1818, judging from the 
earliest issue located, that of Dec. 12, 1818, vol. 1, no. 3. 
"The Kaleidoscope" was published by Hews & Goss 

( Hews and Sylvester T. Goss) and edited by 

N[athaniel] H. Wright. With the issue of Jan. 9, 1819, 
it absorbed a similar paper entitled "The Idiot, or, Invisi- 
ble Rambler," and changed its title to "Boston Kaleido- 
scope and Literary Rambler." The last issue located is 
that of Oct. 23, 1819, vol. 1, no. 47. This paper was of 
quarto size, paged, and since it contained marriage and 
death notices, and a considerable amount of current news, 
especially local, could be considered a newspaper. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Feb. 6, Apr. 17, May 29, Oct. 23, 
1819. A. A. S. has: 

1818. Dec. 12, 19, 26. 

1819. Jan. 9, 16, 23, 30. 
Feb. 6, 13, 20, 27. 
Mar. 6 m , 13, 20, 27. 
Apr. 3, 10, 17, 24. 

[Boston] Massachusetts Centinel, 1784-1790. 

Semi-weekly. Established Mar. 24, 1784, by Warden 
& Russell (William Warden and Benjamin Russell) under 
the title of "The Massachusetts Centinel: and the Repub- 
lican Journal." With the issue of Oct. 16, 1784, the title 
was shortened to "The Massachusetts Centinel." The 
paper was at first of quarto size and title-pages were 
printed for vols. 1 and 2. Warden died Mar. 18, 1786, 
and with the issue of Mar. 22, the paper was published 
by Benjamin Russell. With this issue, moreover, the 
size was enlarged to folio. The last issue with this title 
was that of June 12, 1790, vol. 13, no. 26, and with the 
issue of June 16, 1790, the title was changed to "Colum- 
bian Centinel," which see. 

Boston Athenaeum has Mar. 24, 1784-June 12, 1790. 
Mass. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 27-Dec. 29, 1784, scattering; 
1785-1890. Boston Pub. Lib. has Mar. 31-Dec. 22, 1784, 
scattering; 1785-1790. N. E. Hist. Gen. Soc. has Mar. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 251 

27, 1784 -Mar. 19, 1785; Mar. 22, 1786-1790. Mass. 
State Lib. has Jan. 5, 1785-1790. Harvard has Mar. 23, 
1785-Mar. 18, 178G; Apr. 15, 1786; Sept., 1786-1790, 
imperfect. Essex Inst, has Jan. 29, 1785 -Dec. 26, 1787, 
scattering; 1788-1790, fair. Dartmouth has Mar. 24 -Oct. 
13, 1784; Mar. 12, 1785-1790. Yale has Jan. 1, 1785- 
Mar. 18, 1786; Sept. 1788 -Sept., 1789. Ct. Hist. Soc. 
has Jan. 3, 1789-1790. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 24, 
1784-1790. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Apr. 7, 1784-1790. 
N. Y. State Lib. has Nov. 13, 1784-Apr., 1787,. scattering; 
May, 1787-1790. Long Id. Hist. Soc. has June 2, 1784- 
1790. Hist. Soc. Penn. has Mar. 24 -Sept. 18, 1784; 
Jan. 23-Sept. 13, 1788. Lib. Cong, has Mar. 24, 1784- 
1790. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Mar., 1784-Mar., 1786; 
Mar., 1787 -Dec, 1789; Mar.-June, 1790. British Muse- 
um has Mar. 24, 1784-1790. A. A. S. has: 

1784. Mar. 24 to Dec. 29. 
Prospectus: Mar. 11. 

Extraordinary: June 23, Aug. 18, Oct. 6, 
Nov. 13. 
Missing: Title-page, vol. 2. 

1785. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Extra: Apr. 23. 
Postscript : May 25. 

Mutilated: Feb. 5, Apr. 9, May 4, July 16, 
Sept. 10, Dec. 14. 

1786. Jan. 4 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Jan. 18. 

1787. Jan. 3 to Dec. 29. 
Extra: Sept. 26. 
Index to vol. 6. 

1788. Jan. 2 to Dec. 31. 
Extraordinary: Feb. 2, Apr. 30, Dec. 3. 

1789. Jan. 3 to Dec. 30. 

Extraordinary: May 6, 25, Aug. 12, Nov. 25, 
Dec. 16. 

1790. Jan. 2 to June 12. 

Extraordinary: Jan. 16, 30, Feb. 22, Mar. 10, 
24, May 29. 



252 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Extra: Mar. 15, Apr. 28, May 1, 15, 22, 
June 5. 

[Boston] Massachusetts Gazette, 1765-1766, see Boston News- 
Letter. 

[Boston] Massachusetts Gazette, 1768-1769. 

Semi-weekly. Established May 23, 1768, and pub- 
lished semi-weekly, as part of "The Boston Post-Boy 
& Advertiser" issued by Green & Russell on Monday, 
and of "The Boston Weekly News-Letter" issued by R. 
Draper on Thursday. The issue of "The Massachusetts 
Gazette," by the arrangement between the two firms of 
publishers, appeared therefore on Mondays and Thursdays, 
as a part of, or accompanying, the "Post-Boy" and the 
" News-Letter " alternately. The first issue of " The Mass- 
achusetts Gazette" was no. 277, which numbering was 
undoubtedly adopted through reckoning back, although 
slightly in error, to the first time when the words "Mass- 
achusetts Gazette" appeared as part of the title of "Bos- 
ton News-Letter. " The last issue of "The Massachusetts 
Gazette" in this form was that of Sept. 25, 1769. This 
paper should be considered as an integral part of the files 
of the "News-Letter" and the "Post-Boy," with which it 
is generally bound, but because of its distinctive title, it 
is here listed separately. For a full discussion of the 
subject, see the Colonial Society Check-List in "Publica- 
tions," vol. 9, p. 484. 

Boston Athenaeum has a full file, May 23, 1768-Sept. 
25, 1769. Mass. Hist. Soc. has all but six issues. N. E. 
Hist. Gen. Soc. has a file of those papers issued as part 
of the "Boston Post-Boy." Boston Pub. Lib., N. Y. 
State Lib., Lib. Cong., and British Museum have scatter- 
ing files. A. A. S. has: 
1768. May 26. 

June 2, 16, 23, 30. 

July 7, 14, 21, 28. 

Aug. 4, 11, 15", 18, 22", 25, 29". 

Sept. 1, 8, 15, 19", 22, 26", 29. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 253 

Oct. 6, 10 m , 13, 17"», 20, 24", 27, 31». 
Nov. 3, 7-, 10, 17, 21", 24. 
Dec. 2, 8, 15, 22, 29. 
Supplement: Nov. 3. 
1769. Jan. 5, 12, 19, 26. 
Feb. 2, 9, 16, 23. 
Mar. 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 
Apr. 7, 13, 20, 27. 
May 4, 11, 18, 25. 
June 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. 
July 13, 20, 27. 
Aug. 3, 10, 17, 24, 31. 
Sept. 7, 14, 21. 

[Boston] Massachusetts Gazette, 1785-1788. 

Weekly and semi-weekly. Removed from Salem to 
Boston, where the first issue was published Nov. 28, 

1785, vol. 5, no. 216, published by Samuel Hall. Its 
title was "The Massachusetts Gazette. M It was changed 
from a weekly to a semi-weekly with the issue of Aug. 22, 

1786. Beginning with the issue of June 5, 1787, Hall 
admitted John W. Allen into partnership under the firm 
name of S. Hall and J. W. Allen. With the issue of Sept. 
4, 1787, Hall relinquished his interests and the paper was 
published by John Wincoll Allen. It was discontinued 
with the issue of Nov. 11, 1788. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. and Boston Pub. Lib. have Nov. 28, 
1785 -Nov. 11, 1788. Boston Athenaeum has Dec. 5, 
1785 -Oct. 12, 1787. Mass. State Lib. has Sept. 4, 14, 
18, Oct. 2, 1787. Essex Inst, has Nov. 28, 1785-Nov. 11, 
1788. Yale has Nov. 28, 1785-Dec. 21, 1787. N. Y. 
Pub. Lib. and N. Y: State Lib. have Nov. 28, 1785-Nov. 
11, 1788. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 2, 1786-Jan. 11, 
1788, scattering issues. Lib. Cong has Nov. 28, 1785- 
Oct. 28, 1788. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Jan., 1786-Oct., 
1788. A. A. S. has: 

1785. Dec. 5, 12, 19, 26. 

1786. Jan. 2 to Dec. 29. 
Supplement: Aug. 14, Sept. 5. 



254 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Mutilated: Mar. 27, May 1, June 19. 
Missing: May 22, 29, June 26, July 3. 

1787. Jan. 2 to Dec. 28. 
Extra: Oct. 16. 

Missing: June 26. 

1788. Jan. 1 to Nov. 11. 

Mutilated: July 15. 
Missing: June 24, Aug. 5. 

[Boston] Massachusetts Gazette and Boston News=Letter, 

1763-1768, 1769-1776, see Boston Newsletter. 

[Boston] Massachusetts Gazette and Boston Post=Boy, 

1769-1775, see Boston Post=Boy. 

[Boston] Massachusetts Mercury, 1793-1803. 

Tri-weekly and semi-weekly. Established Jan. 1, 
1793, with the title of " Massachusetts Mercury," 
published by Young and Etheridge (Alexander Young 
and Samuel Etheridge). It was of quarto size and was 
issued tri-weekly. With the issue of July 2, 1793, the 
size of the paper was changed to folio, the issue to semi- 
weekly and the title to "The Mercury." With the issue 
of Aug. 9, 1793, the partnership was dissolved and the 
paper published by Alexander Young alone. With the 
issue of Apr. 8, 1794, Young admitted Thomas Minns 
to partnership under the firm name of Young and Minns. 
With the issue of Dec. 4, 1795, the title reverted to " Mass- 
achusetts Mercury," but with the issue of July 8, 1796, 
was again changed to "The Mercury," and with the issue 
of Jan. 3, 1797, was changed back again to "Massachu- 
setts Mercury." With the issue of Jan. 2, 1801, the 
title was changed to "The Mercury and New-England 
Palladium." The last issue with this title was that of 
Mar. 8, 1803, vol. 21, no. 19, and with the issue of Mar. 
11, 1803, the title was changed to "New-England Palla- 
dium," which see. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has the best file, Jan. 1, 1793-Mar. 8, 
1803. Boston Athenaeum has Feb. 9, 1793-1803. Boston 
Pub. Lib. has Mar. 23, July 2, 1793-1803. N. E. Hist. 
Gen. Soc. has Mar. 7-June 3, 1793; May 27, 1796-Jan. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 255 

6, 1797; July 11-Dec 19, 1797; Dec. 29, 1797-June 22, 
1798; July 2, 1799-Mar. 8, 1803. Mass. State Lib. has 
1801-1802. Congregational Lib., Boston, has Apr. 16, 
1799-Apr. 11, 1800. Harvard has May 6, 1793-July 24, 
1795, scattering; Jan. 1, 1796-Dec. 30, 1800, scattering. 
Essex Inst, has July 2, 1793-Jan. 31, 1794, fair; Apr. 
11, 29, July 1, 1794; Feb. 24, 1795; June 3, 1796-1803. 
Yale has 1799-1803. Conn. Hist. Soc. has 1798-1803. 
N. Y. Pub. Lib. has 1793-1800, scattering issues; May 
22, 1801 -Oct. 19, 1802. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 3 -Dec. 
29, 1797; May 21, 1799-May 16, 1800; Jan. 2, 1801-1803. 
N. Y. State Lib. has Jan. 1, 1793-June, 1794; Sept. 12, 
1794; Apr., 1795-Dec, 1798; 1799-1800, fair; 1801-1803. 
Phil. Lib. Co. has 1795-1796, scattering issues; Mar. 10, 
1801-1803. Lib. Cong, has Sept. 20, 1793; Feb. 28, 
1794-Dec. 29, 1795, scattering; 1796-1803. Western 
Reserve Hist. Soc. has Jan., 1801 -Feb., 1802. Wis. 
Hist. Soc. has 1793-1796, scattering issues; 1797-1798; 
Apr., 1800-1803. British Museum has July 3, 1798-1803. 
A. A. S. has: 

1793. Jan. 3, 17, 19, 22, 26. 
Feb. 2, 7, 16, 21, 23, 26. 

Mar. 2, 4, 7, 9, 12, 14, 16, 19, 21, 23, 26, 28, 

30. 
Apr. 2, 4, 6, 9-, 10, 13, 16, 18, 20, 23, 25, 

27, 29. 
May 1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 13, 15, 17, 20, 24, 27, 29, 31. 
June 3, 10, 14, 17, 19. 
July 2, 5, 9, 12, 16, 19, 26, 30. 
Aug. 6, 9, 13, 23, 27. 
Sept. 3, 6, 10, 13, 17, 20, 24. 
Oct. 1, S m , 15, 26. 
Nov. 12, 19, 26. 
Dec. 10™, 13, 17, 20, 27"», 31. 
Extra: Mar. 29. 

1794. Jan. 3 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Jan. 21, July 18, Sept. 23, Dec. 

2, 19, 26, 30. i 



256 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Missing: Jan. 3, 24, 28, Feb. 4, 7, 14, 18, 
21, May 27, Dec. 23. 

1795. Jan. 2 to Dec. 29. 
Extra: July 7. 

Missing: Jan. 27, June 9, July 24. 

1796. Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 
Special: Mar. 22. 
Extraordinary: Oct. 21. 

1797. Jan. 3 to Dec. 29. 
Extraordinary: Feb. 3. 
Extra: Sept. 10. 

Missing: Apr. 4. 

1798. Jan. 2 to Dec. 28. 
Postscript: Mar. 27. 
Supplement: June 29. 

1799. Jan. 1 to Pec. 31. 

1800. Jan. 3 to Dec. 30. 
Supplement: Dec. 19. 

Missing: Jan. 24. 

1801. Jan. 2 to Dec. 29. 

1802. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

1803. Jan. 4 to Mar. 8. 

Mutilated: Jan. 4, Mar. 8. 

[Boston] Massachusetts Spy, 1770-1775. 

Weekly, semi-weekly and tri-weekly. Established 
July 17, 1770, by Z. Fowle and I. Thomas (Zechariah 
Fowle and Isaiah Thomas), with the title of "The Mass- 
achusetts Spy. " The size of the paper was small quarto. 
The first number of July 17, 1770, which had no imprint, 
was in the nature of a prospectus number, the regular 
publication beginning with the issue of Aug. 2, 1770, vol. 
1, no. 2. The last issue to have the Fowle and Thomas 
imprint was that of Oct. 11, 1770, and they evidently 
dissolved partnership soon afterwards, since advertise- 
ments printed in the issue of Oct. 18, 1770 show that Fowle 
had removed from the Spy office, and the original agree- 
ment by which Fowle disposed of his printing materials 



1915.] Massachusetts. 257 

to Thomas, in the possession of the American Antiqua- 
rian Society, is dated Oct. 23, 1770. The first issue, how- 
ever, to have the name of I. Thomas in the imprint is 
that of Oct. 30, 1770. With the issue of Nov. 5, 1770, 
the paper was changed to a semi-weekly. The last issue 
of quarto size was that of Feb. 1, 1771, vol. 1, no. 65. 
After a short suspension, the paper was resumed with the 
issue of Mar. 7, 1771, the size being changed to folio, the 
publication to weekly, and a new volume numbering 
adopted. With the issue of Oct. 8, 1772, the title was 
enlarged to "The Massachusetts Spy Or, Thomas's 
Boston Journal." With the issue of Nov. 3, 1774, the 
comma after "Or" in the title was omitted. The last 
issue printed at Boston was that of Apr. 6, 1775, vol. 5, 
no. 218, after which it was removed to Worcester and 
re-established on May 3, 1775. See under Worcester. 
Mass. Hist. Soc, and Boston Athenaeum have July 17, 
1770 -Apr. 6, 1775. Boston Pub. Lib. has scattering 
issues, 1770-1775. N. E. Hist. Gen. Soc. has Mar. 21- 
Dec. 12, 1771; Apr. 25, Sept. 1, 29, 1774. Harvard has 
Nov. 22, 1771; May 12, June 23, July 28, 1774. Essex 
Inst, has July 4, 1771 -Feb. 27, 1772, scattering issues; 
Jan. 21, July 29, 1773; Aug. 25, Oct. 13, Nov. 17, Dec. 16, 
22, 1774; Feb. 23, Mar. 2, 23, Apr. 6, 1775. N. Y. Pub. 
Lib. has May 2, 1771 -Sept. 3, 1772, scattering issues; 
Jan. 7, Feb. 4, Mar. 25, 1773; Jan. 12, Mar. 23, 1775. 
N. Y. State Lib. has 1770-1775, scattering file. Hist. 
Soc. Penn. has Oct. 20, 1770. Lib. Cong, has Apr. 4, 
1771-Apr. 23, 1772; May 7, 1772- Apr. 6, 1775, scattering. 
Wis. Hist. Soc. has Sept. 15, 1770; June 25, Nov. 19, 1772; 
May 27, Sept. 2, 9, 23, 1773; Feb. 17, Mar. 17, Apr. 15, 
1774, Mar. 2, 1775. British Museum has Mar. 7, 1771- 
June 10, 1773; June 2, 1774- Apr. 6, 1775. A. A. S. has: 

1770. July 17 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Aug. 11, 14. 

1771. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. . 

1772. Jan. 2 to Dec. 31. 
Postscript: Feb. 27, Dec. 24. 
Extraordinary: Apr. 3, 30. 



258 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

1773. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 
Extraordinary: Jan. 7, 29. 
Postscript: Mar. 4, May 6. 

1774. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 
Postscript: May 5, 12, June 9. 

1775. Jan. 5 to Apr. 6. 

[Boston] Mercury, see Massachusetts Mercury. 

Boston Mirror, 1808-1810. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 22, 1808, vol. 1, no. 1, 
by Oliver and Munroe (Edward Oliver and Isaac Munroe), 
as a substitute for a newspaper called "The Times" and 
a magazine called "The Emerald." It also absorbed 
with the issue of Nov. 5, 1808, a magazine called "The 
Pastime" of Schenectady, N. Y. With the issue of Apr. 
22, 1809, the partnership was dissolved and the paper 
published by Edward Oliver. With the issue of Oct. 21, 
1809, the size of the paper was reduced to quarto, each 
issue being paged and containing eight pages. Oliver 
discontinued the paper with the issue of July 21, 1810. 

Boston Athenaeum has Oct. 22, 1808-July 21, 1810. 
Boston Pub. Lib. has Oct. 22, 1808- June 16, 1810. 
Mass. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 22, 1808-Sept. 23, 1809; Dec. 
16, 1809. Harvard has Oct. 22, 1808-Aug. 19, 1809. 
Ct. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 21, 1809 -July 7, 1810. N. Y. 
State Lib. has Oct. 28, 1809 -July 14, 1810. N. Y. Pub. 
Lib. has Apr. 28, 1810. Lib. Cong, has Oct. 22, 1808- 
Oct. 14, 1809. A. A. S. has: 

1808. Oct. 22 to Dec. 31. 

1809. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Oct. 7. 
Missing: Sept. 30. 

1810. Jan. 6 to July 21. 

[Boston] Morning Chronicle, see Evening Post, 1778-1780. 

Boston] New=EngIand Chronicle, 1776. 

Weekly. Removed from Cambridge, Mass., and 
printed at Boston with the issue of Apr. 25, 1776, no. 401, 



1915.] Massachusetts. 259 

published by Samuel Hall, with the title of "The New- 
England Chronicle." For previous issues, see under 
Cambridge. With the issue of June 13, 1776, Hall sold 
the paper to Edward Powars and Nathaniel Willis, who 
began publishing it under the firm name of Powars and 
Willis. The last issue with the title of " The New-England 
Chronicle" was that of Sept. 12, 1776, no. 411 (misprint 
for 421), and with the issue of Sept. 19, 1776, the title 
was changed to "The Independent Chronicle," which see. 
Boston Athenaeum, Boston Pub. Lib., N. E. Hist. 
Gen. Soc. have complete files, Apr. 25 -Sept. 12, 1776. 
Mass. Hist. Soc, Mass. State Lib., Essex Inst., Hist. Soc. 
Penn., and Lib. Cong, have nearly complete files. Har- 
vard and Wis. Hist. Soc. have scattering issues. A. A. S. 
has: 

1776. Apr. 25 to Sept. 12. 

[Boston] New-England Courant, 1721-1726. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 7, 1721, published by 
J[ames] Franklin with the title of "The New-England 
Courant." Although the first issue located is that of 
Nov. 27, 1721, no. 17, the exact date of the establishment 
of the paper is given in the "Boston News-Letter " of 
Aug. 14, 1721, which states, "On Monday last the 7th 
Currant came forth a Third News-Paper in this Town, 
Entituled, The New-England Courant. " James Franklin 
in his newspaper gave frequent offense to the General 
Court, which ordered both his imprisonment and the 
suppression of his paper. At length, with the issue of 
Feb. 11, 1723, the paper was published under the name 
of his brother Benjamin Franklin. In his "Autobi- 
ography," Benjamin Franklin records that the paper 
went on under his name for "several months" and it 
was in October, 1723, that he left Boston. His name, 
however, was continued in the imprint until the last issue 
located, that of June 4, 1726. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has Nov. 27, 1721 -June 4, 1726. 
Boston Pub. Lib. has Feb. 26, 1722. Bostonian Soc. 
has Jan. 8, Feb. 5, July 9, 1722; Feb. 11, Mar. 4, Aug. 5, 



260 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Sept. 9, 23, Oct. 14, 21, 1723; June 1, 1724; Jan. 25, 
Mar. 8, 1725. Wis. Hist. Soc. has June 18 -Nov. 5, 
1722. N. Y. State Lib. has Dec. 4, 1721; Jan. 15, 
Mar. 12, Apr. 23, May 21, 28, July 30, Sept. 3, 17-Oct. 
5, Dec. 10, 1722; Feb. 18, 25, Mar. 18, Apr. 1, 15, May 6, 
June 17, July 8, Sept. 2-23, Oct. 21, Dec. 2-30, 1723; 
May 18, June 15, 29 -July 27, 1724; May 24, 1725. 
Hist. Soc. Penn. has Feb. 4, 1723. Lib. Cong, has Jan. 
8, 1726. A. A. S. has: 
1722. Mar. 19. 

[Boston] New=England Galaxy, 1817-1820+. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 10, 1817, by Joseph T. 
Buckingham, under the title of " New-England Galaxy 
& Masonic Magazine.'' The masonic department was 
conducted by Samuel L. Knapp until the summer of 1818 
(see J. T. Buckingham, ••' Personal Memoirs," vol. 1, p. 
77). With the issue of June 16, 1820, the name of 
" Jefferson Clark, printer," was added to the imprint. 
With the issue of Oct. 13, 1820, the title was shortened 
to " New-England Galaxy." The paper was continued 
by Buckingham until after 1820. 

Boston Pub. Lib., Boston Athenaeum, Mass. Hist. 
Soc, Essex Inst., N. Y. St. Lib., Lib. Cong., and Wis. 
Hist. Soc. have files, 1817-1820. A. A. S. has: 

1817. Oct. 10 to Dec. 26. 

1818. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

1819. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Carrier's Address, Jan. 1. 

1820. Jan. 7 to Dec. 29. 

[Boston] New=England Palladium, 1803-1820+ . 

Semi-weekly. A continuation, without change'of vol- 
ume numbering, of "The Mercury and New-England 
Palladium," the first issue with the new title of " New- 
England Palladium" being that of Mar. 11, 1803, vol. 21, 
no. 20, published by Young and Minns (Alexander Young 
and Thomas Minns.) With the issue of Jan. 3, 1815, the 
title was enlarged to "New-England Palladium & Com- 



1915.] Massachusetts. 261 

mercial Advertiser." The paper was continued by 
Young & Minns until after 1820. 

Boston Pub. Lib., Boston Athenaeum, Mass. Hist. 
Soc, Essex Inst., and Lib. Cong, have practically com- 
plete files, 1803-1820. Mass. State Lib. has 1804, 1809, 
1812. N. E. Hist. Gen. Soc. has 1803-1806, 1808-1816. 
Harvard has 1811-1820. Dartmouth has 1801-1 
1806, 1808, with scattering lames 1807-1818. Yale has 
1803-1813. Ct. Hist. Soc. has Mar.-Dec, 1803; 1807. 
N. Y. Hist. Soc. has 1803-1804; Apr., 1805-Apr., 1806; 
Oct., 1806; Aug.-Dec, 1807; 1809; 1810-1812; 1816-1820. 
N. Y. Pub. Lib. has June 7, 1803 -Nov. 20, 1804, fair; 
with a few other scattering issues. N. Y. State Lib. has 
1804-1814; Nov. 14, 1815-Dec, 1817; July, 1818-June, 

1819. Phil. Lib. Co. has 1803 -Nov. 15, 1811; Jan. 3, 
1815-Nov. 28, 1817. Western Reserve Hi^t. Soc. has 
1812, 1814. Wis. Hist. Soc. has 1803-1817; Sept., 1818- 

1820. British Museum has 1803-1819. A. A. S. has: 

1803. Mar. 11 to Dec. 30. 

Missing: Dec. 30. 

1804. Jan. 3 to Dec. 28. 

Supplement: Apr. 3, May 15, Oct. 2, 12, 30. 
Mutilated: July 20. 

1805. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Supplement: Apr. 30, Oct. 1, 18, Nov. 1, 12, 
Dec. 6, 20. 

1806. Jan. 3 to Dec. 30. 
Extra: Apr. 11. 

Supplement: July 15, 22, Aug. 22, Oct. 21, 
31, Dec. 16. 

1807. Jan. 2 to Dec. 29. 

Supplement: Jan. 6, Apr. 3, May 1, June 5. 
Oct. 9, Nov. 17, Dec. 8. 
Missing: Nov. 20. 

1808. Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 
Supplement: Apr. 29, Nov. 1. 

1809. Jan. 3 to Dec. 29. 
Carrier's Address, Jan. 1. 



262 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 





Supplement: May 9, 16, 


30, Oct. 27, Nov. 




3, 17. 




1810. 


Jan. 2 to Dec. 28. 




1811. 


Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Missing: Jan. 8, 11. 


• 


1812. 


Jan. 3 to Dec. 29. 




1813. 


Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Missing: Feb. 19. 




1814. 


Jan. 4 to Dec. 30. 






Missing: Feb. 18, Mar. 


4, Aug. 26. 


1815. 


Jan. 3 to Dec. 29. 




1816. 


Jan. 2 to Dec. 31. 




1817. 


Jan. 3 to Dec. 30. 
Carrier's Address, Jan. 1. 




1818. 


Jan. 2 to Dec. 29. 




1819. 


Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Carrier's Address, Jan. 1. 




1820. 


Jan. 4 to Dec. 29. 





[Boston] New=England Repertory, see Repertory. 

[Boston] New-England Weekly Journal, 1727-1741. 

Weekly. Established Mar. 20, 1727, by S[amuel] 
Kneeland, with the title of "The New-England Weekly 
Journal." With the issue of July 3, 1727, the paper was 
published by S[amuel] Kneeland & Tpmothy] Green. 
With the issue of May 18, 1736, the hyphen in " New- 
England" in the title was omitted. The paper was dis- 
continued with the issue of Oct. 13, 1741, no. 981, and 
incorporated with the "Boston Gazette," also published 
by S. Kneeland & T. Green. 

Boston Athenaeum has Mar. 20, 1727-Dec. 28, 1730; 
Feb. 1, 15, 1731; Jan. 24, Mar. 6, June 19, July 3, Oct. 
2, 9, 16, Nov. 13, 1732; Feb. 12, Dec. 3, 1733; Apr. 8, 
1734; Jan. 6, 20, 1736. Mass. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 20, 
1727 -Sept. 27, 1737; Jan. 17, Feb. 14, Mar. 7, July 25, 
Dec. 19, 1738; Jan. 2-Dec. 25, 1739; Jan. 29, Mar. 11, 
25-June 24, Aug. 19, Sept. 2, 23, 30, Dec. 2, 1740; Jan. 6- 
Oct. 13, 1741. Boston Pub. Lib. has July 3, 1727; Feb. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 263 

24, Mar. 17, 1729; Oct. 18, 1731; Jan. 1, 1733-Dec. 30, 
1734; Feb. 15-Dec. 13, 1737; Feb. 7-Nov. 21, 1738; Apr. 
24, 1739; Jan. 1 -Dec. 23, 1740. Bostonian Soc. has scat- 
tering issues 1729, 1733-1741. Harvard has Mar. 20, 1727- 
N?>v. 23, 1730, imperfect; Mar. 1, Apr. 19, 1731. N. Y. 
Hist. Soc. has Jan. 4, 1731 -Dec. 25, 1732; Jan. 17-Mar. 
14, Aug. 22 -Dec. 26, 1738. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Apr. 21, 
1729; Sept. 21, 1730. N. Y. State Lib. has June 19, July 
10, Aug. 14, Sept. 4, 1727; Mar. 3, Apr. 21, Sept. 8, 1729; 
Dec. 28, 1730; Mar. 8-Sept., 1731; Jan. 10-Dec. 4, 1732, 
fair; July -Sept., 1733; Jan. -May, 1734; 1735, scattering; 
Dec. 15, 1736; Mar. 1, Apr.-June, Sept. 13, 1737; Jan. 
29, Apr. 15, 29, May 6, 1740; Mar. 3, Apr. 7, 1741. Lib. 
Cong, has Apr. 17, 1727-Sept. 15, 1729, fair; Dec. 27, 
1737; May 20, Oct. 14, 1740; Oct. 6, 1741. Wis. Hist. 
Soc. has Oct. 2, 1727-Dec. 23, 1728, fair; Aug. 11, 1729; 
Jan. 26-Dec. 21, 1730, fair; Mar. 14-Dec. 12, 1738; 
Nov. 6, 1739; Jan. 20, 27, Mar. 3, June 30, July 14, 1741. 
A. A. S. has: 

1727. May 1, 8, 15-. 
June 19. 
July 3. 

Oct. 16. 
Dec. 25. 

1728. Jan. 1™, 8, 15. 
Feb. 5, 19, 26, 
Mar. 4, 11, 18, 25. 
Apr. 8 (reprint), 15, 29. 
May 6-, 13, 27. 

June 3 W , 17, 24. 
July l m , 8, 22, 29 m . 

1729. Mar. 3, 24-. 
Apr. 21. 
June 9 m . 

1730. Jan. 12. 
Apr. 6. 
May 18. 
Dec. 28. 



264 American Antiquarian Society. ' [April, 



1731. 


June 7. 




July 5, 19, 26. 




Aug. 16. 




Sept. 13, 20. 




Oct. 4, 18, 25. 




Nov. L 


1732. 


Jan. 3 W . 




Mar. 13™. 




Apr. 3. 




Oct. 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 




Nov. 6, 13, 20, 27. 




Dec. 4, 11, 18, 25. 


1733. 


Jan. 8, 22, 29. 




Feb. 26. 




Mar. 26. 




Apr. 2, 9, 23. 




May 14, 28. 




June 4, 11, 18, 25. 




July 2, 9. 




Aug. 27. 




Sept. 3. 




Oct. 1. 


1734. 


Jan. 28. 




Oct. 28. 


1735. 


July 7. 


1736. 


May 18, 25. 




June 1, 15, 22. 




July 13, 20, 27. 




Aug. 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, 




Sept. 7, 14, 21, 28. 




Oct. 19. 




Nov. 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 




Dec. 14, 21, 28. 


1737. 


Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 


1739. 


Feb. 13. 




Mar. 20. 




May 15. 




June 19. 




July 3, 10, 17, 24, 31. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 265 

Aug. 14, 28. 
Sept. 4 to Dec. 25. 
• Mutilated: Dec. 25. 

1740. Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 
# 1741. Jan. 6 to Oct. 13. 

Missing: Apr. 7, June 2, July 14, 21, Aug. 
11, Sept. 1, 15, 22. 

Boston Newsletter, 1704-1763. 

Weekly. Established Apr. 24, 1704, under the title 
of "The Boston News-Letter, " published by John 
Campbell and printed by Bartholomew] Green. The 
initial issue has been reproduced in fac-simile several 
times, the best being the photographic reproduction in 
S. A. Green's "Ten Fac-simile Reproductions relating to 
Various Subjects," p. 15, where photographs are given of 
two copies slightly varying in set-up. With the issue 
of Nov. 10, 1707, the paper was printed by John Allen, 
but with the issue of Oct. 8, 1711, was again printed by 
Bartholomew Green, or, as the! imprint read "Printed in 
Newbury Street, for John Campbell Post-Master." 
The name of B. Green appeared in the imprint as printer 
with the issue of Oct. 3, 1715. Campbell finally trans- 
ferred the paper to B. Green who became both publisher 
and printer with the issue of Jan. 7, 1723. With the 
issue of Jan. 5, 1727, the title was changed to "The 
Weekly News-Letter,' ' and a new volume numbering 
was adopted; but with the issue of Nov. 5, 1730, the title 
was again changed to "The Boston Weekly News-Letter," 
and the earlier volume numbering was resumed. Bar- 
tholomew Green died Dec. 28, 1732, and beginning with 
the issue of Jan. 4, 1733, the paper was published by 
J[ohn] Draper, his son-in-law. With the issue of Sept. 1, 
1757, the title was changed to "The Boston News- 
Letter," and with that of Mar. 25, 1762, to "The Boston 
News-Letter and New-England Chronicle." John 
Draper-died Nov. 29, 1762, and with the issue of Dec. 2, 
1762, the paper was published by his son Richard Draper, 
although his name did not appear in the imprint. With 



266 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

the issue of Jan. 13, 1763 (dated Jan. 11, by mistake), 
the paper was printed by Richard and Samuel Draper. 
With the issue of Jan. 6, 1763, the title was slightly altered 
to "The Boston News-Letter, and the New-England 
Chronicle," and with the issue of Apr. 7, 1763, to "The 
Massachusetts Gazette. And Boston News-Letter," 
which latter change was the result of a vote of the Govern- 
or and Council authorizing the publication of all official 
notices in this paper. With the issue of Apr. 19, 1765, 
the paper was published and printed by Richard Draper 
and Samuel Draper. The Stamp Act took effect in 
November, 1765, and with the issue of, Nov. 7, 1765, the 
Drapers changed the title to "The Massachusetts 
Gazette"; abandoned the volume numbering, assigning 
to each issue a zero in place of the usual number; and in 
defiance of the provisions of the Stamp Act omitted the 
names of the publishers in the imprint. With the issue 
of May 22, 1766, upon the receipt of the news of the 
repeal of the Act, the Drapers reverted to the title "The 
Massachusetts Gazette. And Boston News-Letter" and 
resumed the former numbering with no. 3268. Samuel 
Draper died Mar. 21, 1767, and with the issue of Mar. 26, 
1767, the paper was published by Richard Draper. With 
the issue of May 26, 1768, the title was changed to "The 
Boston Weekly News-Letter," and an arrangement was 
entered into between Draper and Green & Russell, pub- 
lishers of the "Boston Post-Boy," by which a paper with 
the title of "The Massachusetts Gazette" was published 
by the two firms as part of, or accompanying, their respec- 
tive papers (see under "Massachusetts Gazette," 1768- 
1769). This arrangement lasted until the issue of Sept. 
28, 1769, when the News-Letter changed its title to "The 
Massachusetts Gazette; and the Boston Weekly News- 
Letter. " With the issue of May 19, 1774, Draper entered 
into partnership with John Boyle and the paper was 
published under the firm name of Richard Draper and 
John Boyle. Draper died June 5, 1774, and with the 
issue of June 9, 1774, the paper was published by Mar- 
garet Draper and John Boyle, changed with the issue of 



1915.] Massachusetts. 267 

June 30, 1774, to Draper and Boyle. With the issue of 
Aug. 11, 1774, the firm was dissolved and the paper pub- 
lished by Margaret Draper, although the word " Draper's" 
was the only form of imprint. The last issue with this 
imprint which has been located is that of Sept. 7, 1775, 
and the next issue located, that of Oct. 13, 1775, was 
printed by J[ohn] Howe. This issue, moreover, was 
headed "The Massachusetts Gazette: Published Occa- 
sionally/' although the succeeding issues examined have 
the regular title. The last issue located is that of Feb. 
22, 1776. 

It should be here noted that the Mass. Historical Soci- 
ety is engaged in issuing a photographic reproduction of 
the entire file of the Boston News-Letter, and has already 
(1915) progressed as far as the year 1716. This set can 
be found in the following libraries: Mass. Hist. Soc, 
Boston Pub. Lib., Harvard, Essex Inst., John Carter 
Brown, Amer. Antiq. Soc, N. Y. State Lib., N. Y. Pub. 
Lib., Columbia, Lib. Cong., and Wis. Hist. Soc. 

In a work entitled "An Historical Digest of the Pro- 
vincial Press," by L. H. Weeks and E. M. Bacon, all the 
items relating to American affairs in the News-Letter 
from Apr. 24, 1704 to June 30, 1707, have been reprinted 
and provided with a good index. Because of the great 
expense of this work, volume I only has been issued. 

The files of the News-Letter are so scattered, especially 
for the earlier years, that it is not deemed advisable to 
repeat here the information contained in the Colonial 
Society Check-List, pp. 15-87. The following, however, 
are the most important additions to this list. Mass. 
Hist. Soc. has added 1736, almost complete; and com- 
pleted 1739, 1743, 1767, and 1769. Boston Pub. Lib. 
has added scattering issues in 1745-1751, 1755-1766, 
1768, 1769, 1772, and 1773. Conn. Hist. Soc. has Nov. 
28, 1715-June 1, 1719, especially good for 1716-1718. 
Yale has Jan. 5, 1764; Aug. 8, 1765 -Sept. 4, 1766; imper- 
fect. N. Y. State Lib. has Jan. 27, 1723; May 14, 1741; 
Jan. 9, Feb. 27, 1746; scattering issues 1747-1767. Phil. 
Lib. Co. has May 16, Aug. 15, 22, 29, 1765. Lib. Cong. 



268 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

has added a few scattering issues, 1721-1774. British 
Museum has Aug. 29, 1765 -Nov. 9, 1775, scattering. 
All of these additions and omissions are noted in detail 
in the A. A. S. copy of the Colonial Society Check-List. 

Boston Patriot, 1809-1820+ 

Semi-weekly and daily. Established Mar. 3, 1809, by 
Everett & Munroe (David Everett and Isaac Munroe). 
With the issue of Mar. 7, 1810, the partnership was 
dissolved and Everett transferred his interests to Munroe, 
serving under him as editor; but it was not until the issue 
of Mar. 10, 1810, that the imprint read, "Published by 
Isaac Munroe and edited by David Everett." Munroe 
formed a partnership with Ebenezer French and with the 
issue of May 4, 1811, the paper was published by Munroe 
& French, and edited by David Everett. With the issue 
of Nov. 9, 1811, Everett's name was omitted from the 
imprint. With the issue of Jan. 1, 1814, Davis C. Ballard 
purchased the paper and became the publisher. With 
the issue of Mar. 9, 1816, the title of the paper was 
changed to Boston Patriot and Morning Advertiser." 
The issue of May 31, 1817, vol. 17, no. 25, was the last 
semi-weekly issue of the "Boston Patriot." Ballard 
formed a partnership with Edmund Wright, Jr., under 
the firm name of Ballard & Wright, purchased the " Inde- 
pendent Chronicle," and consolidated it with the "Boston 
Patriot." They published two papers, one the "Inde- 
pendent Chronicle & Boston Patriot," which was pub- 
lished daily, was assigned a new volume numbering begin- 
ning with the issue of June 2, 1817, and was a continua- 
tion of the "Boston Patriot"; and the other the "Inde- 
pendent Chronicle & Boston Patriot (for the country)," 
which was published semi-weekly and was a continuation, 
in volume numbering and otherwise, of the "Independent 
Chronicle." With the issue of Oct. 1, 1817, the semi- 
weekly dropped the words "for the country" from the 
title, and thenceforth for two months, the titles of the 
semi-weekly and the daily papers were the sam<\ 
the issue of Dec. 2, 1817, vol. 2, no. 157, the daily Gil n 



1915.] Massachusetts. 269 

changed its name to the " Boston Patriot & Daily Chron- 
icle." The file of the Patriot, therefore, to be complete 
should include the daily edition of " Independent Chron- 
icle & Boston Patriot" from June 2 to Dec. 1, 1817. 
With the issue of Dec. 3, 1817, the " &" in the title was 
changed to "and." With the issue of July 1, 1819, the 
title was changed to "Boston Patriot & Daily Mercantile 
Advertiser." The paper was continued by Ballard & 
Wright until after 1820. 

Boston Pub. Lib. has Mar. 3, 1809-1820. Mass. Hist. 
Soc. has 1809-Mar. 22, 1817; May 17, 1817; Jan. 8-Apr. 
17, 1818, scattering; June 2, 1818-1820. Boston Athe- 
naeum has Nov. 3, 1809-1819. N. E. Hist. Gen. Soc. 
has 1809-Feb. 28, 1810; Jan. 5, 1814-Mar. 8, 1815; 
Mar. 9, 1816-Mar. 5, 1817. Mass. State Lib. has June 
2, 1817-1820. Harvard has 1809-1810; 1820. Essex 
Inst, has 1809-1817. Dartmouth has Sept. 2, 1809 -Dec. 
29, 1810. Conn. Hist. Soc. has 1809-1816. Yale has 1809- 
1811; 1814-Feb. 21, 1816. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has 1809- 
May 2, 1810; Mar. 13, 1813-Dec. 30, 1815; N. Y. Pub. 
Lib. has Mar. 16 -Dec. 25, 1816, with a few other scatter- 
ing issues. N. Y. State Lib. has 1809-1816; Jan. -Feb., 
1818; Jan., 1820. Phil. Lib. Co. has Oct. 17, 1812-May 
19, 1813, imperfect. Hist. Soc. Penn. has Mar., 1814- 
Dec. 30, 1815. Lib. Cong, has May 20, 1809-Feb., 
1817; Mar. 1-June 18, 1817, scattering; 1818-1820. 
Wis. Hist. Soc. has 1809 -May, 1817; Jan. -Oct., 1818; 
1819-1820. British Museum has Oct. 2-Dec, 1820. 
A. A. S. has: 

1809. Mar. 3 to Dec. 30. 

1810. Jan. 3 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: Mar. 21, Oct. 3. 

1811. Jan. 2 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated: Jan. 19, Aug. 14. 
Missing: Mar. 30, May 22, June 8. 

1812. Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 

Missing: Jan. 1, 4, Jan. 11 -Mar. 11. 

1813. Jan. 2 to, Dec. 29. 
Extraordinary: July 24. 



270 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Mutilated: Mar. 3, Oct. 9, 16. 
Missing: Feb. 6, June 2. 

1814. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Apr. 27, May 4. 
Missing: Mar. 5, Oct. 19. 

1815. Jan. 4 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Sept. 2, 6, 9, 13, 20, 27, 30, 
Oct. 4, 11, 14, 18, 21, 25, 28, Nov. 1, 8, 
11, 15, 18, 22, 25, Dec. 2. 

1816. Jan. 3 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated: Mar. 2, Apr. 6, May 11, 29, 
June 1, 5, July 13, Sept. 18, 21, Oct. 16, 
Nov. 9. 

Missing: Jan. 31, Feb. 24, Mar. 6, Apr. 27, 
May 18, June 8, 12, 26, 29, Aug. 21, 

24, 31, Oct. 23, 26, Nov. 6, Dec. 4, 25, 28. 

1817. (Semi-weekly). 
Jan. 8 m , 11™, 15. 

Feb. 1, 5, 8, 12, 15, 19, 22. 
Mar. 8, 12, 15, 19™, 22, 26™. 
Apr. 2, 5, 9, 12, 26, 30. 
May 3™, 14, 17, 21, 24, 28™, 31. 

1817. (Daily), v 
Dec. 2-3l\ 

Missing: Dec. 5. 

1818. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Two Supplements [Feb. 19, Direct Tax]. 
Missing: Jan. 6, 24, Mar. 4, 14, 19, 21, 23, 

25, 26, 28, 31, Apr. 3, 7, 8, 11, 16, 20, 
22, 23, 24, 25, May 8, Sept. 22, 25, 26, 
Nov. 5, 23, Dec. 2, 4, 31. 

1819. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Carrier's Address, Jan. 1. 

Missing: Jan. 7, Apr. 2, May 22, July 5- 
Dec. 31. 

1820. Oct. 19. 
Nov. 16 m , 29. 
Dec. 21. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 271 

[Boston] Pilot, 1812-1813. 

Semi-weekly. Established Sept. 25, 1812, under the 
title of "The Pilot," published by David Everett, and 
printed by True & Rowe (Benjamin True and Thomas 
Rowe). The publisher and printers were also concerned 
in the publication of the "Yankee," issued weekly, and 
the matter printed in the two papers was largely the same. 
The paper received little support, and was discontinued 
with the issue of Jan. 16, 1813, vol. 1, no. 33. An an- 
nouncement regarding it was printed in the "Yankee" 
of Jan. 22, 1813. 

Boston Athenaeum has Sept. 25, 1812-Jan. 16, 1813. 
Mass. Hist. Soc. has Sept. 25-Nov. 13, Dec. 4, 29, 1812; 
Jan. 1, 5, 8, 16, 1813. Essex Inst, has Sept. 25-Dec. 18, 
1812; Jan. 1-16, 1813. Lib. Cong, has Oct. 6, 23-30, 
1812. A. A. S. has: 

1812. Sept. 29. 
Oct. 16, 23. 

Nov. 3, 13, 17, 20, 24, 27. 
Dec. 1. 

1813. Jan. 12. 

[Boston] Polar Star, 1796-1797. 

Daily. Established Oct. 6, 1796, printed by Alexander 
Martin for the Proprietors, with the title of "Polar-Star: 
Boston Daily Advertiser." Although his name was not 
mentioned in the imprint, the editor of the paper was 
John D. Burk (see Buckingham "Specimens of News- 
paper Literature," vol. 2, p. 294). With the issue of 
Oct. 10, 1796, the title was changed in set-up, the words 
"Polar Star" being placed in the center, dividing the 
words "Boston Daily" from the word "Advertiser." 
With the issue of Nov. 14, 1796, the title was changed to 
"Polar Star and Boston Daily Advertiser." The last 
issue located is that of Feb. 2, 1797, no. 102, and this was 
probably the last published. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 6, 1796. Boston Athenaeum 
has Oct. 7, 1796 -Feb. 2, 1797. Harvard has Oct. 25, 
26, Nov. 29, Dec. 8, 9, 23, 1796; Jan. 4, 30, 31, 1797. 



272 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Essex Inst, has Dec. 7, 1796 -Jan. 26, 1797, scattering. 
N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 7, 1796- Jan. 28, 1797, scattering. 
Lib. Cong, has Oct. 31 -Dec. 9, 19, 1796. A. A. S. has: 

1796. Oct. 6 to Dec. 31. 
Extra: Nov. 7. 

Mutilated: Nov. 5, Dec. 31. 

1797. Jan. 16. 

[Boston] Political Courier, 1792, see Courier Politique. 

[Boston] Post, see Boston Evening Post. 

[Boston] P. P. F. Degrand's Boston Weekly Report, see Boston 
Weekly Report. 

Boston Post=Boy, 1734-1775. 

Weekly. Established late in 1734, although the exact 
date is uncertain. The earliest issue located, that of 
Apr. 21, 1735, is numbered 23, and reckoning back from 
this number, the date of the first issue would have been 
Nov. 18, 1734. But Isaiah Thomas in his "History 
of Printing" (1874 edition, vol. 2, p. 46) says that the 
publication was begun in October, 1734. This earliest 
located issue of Apr. 21, 1735, was entitled " The Boston 
Weekly Post-Boy," and was ''Printed for Ellis Huske." 
No printer's name is given in the imprint, but Thomas 
states (Idem, vol. 1, p. 127) that John Bushell, "as I have 
been informed, printed the Boston Weekly Post-Boy, 
during a short period, for Ellis Huske." With the issue 
of June 11, 1750, the title was changed to "The Boston 
Post-Boy . " The Post-Boy was suspended for a period 
between 1754 and 1757. The last issue located of this 
first series is that of Dec. 23, 1754, no. 1030, and judging 
from an advertisement in the Boston Evening Post of 
Dec. 30, 1754, asking subscribers for the Post-Boy to 
settle their accounts, this may have been the last issue. 
Thomas, however, says "I believe it was continued until 
within a few weeks of the time when the provincial stamp 
act took place, in 1755 [April 30]." Ellis Huske died 



1915.] Massachusetts. 273 

Apr. 24, 1755. (For a thorough study of the facts regard- 
ing the establishment and discontinuation of the Post- 
Boy, see Mr. Albert Matthews' notes in Col. Soc. Publi- 
cations, vol. 9, pp. 465-470). 

The paper was revived on Aug. 22, 1757, by John 
Green and Joseph Russell, with the title of "The Boston 
Weekly Advertiser," printed by Green and Russell, and 
a new volume numbering was begun. With the issue of 
Jan. 1, 1759, the title was changed to "Green & Russell's 
Boston Post-Boy & Advertiser," and with the issue of 
May 30, 1763, changed again to "The Boston Post-Boy 
& Advertiser." With the issue of May 23, 1768, an 
arrangement was entered into between Green & Russell 
and Richard Draper, publisher of the "Boston News- 
Letter," by which a paper with the title of "The Massa- 
chusetts Gazette" was published by the two firms as 
part of, or accompanying, their respective papers (see 
under "Massachusetts Gazette," 1768-1769). The title, 
however, of "The Boston Post-Boy & Advertiser" was 
not changed, the most noticeable difference in appearance 
being the new heading of "The Massachusetts Gazette" 
at the top of what generally was the third page of the 
paper. This arrangement lasted until the issue of Oct. 
2, 1769, when the Post-Boy changed its title to "The 
Massachusetts Gazette, and the Boston Post-Boy and 
Advertiser." With the issue of Apr. 26, 1773, the 
paper was published by Mills and Hicks (Nathaniel 
Mills and John Hicks). With this issue, too, the comma 
after the word "Gazette" in the title was changed to a 
semi-colon. The last issue located is that of Apr. 17, 1775. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 19, Apr. 5, 19, Aug. 23, 30, 
Sept. 13, 1736; 1739-1741, fair; Oct. 11, 1742; 1743, 1745, 
scattering; 1746-1754, fair; 1758-1775, good. Boston 
Pub. Lib. has Apr. 19, 1742; 1746-1754, scattering; 1758- 
1762, good; 1763, scattering; 1764; 1765-1769, scattering; 
1770-1775, fair. Boston Athenaeum has Apr. 12, June 
14, 1742; June 27, July 11, 1743; Apr. 9, 1744; Dec. 8, 
1746; Aug. 31, 1747; May 16-30, 1748; Aug. 26, 1751; 
Mar. 31, 1760; Jan. 4, 1762; 1765, scattering; 1766-1773, 



274 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

good; 1774-1775, scattering. Harvard has Jan. 9 -Dec. 
24, 1744; Mar. 4, 25, 1745; 1767-1773, a few issues. N. E. 
Hist. Gen. Soc. has Dec. 14, 1747; Apr. 1G, 1764; Mar. 2, 
1767 -Dec. 18, 1769. Essex Inst, has Mar. 28, 1743; 
Mar. 5, 1744; Jan. 13, Feb. 10, 1752; Mar. 10, 1760; Apr. 
19, July 19, 1762; Jan. 10, 17, June 20, Sept. 5, Oct. 31, 
Dec. 26, 1763; Jan. 9, 1764; Sept. 5, 1774; Jan. 30, Feb. 

13, Apr. 10, 1775. Dartmouth has Dec. 19, 1748; Aug. 

14, Sept. 11, Oct. 2, 1749; Feb. 19, 1750; Mar. 18, 1751; 
Dec. 10, 31, 1753, May 27, 1754; 1770-1775, scattering 
issues. Yale has Aug. 5, 1765 -May 26, 1766, fair. N. Y. 
Hist. Soc. has Apr. 3-17, June 12-26, July 17 -Oct. 16, 
1749; Apr. 10, 1769; Jan. 23, Mar. 6, 20, 27, Apr. 10, 
1775. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Mar. 22, 1742; Mar. 11, 1754; 
1758-1759, scattering; 1760-1761, fair; 1762-1772, scatter- 
ing; 1773-1775, fair. N. Y. State Lib. has 1747-1754, 
1763, a few scattering issues; 1764; 1765-1768, scattering; 
1769; 1770-1775, scattering. Phil. Lib. Co. has Apr. 1, 
22, Sept. 2, 1765; Mar. 10, 1766. Lib. Cong, has Jan. 
18, 1742; July 10, Nov. 13, 20, 1749; June 3, 1751; 
1758-1761, scattering issues; 1762-1763, good; 1764-1773, 
scattering; May 2, 1774 -Apr. 17, 1775. Wis. Hist. Soc. 
has Oct. 12, 1741; Nov. 24, 1760; Nov. 11, 1765; Feb. 24, 
1766- Jan. 25, 1768; Jan. 3, 1774-Apr. 17, 1775. British 
Museum has July 25, 1743 -Dec. 15, 1746, scattering 
issues; Mar. 24, 1766 -Apr. 10, 1775, scattering. A. A. 
S. has: 

. 1735. Apr. 21. 

May 12, 26. 
June 9, 16, 23, 30. 
July 14, 21, 28. 
Aug. 4, 11, 18, 25. 
Sept. 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. 
Oct. 6, 13, 20, 27. 
Nov. 3, 10, 17, 24. 
Dec. 1, 8, 15, 22. 
1736. Jan. 5, 12, 19, 26. 
Feb. 2, 9, 16, 23. 
Mar. 1, 8, 15, 22"', 29. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 275 

Apr. 5, 12, 19, 26". 

Oct. 25. 

Supplement: Apr. 5, 
1737. Mar. 14. 

Oct. 17. 
I738 v Feb. 20. 

Mar. 27 m . 

July 3. 

Sept. 4. 

Nov. 6, 13. 

1739. June 4. 

1740. Jan. 7. 
Apr. 28. 
May 5, 12. 
July 7, 14. 
Aug. 4. 
Sept. 1. 

1741. Jan. 12™, 26. 
Apr. 6. 
June 1. 
Sept. 21, 28. 
Oct. 5 m . 
Dec. 21, 28. 

1742. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 

Missing: Mar. 29, Apr. 5, May 31, June 7, 
14, July 26, Nov. 29, Dec. 13, 20, 27. 

1743. Feb. 21, 28. 
Mar. 7. 
Apr. 11. 

1744. Jan. 23. 
Mar. 12. 
May 21. 
June 11. 
Sept. 24. 
Oct. 8. 
Nov. 5, 19. 

1745. Jan. 14™, 28. 
Mar. 11. 
Apr. 8, 15, 29. 



276 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

1748. Feb. 8. 
June 13. 

1749. May 15, 29. 
June 12. 

Aug. 14 to Dec. 25. 

1750. Jan. 15, 22. 
n Feb. 26"\ 

Mar. 12, 26. 
Apr. 9, 23. 
May 21. 
June 11, 25. 
July 16. 
Aug. 20, 27. 
Sept. 3. 
Oct. 1, 8, 15. 
Nov. 5. 
Dec. 3, 24, 31. 

1751. Jan. 7, 14. 
Feb. 11, 18, 25. 
Apr. 8, 15,22,29. 
May 6, 13, 20, 27. 
June 3, 10, 24. 
July 1, 15, 22. 
Aug. 5, 12, 26. 
Sept. 2. 

Oct. 7, 14, 21. 
Nov. 25 m . 
Supplement: Oct. 21. 

1752. Mar. 2, 9. 
Aug. 3. 
Nov. 27. 

Dec. 4, 11, 18, 25. 

1754. Mar. 4, 11. 
July 22, 29. 
Sept. 30. 
Oct. 14, 28. 
Dec. 2, 16, 23. 

1757. Sept. 26. 



1915.] 





Massachusetts. 277 


1758. 


May 1. 




Sept. ll m . 


1761. 


June 15". 


1762. 


Feb. 22". 


1764. 


Jan. 16. 


1765. 


Nov. 4. 


1766. 


June 2. 


\ 


Oct. 20. 


1767. 


Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 




Supplement: Apr. 27, Oct. 19, Nov. 2. 




Mutilated: Nov. 16. 




Missing: Dec. 7. 


1768. 


Aug. 15 m , 22 m , 29 m . 




Sept. 19 m , 26". 




Oct. 10", 24", 31". 




Nov. 7 m . 


1770. 


Nov. 26. 


1771. 


Feb. 25. 




June 17, 24. 




July 15, 22, 29. 




Aug. 5, 26. 




Sept. 2. 


1772. 


June 1. 




July 6, 13, 20, 27. 




Aug. 3, 24. 




Sept. 14, 21, 28. 


1773. 


Sept. 20. 


1774. 


Jan. 24. 




Apr. 25. 




May 2, 9, 16, 30. 




June 6, 13, 20. 




July 4, 11, 18. 




Aug. 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. 




Sept. 5, 12, 19, 26. 




Oct. 3, 17, 24. 




Nov. 7, 14, 21, 28. 




Dec. 5, 19, 26. 




Supplement: May 2, 16, June 6, Aug. 29, 




Sept. 19. 



278 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

1775. Jan. 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 
Feb. 6, 13, 20. 
Mar. 6, 27. 
Apr. 3, 17. 
Supplement: Feb. 6. 

Boston Price Current, 1795-1798. 

Weekly and semi-weekly. Established Sept. 7, 1795, 
by J. and J. N. Russell (John and Joseph N. Russell), 
with the title of "The Boston Price-Current; and Marine- 
Intelligencer.' ' It was at first of quarto size, but with 
the issue of Mar. 7, 1796, was increased to folio. With 
the issue of June 27, 1796, the Russell partnership was 
dissolved, and the paper published by John Russell. 
With the issue of Sept. 12, 1796, the publication became 
semi-weekly, and the punctuation of the title was changed 
so as to read "The Boston Price-Current and Marine 
Intelligencer.' ■ With the issue of Dec. 1, 1796, the head- 
ing "A Commercial Gazette" was placed above the title, 
changed to "Commercial Gazette" with the issue of 
Dec. 26, 1796, and again to "Russell's Commercial 
Gazette" with the issue of Sept. 7, 1797, but in neither 
case was this intended to be part of the title. The last 
issue wth the title of "The Boston Price-Current and 
Marine Intelligencer" was that of June 4, 1798, voj. 4, 
no. 26, after which the title was changed to "Russell's 
Gazette," which see. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has Nov. 16, 1795 -June 4, 1798. 
Boston Athenaeum has Sept. 7, 1795 -Sept. 4, 1797. 
Boston Pub. Lib. has June 20, Dec. 5, 22, 1796; June 19, 
July 24, 1797. Harvard has Feb. 15 -Oct. 24, 1796, 
scattering. Conn. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 1-June, 1798. 
N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 26, 1795 -May 24, 1798, a few 
issues. N. Y. State Lib. has Nov. 17, Dec. 16, 19, 26, 
1796; Jan. -Feb., 1797. Phil. Lib. Co. has Nov. 2, 1795- 
Aug. 15, 1796, scattering issues. Lib. Cong, has Dec. 21, 
1795; Feb. 1, 1796-May 22, 1797, scattering issues; May 
31, June 4, 1798. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Sept. 7, Nov. 16, 
1795; Sept. 25-Oct. 9, 1797. A. A. S. has: 



1915.] Massachusetts. 279 

1795. Nov. 9. 
Dec. 14. 

1796. Jan. 4 to Dec. 29. 
Supplement: Mar. 21. f 

Mutilated: Oct. 24. 

Missing: Jan. 4, July 11, 18, Aug. 22, 29, 
Sept. 1, 5, 8, 12, 22, 26, Oct. 10, Nov. 24, 
* Dec. 5, 15, 19, 26, 29. 

1797. Jan. 2, 5, 9, 16, 19, 23, 26, 30. 
Feb. 2. 6, 

Mar. 6, 23. 
Apr. 6, 20. 
Aug. 31. 
Supplement: May 3. 

1798. Jan. l m , 11, 15* 

Feb. 5", 12, 19, 22, 26. 
Mar. 1, 5, 8, 12, 15, 26, 29. 
Apr. 2, 9, 12, 16, 19, 23, 26", 30. 
May 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, 24, 31. 
June 4. 
Supplement: May 17. 

[Boston] Publick Occurrences, 1690. 

The first and only issue was that of Sept. 25, 1690, 
with the title of " Publick Occurrences, " and at the bottom 
of the third page the imprint "Boston, Printed by 
R[ichard] Pierce for Benjamin Harris, at the London- 
Coffee-House. 1690." It was headed "Numb. 1," and 
was announced to be published once a month, or oftener. 
Since it offended the authorities and was without licence, 
an order was issued by the Governor and Council sup- 
pressing it and forbidding its further publication. 

This has generally been considered the first genuine 
newspaper published in America, and is so considered in 
this work. It had most of the attributes of a newspaper 
of that day, including a title of the newspaper type, a 
system of enumeration, a general smattering of current 
news, and an announcement of continuous publication. 
None of these attributes are to be found in "The Present 



280 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

State of the New-English Affairs," published in 1689, 
which should be considered a broadside issued for a speci- 
fic purpose, rather than a newspaper. ..(For a full dis- 
cussion of the subject, see article by Albert Matthews ir 
Publications of Colonial Society of Mass., vol. 10, pp. 
310-320). 

The only known copy of "Publick Occurrences" is 
in the Public Record Office or London. It has been repro- 
duced several times, notably in Dr. S.-A. Green's "Ten 
* Fac-simile Reproductions relating to Old Boston," 1901," 
and in Weeks and Bacon's " Historical Digest of the 
Provincial Press," vol. 1, 1911. The only known copies 
of the broadside Order of the Governor and Council 
suppressing the paper are in the American Antiquarian 
Society and the Massachusetts Historical Society. 

Boston Recorder, 1816-1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Jan. 3,, 1816, by Nathaniel 
Willis, with the title of " The Recorder. " With the issue 
of Jan. 1, 1817, the title was changed to " Boston Record- 
er." Continued by Willis until after 1820. 

Boston Pub. Lib., Boston Athenaeum, Mass. Hist. 
Soc, Congregational Lib. of Boston, Harvard, Essex 
Inst., Patten Free Lib., Bath, Me., Ct. Hist. Soc, Yale, 
N. Y. Hist. Soc, N. Y. Pub. Lib., Lib. Cong., and Wis. 
Hist. Soc. have files, 1816-1820. N. E. Hist. Gen. Soc. 
has 1816. N. Y. State Lib. has 1817-1820. A. A. S. has: 

1816. Jan. 3 to Dec. 24. 
Prospectus: Oct. 28, 1815. 

1817. Jan. 1 to Dec. 23. 

1818. Jan. 1 to Dec. 26. 

1819. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

1820. Jan. 1 to Dec. 23. 

[Boston] Repertory, 1804-1820+ . 

Semi-weekly and tri-weekly. Removed from Newbury- 
port where it had been established July 6, 1803, with the 
name of "New-England Repertory." (See under New- 
bury port.) The last Newburyport issue was on Jan. 21, 



1915.] ■ Massachusetts. 281 

1804, vol. 1, no. 57, and the first issue at Boston was on 
Feb. 3, 1804, vol. 1, no. 58. Upon its removal to Boston, 
the title was changed to "The Repertory." It was pub- 
lished semi-weekly for John Park. With the issue of Feb. 
14, 1809, John Park admitted his brother Andrew W. PaVk 
to partnership under the firm name of J. & A. W. Park, 
but with the issue of July 3, 1810, the paper was again 
published by John Park. With the issue of July 2, 1811, 
William W. 'Clapp took charge of the paper and it was 
^printed and published by William W. Clapp, and edited 
by John Park. With this issue, moreover, the title was 
changed to "The Repertory and General Advertiser." 
The "and" in the title was changed to "&" with the issue 
of July 23, 1811. With the issue of July 7, 1812, Park 
withdrew as editor, and the paper was published by 
William W. Clapp. With the issue of Jan. 1, 1813, a 
change was made in the set-up of the title, the word 
"Repertory," in larger type, being placed between the 
two words "General" and "Advertiser"; but with the 
issue of Jan. 8, 1813, the title reverted to "The Repertory 
& General Advertiser." With the issue of Mar. 4, 1813, 
the paper was united with the "Boston Daily Advertiser," 
projected by Horatio Biglow. The "Boston Daily 
Advertiser" appeared as a daily on Mar. 3, 1813. "The 
Repertory" appeared as a tri-weekly issue of the daily on 
Mar. 4, 1813, published by W. W. Clapp and H. Biglow. 
With the issue of Apr. 7, 1814, Clapp and Biglow trans- 
ferred their interests to Nathan Hale, in which issue it 
was stated at the top of the first column of the second page 
that the paper was "Edited and Published by Nathan 
Hale. W. W. Clapp, Printer." With the issue of Mar. 
6, 1815, Clapp's name as printer disappeared from the 
imprint, which was "Published by Nathan Hale." 
Although ostensibly published as a tri-weekly, the paper 
was frequently issued on successive days during 1815 
and 1816, and there was much confusion in the volume 
numbering. Under the title of "The Repertory," the 
paper was continued by Nathan Hale until after 1820. 
See also under Boston Daily Advertiser, 1813-1820. 



282 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Boston Pub. Lib. has Feb. 3, 1804 -Dec. 29, 1812; 
July 1, 1813-1820. Boston Athenaeum has 1804-Feb. 
26, 1813; 1815; Jan. 2-June 7, 1817; July 2-Dec. 31, 
1818; July 1-Dec. 30, 1820. Mass. Hist. Soc. has Feb. 
3, 1804-Jan. 29, 1813; Nov. 8, 1813. Mass. State Lib. 
has 1805-1806. N. E. Hist. Gen. Soc. has 1805-1809. 
Harvard has May 8-June 8, 1804; 1805-1810. Essex 
Inst, has 1804-Feb. 19, 1813. Dartmouth has 1804- 
May 30, 1806; Oct. 3, 1806-Dec. 30, 1816, fair; Feb. 1, 
1817; Mar. 6, 1819. Yale has Jan. 1, 1805-Nov. 1, 1811. 
Ct. Hist. Soc. has May 25, 1809-Dec. 29, 1812; Feb. 16, 
1814-Sept. 16, 1815. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Nov. 6, 1804- 
Dec. 28, 1810; Jan. 25-July 14, 1815. N. Y. State Lib. 
has 1804-1812; Jan.-Oct., 1814, imperfect. Lib. Cong, 
has 1804-1811; 1812, incomplete; 1813, scattering; Jan. 1, 
1814-July 27, 1815; Jan. 2-June 29, 1816; Apr. 15, 1817; 
Feb. 25, Mar. 4, Nov. 4, 1819; Jan. 7, 1820. Western 
Reserve Hist. Soc. has Feb. -Oct., 1807; 1808-1809. 
Wis. Hist. Soc. has 1805-1811; July 28, Nov. 5, 1818. 
A. A. S. has: 

1804. Feb. 3 to Dec. 28. 
Prospectus: Jan. 23. 

1805. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Carrier's Address: Jan. 1. 

1806. Jan. 3 to Dec. 30. 
Index. 

Supplementary Sheet: Feb. 1. 

1807. Jan. 2-Dec. 29. 
Extra: May 15, Nov. 10. 

1808. Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 
Carrier's Address: Jan. 1. 
Supplement: Apr. 29. 

1809. Jan. 3 to Dec. 29. 
Carrier's Address: Jan. 1. 

1810. Jan. 2 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated: Jan. 16, Feb. 20. 
Missing: Feb. 9. 

1811. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Carrier's Address: Jan. 1. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 283 

1812. Jan. 3 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: Mar. 6. 

1813. Jan. 1, 5, 8, 12, 15, 19, 22, 26, 29. 
Feb. 2, 5, 9, 12, 16, 19, 23, 26. 
June 24. 

July 20. 

Oct. 2, 7, 14, 16, 19, 21, 23. 

Nov. 27. 

1814. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Mar. 24, July 6. 
Missing: Jan. 1 to Mar. 22, June 17, Aug. 8, 
23, Sept. 14, 19, Oct. 12, Nov. 4, 20. 

1815. Jan. 1, 5«, 10, 12, 14, 15, 17, 19, 21, 24, 26, 

27™, 28, 31. 
Feb. 2, 3™, 4, 7, 9, 10, 11, 14, 16, 21, 24, 25, 

27, 28. 
Mar. 9. 17, 20, 24, 31. 
Apr. 5, 6. 

May 9, 16, 17, 25, 27. 
June 3, 6, 8, 10, 13, 15, 17, 22, 23, 27, 29. 
July 22, 27. 

Aug. 1, 15, 17, 19, 21, 24, 26, 29. 
Sept. 8, 12, 17. 
Oct. 19, 21. 
Dec. 5, 21. 

1816. May 14. 
June 6, 25. 
July 4, 15. 
Sept. 10. 

1817. May 20. 
Oct. 4, 11. 

1818. Jan. 15. 
Feb. 24, 28. 

Mar. 5, 7, 17, 21, 31. 
Apr. 4, 18, 25, 28. 
Sept. 1. 

1819. May 20, 22, 25, 27, 29. 

June 1, 3, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 17, 19, 22, 24, 26, 29. 
July 1, 3, 8, 10, 13, 15, 17, 20,22, 24, 27, 29, 31. 



284 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Aug. 3, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14, 17, 19, 21, 24, 26, 28, 31. 
Sept. 2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, 16, 18, 21, 23, 25, 28, 30. 
Oct. 2, 5, 7, 9, 12, 16, 19, 21, 23, 26, 28, 30. 
Nov. 2, 4, 6, 11, 13, 16. 
Dec. 11, 14, 16, 18, 21, 23, 25, 28, 30. 
1820. Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Feb. 8, Sept. 30, Dec. 12. 
Missing: Jan. 20, Mar. 4, Apr. 4, 25, 27, 
29, June 27, July 6, 20, 22, Aug. 12, 17, 
22, Oct. 3, 5, Nov. 4. 

[Boston] Republican Gazetteer, 1802-1803. 

Semi-weekly. Established by J[ohn] M. Dunham on 
May 26, 1802. The " Republican Gazetteer" replaced 
the "Constitutional Telegraphe," but was given a new 
volume numbering. The last issue was that of Mar. 30, 
1803, vol. 1, no. 89, and on Apr. 2, 1803, the title was 
changed to "The Gazetteer," which see. 

Boston Athenaeum has May 26, 1802-Mar. 30, 1803. 
Boston Pub. Lib. has May 26 -Dec. 29, 1802. Mass. 
Hist. Soc. has Nov. 20, 24, Dec. 22, 1802; Feb. 9, 12, Mar. 
12, 16, 19, 1803. Essex Inst, has June 12 -Dec. 4, 1802. 
Lib. Cong, has May 26-Dec. 29, 1802; Jan. 1, 5, Feb. 9, 
1803. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 1 -Mar. 30, 1803. A. A. S. 



1802. June 2, 5. 

July 3, 7, 10", 14, 17, 25. 

Aug. 4. 

Sept. 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. 

Oct. 16. 

Nov. 10™, 17, 24. 

Dec. 11, 15, 22- 29*. 

1803. Feb. 23™. 

[Boston] Russell's Commercial Gazette, 1798, see Boston 
Price Current. 

[Boston] Russell's Gazette, 1798-1800. 

Semi-weekly. A continuation, without change of 
volume numbering, of the "Boston Price Current." 



1915.] Massachusetts. 285 

The first issue of "Russell's Gazette. Commercial and 
Political" was that of June 7, 1798, vol. 4, no. 27, pub- 
lished by John Russell. With the issue of Dec. 17, 1798, 
the title was changed to "J. Russell's Gazette. Com- 
mercial and Political." With the issue of Jan. 9, 1800, 
Russell transferred the paper to James Cutler. The 
last issue with the title ( of "J. Russell's Gazette" was 
that of Oct. 6, 1800, vol. 9, no. 10, after which the title 
was changed to "Boston Gazette," which see. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. and Boston Athenaeum have June 
7, 1798-Oct. 6, 1800. Boston Pub. Lib. has July-Nov., 
1798, scattering; Oct. 6, 1800. Harvard has June, 1798- 
Sept., 1800, scattering. Mass. State Lib. has June 13- 
Nov. 4, 1799. Essex Inst, has 1798-1800. Ct. Hist. Soc. has 
1798-1800. N, Y. Pub. Lib. has 1798, scattering; Jan. 7, 
1799 -Oct. 6, 1800, fair. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 3, 
1799-Jan. 23, 1800. N. Y. State Lib. has June 11, 
1798-Oct. 6, 1800, scattering. Hist. Soc. Penn. has 
1798-1799. Penn. State Lib. has Jan., 1799 -Oct., 1800. 
Lib. Cong, has June 7, 1798-Oct. 6, 1800. Wis. Hist. 
Soc. has July -Dec, 1799. British Museum has Apr. 
17 -Oct. 6, 1800. A. A. S. has: 

1798. June 7 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: July 5. 
- Missing: June 11, July 30, Oct. 22, 29. 

1799. Jan. 3 to Dec. 30. 
Supplement: Feb. 4, Sept. 30 m . 

Mutilated: Mar. 7, 18, Apr. 11, 15, May 
13, 27, Aug. 22, 26, Sept. 5, 2G, 30, 
Oct. 3, 28, Nov. 11, Dec. 5. 

Missing: Mar. 14, 21, 28, Apr. 25, May 16, 
20, 23, June 10, 13, 17, 20, 24, 27, July 1, 
8, 15, 22, 25, 29, Aug. 1, 5, 8, Oct. 21, 
24, Nov. 25. 

1800. Jan. 2 to Oct. 6. 
Extra: Mar. 31. 
Supplement: Sept. 29. 



286 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

[Boston] Satirist, 1812. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 16, 1812, with the title of 
"The Satirist," published by J[ames] L. Edwards, and 
edited under the pseudonym of "Lodowick Lash'em." 
With the issue of Apr. 20, 1812, the title was changed to 
"The Boston Satirist, or Weekly Museum," and the 
publisher's name was no longer given in the imprint. 
It was discontinued with the issue of May 9, 1812, no. 13. 
Mass. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 16 -May 9, 1812. Boston 
Pub. Lib. has Jan. 16 -May 2, 1812. Harvard has Mar. 
14, 1812. Lib. Cong, has Jan. 16 -May 9, 1812. A. A. S. 
has: 

1812. Feb. 29. 

Mar. 21, 28. 
Apr. 4, 11, 20. 
May 9. 

[Boston] Saturday Evening Herald, 1790. 

Weekly. Established July 17, 1790, by Edward Eve- 
leth Powars under the title of "The Saturday Evening 
Herald, and the Washington Gazette. " In August, 1790, 
the title was changed to "The American Herald, and the 
Washington Gazette." In October, 1790, the title was 
slightly changed to "American Herald. And the Wash- 
ington Gazette." The last issue located is that of Dec. 
13, 1790. A. A. S. has: 
1790. July 24. 

Aug. 30. 

Sept. 27. 

Oct. 18, 25. 

Nov. 1, 8, 15, 22. 

Dec. 13. 

[Boston] Scourge. 1811. 

Established Aug. 10, 1811, with the title of "The 
Scourge," published by M[errill] Butler and edited under 
the pseudonym of "Tim Touchstone." It was supposed 
to be published weekly, but since the issues were fre- 
quently several days late in appearance, it may be said 



1915.] Massachusetts. 287 

to have been published occasionally. Some of the issues 
went through more than one edition, as is shown by the 
issues of Aug. 10, Sept. 4, and Sept. 14 in the Antiquarian 
Society file, which are headed in the first column of the 
first page "Second Edition." In the issue of Nov. 30, 

1811, there is an account of an attack upon the editor, 
Merrill Butler, "in the office of Mr. James L. Edwards, in 
which the newspaper called the Scourge is printed." 
The issue of Dec. 11, 1811, states that on Dec. 3, the editor 
was sentenced to six months imprisonment for libel, and 
had begun serving his term. This issue was published 
"for M. Butler." The issue of Dec. 28, 1811, vol. 1, 
no. 16, was undoubtedly the last issued. On Jan. 16, 

1812, James L. Edwards established "The Satirist." 
Boston Pub. Lib., Mass. Hist. Soc, N. E. Hist. Gen. 

Soc, and Lib. Cong, have Aug. 10-Dec. 28, 1811. N. Y. 
Hist. Soc. has Aug. 10-Dec. 11, 1811. N. Y. Pub. Lib. 
has Nov. 16, 1811. A. A. S. has: 
1811. Aug. 10 to Dec. 28. 

Boston Spectator, 1814-1815. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 1, 1814, with the title of 
"The Boston Spectator," printed and published for John 
Park by Munroe & Francis (Edmund Munroe and David 
Francis). With the issue of Nov. 5, 1814, the firm name 

of the printers became Munroe, Francis & Parker, 

Parker having entered the firm. John Park continued 
the paper until the issue of Feb. 25, 1815, vol. 1, no. 61, 
when it was discontinued. It was of quarto size, paged, 
and provided with a title page and index. 

Boston Pub. Lib., Boston Athenaeum, Mass. Hist. 
Soc, Harvard, Essex Inst., Yale, N. Y. Hist. Soc, 
N. Y. State Lib., Hist. Soc. Penn. and Wis. Hist. Soc 
have files. A. A. S. has: 

1814. Jan. 1 to Dec 31. 
Title-page and index. 

1815. Jan. 7 to Feb. 25. 
Carrier's Address: Jan. 2. 



288 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

[Boston] Times, 1794. 

Tri-weekly. Established Oct. 4, 1794, with the title 
of "The Times: or the Evening Entertainer," published 

by Hall & Macclintock (Thomas Hall and 

Macclintock). In the Antiquarian Society file is a little 
16 mo., 8 page "Proposal" for publishing the paper, 
dated July 28, 1794. With the issue of Nov. 5, 1794, the 
paper was published by Thomas Hall. The last issue 
located is that of Nov. 8, 1794. 

Boston Pub. Lib. has Oct. 4, 9, 14, 16, 29, Nov. 3, 5, 
1794. Mass. Hist. Soc* has Oct. 4, 1794. N. Y. Pub. 
Lib. has Oct. 21, 23, Nov. 1, 1794. Wis. Hist. Soc. has 
Oct. 23, 25, Nov. 5, 8, 1794. A. A. S. has: 
1794. Oct. 4, 9, 14, 16, 21, 23, 25, 29. 
Nov. 3, 5, 8. 
Proposal for printing, July 28. 

[Boston] Times, 1807-1808. 

Weekly. Established Dec. 12, 1807, with the title 
of "The Times," published by Oliver & Munroe (Edward 
Oliver and Isaac Munroe). The paper was of quarto 
size and paged. Although of magazine form, because of 
its inclusion of death and marriage notices, current news, 
etc., it should be considered a newspaper, and was so 
termed by its publishers. The paper was discontinued 
with the issue of Oct. 15, 1808, vol. 1, no. 45, and in its 
stead was published the Boston Mirror, which see. 

Boston Pub. Lib. has Dec. 12, 1807 -Oct. 15, 1808. 
Mass. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 16, 1808. Harvard has Dec, 
12, 1807 -Oct. 8, .1808. Ct. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 23 -Oct. 
8, 1808. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 12, 1807 -Oct. 15, 1808. 
A. A. S. has: 

1807. Dec. 12 to 26. 

1808. Jan. 2 to Oct. 15. 

Boston Weekly Advertiser, see Boston Post=Boy. 

[Boston] Weekly Messenger, 181 1-1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Oct. 25, 1811, by James Cutler, 
with the title of "The Weekly Messenger." The last 



1915.] Massachusetts. 289 

issue in folio form was that of Oct. 13, 1815, vol. 4, no. 52. 
With the issue of Oct. 20, 1815, vol. 5, no. 1, the paper 
was transferred to Nathan Hale, who changed the title 
to ''Boston Weekly Messenger" and brought it out in 
magazine size, 16 pages to each weekly number. Although 
having the appearance of a periodical, it was made up 
largely of current news taken from Hale's paper, the 
Daily Advertiser, and its publisher stated, "It will not 
be less a news paper than heretofore." Each volume 
had a title-page and index. The last issue in octavo size 
is that of June 8, 1820, vol. 9, no. 35. With the issue of 
June 15, 1820 (vol. 10, or new series, vol. 1, no. 1), the 
paper was again published in folio size, and was so con- 
tinued until after 1820. 

Boston Pub. Lib., Boston Athenaeum, Mass. Hist. 
Soc, Essex Inst., Yale and Wis. Hist. Soc. have prac- 
tecally complete files, 1811-1820. Mass. State Lib. has 
Nov. 1, 1811 -Oct. 13, 1815. Harvard has Mar. 27, 
1812-Oct. 9, 1817; June 15-Dec. 29, 1820. Dartmouth 
has Oct. 25, 1811 -Dec. 30, 1819, fair. Ct. Hist. Soc. has 
Oct. 23, 1812-Oct. 8, 1813. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 
25, 1811-Oct. 9, 1817; Oct. 22, 1818-June 8, 1820. 
N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Jan. 7 -Sept. 9, 1819, with a few other 
scattering issues. N. Y. State Lib. has Oct. 25, 1811- 
Oct. 13, 1815. Hist. Soc. Perm, has Apr. 22, 1814- 
June 30, 1815. Lib. Cong, has Oct. 25, 1811 -Nov. 26, 
1818; Oct. 21, 28, 1819; June 20-Dec. 29, 1820. Ga. 
Hist. Soc. has Nov. 6, 1812-Oct. 14, 1814. Western 
Reserve Hist. Soc. has Dec, 1813-Oct., 1816, fair. Brit- 
ish Museum has Oct. 25, 1811-Oct. 13, 1815, A. A. S. 
has: 

1811. Oct. 25 to Dec. 27. 

1812. Jan. 3 to Dec. 25. 
Extraordinary: Mar. 27. 
Prospectus, Feb. 10. 
Index. 

1813. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Supplement: Mar, 26. 
Index. 



290 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

1814. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 
Index. 

1815. Jan. 6 to Dec. 28. 
Index. 

1816. Jan. 4 to Dec. 26. 
Title-page and index. 

1817. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 
Title-page and index. 

1818. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Title-page and index. 

1819. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 
Title-page and index. 

1820. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 
Title-page and index. 

[Boston] Weekly News=Letter, see Boston Newsletter. 

Boston Weekly News=Letter, see Boston News=Letter. 

Boston Weekly Post=Boy, see Boston Post=Boy. 

[Boston] Weekly Rehearsal, 1731-1735. 

Weekly. Established Sept. 27, 1731, with the title 
of "The Weekly Rehearsal" and "printed by J[ohn] 
Draper for the Author." Isaiah Thomas states (History 
of Printing, 1874 ed., vol. 1, p. 125) that it "was carried 
on at the expense of some gentlemen who formed them- 
selves into a political or literary club, and wrote for it. 
At the head of this club was the late celebrated Jeremy 
Gridley, Esq., who was the real editor of the paper." 
With the issue of Aug. 21, 1732, the paper was printed 
by Thomas Fleet. This issue, moreover, was the first 
to have a number, although the number given to it, 47, 
was an error, as forty-seven issues had already been 
published, and the issue of Aug. 21, 1732, should have been 
numbered 48. With the issue of Apr. 2, 1733, Thomas 
Fleet became sole proprietor and publisher. The last 
issue of "The Weekly Rehearsal" was that of Aug. 11, 
1735, no. 202, and upon Aug. 18, 1735, it was replaced by 
"The Boston Evening-Post," which see. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 291 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has Sept. 27, 1731 -Sept. 18, 1732; 
Dec. 11, 1732; Feb. 5, May 28, 1733; Apr. 8, Aug. 19, 
Dec. 23, 1734; Mar. 17, 1735. Boston Pub. Lib. has 
Aug. 4 1735. A. A. S. has: 

1731. Sept. 27- Dec. 27. 

Missing: Sept. 27. 

1732. Jan. 3 to Dec. 25. 

Mutilated: Aug. 28. 
Missing: Apr. 24. 

1733. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Apr. 2. 
Missing: May 7, Nov. 26. 

1734. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 
Supplement: Apr. 15. 

Missing: June 3, Sept. 16. 

1735. Jan. 6 to Aug. 11. 
Supplement: Mar. 10. 

Mutilated: May 26. 

Boston Weekly Report, 1819-1820+ . 

Weekly. Established May 1, 1819, by P. P. F. De- 
grand (Peter P. F. Degrand), with the title of "Boston 
Weekly Report of Public Sales and of Arrivals." The 
first issue was of quarto size, but the second number was 
enlarged to folio and the title changed to "P. P. F. 
Degrand's Boston Weekly Report of Public Sales and 
of Arrivals." With this issue, moreover, it was stated 
that the paper was printed by E[lisha] Bellamy. It was 
published by Degrand and printed by Bellamy until 
after 1820. 

Boston Athenaeum has May 1, 1819-1820. Essex 
Inst, has July 3, 1819. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has May 22, 
1819-1820. Phil. Lib. Co. has 1819, imperfect. A. A. S. 
has : 

1819. May 1-Dec. 25. 
Announcement: May 12. 
Extract: May 15, May 29. 
Supplement: May 15. 
Index: Sept. 18. 

1820. Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 



292 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

[Boston] Yankee, 1812-1820. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 3, 1812, with the title of 
"The Yankee," published by True & Rowe (Benjamin 
True and Thomas Rowe) and edited by David Everett. 
On Sept. 25, 1812, Everett established a semi-weekly 
newspaper called "The Pilot," printed by True & Rowe, 
and the matter printed in the two papers was largely 
the same. In the issue of "The Yankee" for Jan. 22, 

1813, True & Rowe announced that "The Pilot" was 
suspended and that their partnership with Everett was 
dissolved, and with this issue Everett's name was omitted 
from the imprint. With the issue of Dec. 31, 1813, the 
partnership of True & Rowe was dissolved, and Thomas 
Rowe took Joshua Hooper, Jr., into partnership under 
the firm name of Rowe & Hooper. This partnership 
was dissolved and with the issue of Dec. 29, 1815, the 
paper was published by Thomas Rowe; but with the 
issue of Feb. 2, 1816, the partnership was resumed, and 
the paper again published by Rowe & Hooper. The 
partnership was again dissolved, and with the issue of 
Jan. 31, 1817, the paper was published by Thomas Rowe. 
With the issue of May 15, 1818, Rowe disposed of the 
paper to Benjamin True and Equality Weston, who 
published it under the firm name of True & Weston. 
With the issue of Apr. 15, 1819, the title was changed 
to "Boston Yankee." The last issue published was that 
of Jan. 20, 1820, vol. 9, no. 5, as a fire destroyed the 
office on Jan. 27, and the paper evidently was not revived. 

Boston Pub. Lib. has Jan. 3, 1812-Jan. 20, 1820. 
Mass. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 3, 1812 -Oct. 8, 1817, scattering; 
Jan. 21, Apr. 1, 1819. Boston Athenaeum has Jan. 3, 
1812-Dec. 30, 1819. Harvard has June 11, 1818. 
Essex Inst, has Jan. 3 -Nov. 27, 1812; 1814-1818, a few 
scattering issues. Yale has Dec. 31, 1813 -Dec. 23, 

1814. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 27, 1812 -Mar. 12, 
1813; Dec. 3, 1813 -Sept. 22, 1815, scattering. Hist. 
Soc. Penn. has Nov. 4, 1814-Dec. 27, 1816. Lib. Cong, 
has Jan. 3, 1812-Nov. 17, 1813, imperfect; Jan. 7, 1814- 
Dec. 20, 1816; June 6, 1817 -Jan. 20, 1820. Wis. Hist. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 293 

Soc. has Oct. 9, 1812; Dec, 1814-Dec, 1815; Jan. 16, 
1818. A. A. S. has: 

1812. Jan. 17. 
Feb. 14. 
June 12. 
Aug. 23. 
Sept. 26. 

Oct. 2, 9, 23, 30. 
Nov. 6, 13, 20. 
Dec. 11, 18, 25". 

1813. Jan. 1 -Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Sept. 17. 
Missing: Dec. 31. 

1814. Jan. 14, 21. 
Apr. 1, 29. 

May 6, 13, 20, 27. 
June 3, 10, 17, 24. 
July 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. 
Aug. 5, 12, 19, 26. 
Sept. 2, 9. 
Oct. 14. 

Nov. 4, 11, 18, 25. 
Dec. 9, 16, 23. 

1815. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 
Carrier's Address: Jan. 1. 

Missing: Feb. 24, Mar. 3, 10, May 12, 19, 
26, June 23, July 28, Aug. 4, Dec. 22. 

1816. Jan. 5 to Dec. 27. 

New Year's Address: Jan. 1. 

1817. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 

1818. Jan. 2 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: May 22. 

Missing: June 25, July 9, 23, 30, Dec. 10, 
31. 

1819. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Sept. 16, Nov. 25. 
Missing: Feb. 25, Apr. 22, 29, May 6, 13, 
20, June 24, July 22, Aug. 5, 19, 26. 

1820. Jan. 6, 13, 20. 



1915.] Proceedings. 295^"" 



PROCEEDINGS 



ANNUAL MEETING OF THE SOCIETY, OCTOBER 20, 1915. 
AT THE HALL OF THE SOCIETY, WORCESTER. 

The annual meeting of the Society was called to 
order in Antiquarian Hall by President Lincoln at 
10.45 o'clock, on Wednesday morning, October 20, 
1915. 

The following members were present: 

Edmund Mills Barton, Samuel Swett Green, 
Andrew McFarland Davis, Reuben Colton, Henry 
Herbert Edes, James Phinney Baxter, Augustus 
George Bullock, William Eaton Foster, Francis 
Henshaw Dewey, Simeon Eben Baldwin, William 
Trowbridge Forbes, George Henry Haynes, Arthur 
Lord, Charles Lemuel Nichols, Waldo Lincoln, 
Edward Sylvester Morse, George Parker Winship, 
Austin Samuel Garver, Samuel Utley, Benjamin 
Thomas Hill, Albert Matthews, William MacDonald, 
Clarence Winthrop Bowen, Daniel Berkeley Updike, 
Clarence Saunders Brigham, Lincoln Newton Kinnicutt, 
Franklin Pierce Rice, Worthington Chauncey Ford, 
Julius Herbert Tuttle, Charles Grenfill Washburn, 
Samuel Bayard Woodward, George Hubbard Blakes- 
lee, Wilfred Harold Munro, Henry Winchester Cun- 
ningham, Frank Farnum Dresser, Shepherd Knapp, 
George Francis Dow, Homer Gage, John Spencer 
Bassett, Charles Henry Taylor, Jr., Lyon Gardner 
Tyler, Herbert Edwin Lombard, Howard Millar 
Chapin, Samuel Eliot Morison, Grenville Howland 



296 A merican A ntiquarian Society . [Oct., 

Norcross, Thomas Hovey Gage, Otis Grant Ham- 
mond, John Whittemore Farwell, Samuel Hart, Ira 
Nelson Hollis, Lawrence Waters Jenkins, Henry 
Bradford Washburn, Leonard Wheeler. 

The call for the meeting was read by the Secretary, 
and on motion of Mr. Edes it was voted to omit the 
reading of the records of the last meeting. 

The report of the Council, prepared by the Presi- 
dent, that of the Treasurer, Mr. Bullock, and the 
Librarian's report were each read, and on motion 
these reports were accepted as the report of the 
Council to the Society and referred to the Committee 
of Publication. 

The Secretary reported a list of persons recommend- 
ed by the Council for election to membership. Messrs. 
Tuttle and T. H. Gage were appointed a committee 
to distribute and count the ballots, and the following 
persons were elected: 

Resident Members 

John Woolf Jordan of Philadelphia, Penn. 
Alexander George McAdie of Milton, Mass. 

Foreign Member 

Rt. Hon. Sir George Otto Trevelyan of London, 
England. 

Messrs. Edes, Knapp and Winship were appointed' 
a committee to distribute and count the ballots for 
President of the Society and they reported the re- 
election of Waldo Lincoln by a unanimous vote. 

Messrs. Lord, Bowen and Norcross were appointed 
a committee on nominations for the other offices to 
be filled at the meeting and they presented the 
following list: 



1915.] Proceedings. 297 

Vice-Presidents: 

Samuel Abbott Green, LL.D., of Groton, Mass. 
Andrew McFarland Davis, A.M., of Cambridge, 

Mass. 

Councillors: 

Nathaniel Paine, A.M., of Worcester, Mass. 

Samuel Swett Green, A.M., of Worcester, Mass. 

Granville Stanley Hall, LL.D., of Worcester, Mass. 

Samuel LUley, LL.B., of Worcester, Mass. 

Arthur Prentice Rugg, LL.D., of Worcester, Mass. 

Charles Grenfili Washburn, A.B., of Worcester, 
Mass. 

Francis Henshaw Dewey, A.M., of Worcester, Mass. 

Henry Winchester Cunningham, A.B., of Manches- 
ter, Mass. 

Clarence Winthrop Bowen, Ph.D., of New York, 
N. Y. 

George Parker Winship, A.M., of Cambridge, Mass. 

Secretary for Foreign Correspondence: 
James Phinney Baxter, Litt.D., of Portland, Me. 

Secretary for Domestic Correspondence: 
Worthington Chauncey Ford, A.M., of Boston, 
Mass. 

Recording Secretary: 

Charles Lemuel Nichols, M.D., of Worcester, Mass. 

Treasurer: 

Augustus George Bullock, A.M., of Worcester, 

Mass. 

Committee of Publication: 

Franklin Pierce Rice, of Worcester, Mass. 
George Henry Haynes, Ph.D., of Worcester, Mass. 
Charles Lemuel Nichols, M.D., of Worcester, Mass. 
Julius Herbert Tuttle, of Dedham, Mass. 



298 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Auditors: 

Benjamin Thomas Hill, A.B., of Worcester, Mass. 
Homer Gage, M.D., of Worcester, Mass. 

The report of this committee was accepted and 
after ballot, the officers thus nominated were elected 
for the ensuing year, the oath being administered to 
the Clerk by Judge Forbes. 

The following papers were read: 

" Franklin and the Rule of Free Ships, Free Goods," 
by Simeon E. Baldwin of New Haven, Connecticut. 

"Virginia's Contribution to Science," by Lyon 
G. Tyler, of Williamsburg, Virginia. 

"Indian Myths of the Northwest," by William D. 
Lyman, of Walla Walla, Washington. 

The last paper was read by title. It was moved 
that these papers be referred to the Committee of 
Publication. 

The President referred to the fact that the rotunda 
room was used as the place of meeting and hoped that 
the tapestries which were hung in the four panels 
would render the acoustic properties of the Hall 
much better, as had been suggested by Professor 
Sabine of Harvard College. 

The President invited the members of the Society 
to luncheon at his house, 49 Elm Street, at the close 
of the meeting. The meeting was then dissolved. 

CHARLES LEMUEL NICHOLS, 

Recording Secretary. 



1915.] Report of the Council. 299 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



In the annual report of the Council for 1913 men- 
tion was made of leaks in the marble dome of Anti- 
quarian Hall which necessitated extensive repairs 
with a preparation known as *'minwax. During 
last winter the dome again developed serious leaks 
and investigation showed that the repairs had been 
imperfectly made and the "minwax" applied in a 
very superficial manner. Unfortunately, it was 
learned, at the same time, that the firm which had 
done the work and had furnished a guarantee that 
the dome would remain tight for five years, had 
become bankrupt and the guarantee was worthless. 
Advice was sought from several builders and it was 
ascertained that to cover the dome with copper would 
cost over two thousand dollars and that the result, 
besides depriving the building of the architectural 
effect of the marble, for which the Society had origi- 
nally paid a large sum, might not prove entirely 
satisfactory. Recourse was had to a New York firm 
of satisfactory financial strength, and on its repre- 
sentation that "minwax" properly applied would 
prove effective and with the advice and approval 
of the architects, the dome was again treated with 
this preparation under a guarantee for five years; 
and in the hope and expectation that it has been 
made permanently water-tight, the interior has been 
repainted. The cost of these repairs was over five 
hundred dollars, and since the income of the Society 
was not available for such expense without materially 
affecting the care and maintenance of the library, it 



300 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

has been necessary to take this sum temporarily from 
the invested funds. 

As intimated in the last annual report the dwarf 
box bordering the front walk has proved too tender 
for so severe a climate, and so much of it was destroyed 
during the past winter that there seemed no alter- 
native to replacing it with hardier plants, except a 
complete reconstruction of the whole front walk, 
which, as it had been designed with reference to 
architectural effect, it seemed advisable to preserve. 
The smaller box has therefore been replaced in the 
lower beds with dwarf barberry, as an experiment, 
and the upper beds have been planted with pachy- 
sandra terminalis, retaining the larger box plants for 
further trial. It is hoped that the effect sought by 
the architects in the original planting with box may 
thus be retained. The southern boundary of the 
lot has been planted with evergreen trees, all of which 
have made a good growth during the past summer, 
and will eventually make an effective and attractive 
screen. All winter-killed shrubs have been replaced 
and the grounds are in a flourishing condition. If 
funds permit, a power lawn-mower will be purchased 
next spring, which will reduce the time required to 
keep the lawn in order and enable the janitor to devote 
more time to the work in the hall. 

A special meeting of the Worcester members of the 
Council was held on March 22 to take notice of the 
death of Charles Francis Adams, Secretary of Domes- 
tic Correspondence. The President in announcing the 
death made a few remarks respecting Mr. Adams's 
work in connection with the Society, and Samuel Swett 
Green read an appreciation which had been prepared 
by request. A short biographical sketch of Mr. Adams 
prepared by Charles Grenfill Washburn was printed 
in the last number of the Proceedings. 

Since the April meeting three active members have 
died. Albert Harrison Hoyt of Boston, who had been 
a member for forty years, having been elected in 



1915.] Report of the Council. 301 

April, 1875, died at Boston, June 10, aged eighty- 
nine years, six months and four days. He was the 
fifth in seniority of membership and the oldest 
member in age. Frederic Ward Putnam of Cam- 
bridge, the distinguished archaeologist who had been 
a member since April, 1882, died at Cambridge, August 
14 after a long illness. George Emery Littlefield 
of Boston, who was elected in April, 1912, died very 
suddenly at Hamilton, September 4. His book shop 
in Cornhill had long been a resort for many of the 
members when visiting Boston. 

Brief notices of these members have been prepared 
by the Biographer and will appear in the printed 
Proceedings of this meeting. 

Through the enterprise and generosity of Dr. 
Charles L. Nichols, whose advancement of the work 
of the Society has often been noted, the Society will 
have the credit, without financial risk, of doing a 
work of great interest and value to all libraries and 
bibliographers. The almanacs published in Massa- 
chusetts in the seventeenth century, the existence of 
which are known, have been reproduced by the 
photostat process and ten sets are now offered to 
libraries and collectors. This work has been made 
possible through the generous co-operation of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, the New York 
Public Library, the Library of Congress, the Watkin- 
son Library and of Henry E. Huntington, Alfred D. 
Foster, and Valentine Hollingsworth, all of whom 
possess copies not in the Library of this Society, and 
the first three libraries named have done the photostat 
work at but little over cost. 

As a matter worthy of record and preservation the 
circular prepared by Dr. Nichols offering this work 
to other libraries is here presented: — 

"The American Antiquarian Society has repro- 
duced by the photostat process the almanacs printed 
in Massachusetts before the year seventeen hundred. 
As its Library contains forty-two of the sixty-five 



302 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct.> 

almanacs known in this period, it was suggested by 
Mr. Wilberforce Eames to be appropriate for the 
Society to undertake this work. With the exception 
of the Massachusetts Historical Society few libraries 
in this country possess more than a dozen of these 
interesting books. They contain so much of value 
and importance, from the point of view of history, 
science, literature and local tradition, that it appears 
desirable for a few of the great libraries, in various 
parts of the country to possess complete sets of the 
fac-similes in order that reference to them may be 
facilitated. 

"Sixty-four of these almanacs have been repro- 
duced, including the four belonging to Mr. Henry 
E. Huntington, and, as the originals are so frail that 
even careful handling is a menace, the use of the 
reproductions by the student will save the originals, 
which are in many cases represented by a single 
specimen. The copies have been folded, trimmed 
and pressed, ready for binding singly or in volumes, 
and are each placed in an envelope with label, stating 
the year, the compiler and the imprint. They will 
be sold only in sets, ten of which have been printed, 
the price being fixed at ninety-six dollars ($96) for 
each set. " 

The Council is pleased to report that the income for 
the past year was not reduced as was anticipated, 
and therefore it has not been necessary to put into 
effect certain contemplated economies. On the other 
hand it has been found necessary to increase the 
expenses in nearly every department, and notably in 
the cost of publishing the Proceedings, the only 
form of publication in which the Society by rea- 
son of its limited income can indulge itself at pres- 
ent. This increased expense of publication is due 
not only to the higher cost of paper and printing, 
in which latter item the advance in the last seven 
or eight years is thought to be at least forty per 
cent, but also to the larger size of the volumes, 



1915.] Report of the Council. 303 

which have increased nearly thirty per cent in the 
same time. This larger size is due, at present, to 
the publication of the bibliography of American 
newspapers, which occupies more than half of the 
number just issued, and which it is desired to push to 
a conclusion as rapidly as possible. 

Had it not been for the extraordinary expenses on 
the dome and for the purchase of a three years' supply 
of paper for the Proceedings, the Society would have 
easily met all expenses from its income. These two 
items, amounting to nearly thirteen hundred dollars, 
it has been necessary to pay from principal, with the 
expectation that this loss can be made good from 
income in three or four years. Other imperative 
calls upon the Society's means may, however, prevent 
this and members must not get the idea that, because 
the Society manages to live on its present income, 
it does not need assistance in order to do its work 
more efficiently. A visit to the work rooms in the 
basement will impress the most sceptical with the 
vast amount of labor required in caring for the con- 
stant stream of material passing through those rooms. 
To-day the contents of nearly one hundred mail bags 
of government publications are being sorted and made 
ready for the shelves, in which process every item 
must be examined, collated, marked with its proper 
check-list number and all duplicates laid aside. 
During the year, more than 200,000 numbers of news- 
papers bound and unbound have received the same 
thorough treatment and there are now 58 cases con- 
taining books and pamphlets awaiting opportunity 
to be opened and examined. Only one who makes 
frequent visits to the Library can appreciate the labor 
and time required for this work, and meanwhile the 
other work of the Society, quite as important if not 
more so, must not be interrupted. Certainly two 
more assistants could find constant work did means 
permit their employment. 



304 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

There are sometimes disadvantages in having 
efficient officers. Owing to the sagacity and alertness 
of the Librarian in securing new material, the Society 
threatens to accomplish in five years what it was 
estimated would take at least four times as long. 
The newspaper collection has been increased so mar- 
vellously that there is every reason to believe that in 
two years it will be necessary to enlarge the newspaper 
stack. As this will certainly require an expenditure 
of forty to fifty thousand dollars, it will be necessary 
to take early steps to raise this sum, and at the same 
time it may be well to attempt to raise a fund for the 
maintenance of the newspaper collection. An appeal 
for these two sums may, perhaps, be effectively made 
outside of the Society, since the objects to be accom- 
plished may well interest not only the general public, 
but particularly those concerned in newspaper pub- 
lication, among whom are many wealthy individuals 
of generous impulses. The members of the Society 
must, however, be asked to contribute liberally to 
a further endowment for general purposes, the need 
for which has so often been recited, and the appeal 
for which in the opinion of the Council should 
be postponed no longer, even if this does not 
seem to be the most propitious time to present the 
claims of the Society to the consideration of the ben- 
evolent. For the first time in several years no in- 
crease of endowment is to be reported and it would 
seem as though recent appeals for help have fallen 
upon deaf ears, or have not been sufficiently emphatic, 
since many members die and neglect to provide in 
their wills for the Society's benefit. 

Few, if any, libraries in the world are attempting 
to do so great a work as that attempted here without 
some form of government aid, and the wonder is that, 
with so small a membership, it has succeeded so well. 
The Society, unlike a college or university, has no 
great and growing body of alumni to whom to appeal, 
and it is difficult to inform the general public of its 



1915.] Report of the Council. 305 

needs and the importance of its work; nor is the gen- 
erosity of the Society in throwing its library freely 
open to the public as widely known as might be ex- 
pected. Ever since the Society has had a house of 
its own and a librarian, or for more than seventy-five 
years, it has welcomed the public and it rightly claims 
to have established one of the earliest free reference 
libraries in this country, yet only a few days ago 
inquiry was made of the writer in Boston if one, not 
a member, might consult the newspaper files. No 
record has been kept of the number of daily visitors, 
nor would their number be impressive compared 
with those who visit libraries of general literature, 
but during the past summer an average of twenty-five 
volumes of newspapers has been daily furnished to 
students, who are learning that for such historical 
material no library north of Washington can compare 
with this. It is evident that, as the newspaper 
bibliography now being published spreads the knowl- 
edge of this collection abroad, the use of the library 
will increase, requiring more and more time from a 
staff now too small, to the detriment of other interests. 
Another erroneous impression seems to prevail, not 
only with the public but also with the members out- 
side of Worcester, that this city is the principal bene- 
ficiary of the Library. As a matter of fact most of 
the users of the Library come from a distance and 
Worcester furnishes a small percentage of them. 
That this city benefits indirectly is, of course, true, 
but a surprisingly small number of citizens take advan- 
tage of the opportunity to consult the collections. 

As the Council is now taking thought how best to 
reach the members and others with an appeal for 
funds, and how to secure the publicity which is the 
first step, consideration of what has been accomplished 
in the past is not out of place and with this in mind a 
list has been prepared of all contributions of one 
hundred dollars and more to the endowment of the 
Society since its foundation. For the encouragement 



306 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

of future generosity it is proposed to publish this list 
of benefactors every year, as a part of the Treasurer's 
report and as a permanent roll of honor, on which it 
is hoped that all members of the Society and many 
friends of education who are not members will be 
desirous to have their names appear. It is printed 
this year for the first time and makes, on the whole, 
a remarkable as well as interesting exhibit. Many of 
the larger gifts have been established as separate 
funds under the names of the donors, but others and 
especially the smaller sums have not. A study of the 
list discloses that the total amount received from 
sixty-nine gifts and twenty-five legacies is $403,696. 
Of this sum over $360,000 has come from thirty-four 
members and friends in Worcester, and $42,859 has 
come from thirty-nine members and friends outside 
of Worcester. The whole ninety-four gifts and 
legacies came from seventy-three individuals, of whom 
all but eleven were members of the Society, and from 
these eleven the Society received $20,100. The 
largest benefactors are Isaiah Thomas, who gave 
the original building with the land on Summer Street 
on which it stood and left the Society by his will 
$23,152; Stephen Salisbury, senior, who gave the land 
on Lincoln Square on which the second building was 
erected and which was finally sold for $40,000, gifts 
at various times amounting to $20,545, and left by 
will $20,000; and Stephen Salisbury, junior, who gave 
during his life $10,000, and left by will a legacy of 
$200,000, besides the old mansion house which was 
sold for $35,000 when the present building was 
erected. 

It is considered impractical to include in this list 
the names of the many givers of sums under one 
hundred dollars and it must be remembered also that 
only the contributors to the invested funds of the 
Society are named. Gifts of money for the desig- 
nated purpose of purchasing specific additions to the 
collections are not included, for the same reason that 



1915.] Report of the Council. 307 

direct gifts of books, manuscripts, newspapers, fur- 
niture, paintings and historical relics are omitted. 
Such contributors are named annually in the Libra- 
rian's Report and the record of their gifts already fills 
four large manuscript volumes, which are preserved 
in the archives and called " donation books." 

WALDO LINCOLN, 

For the Council. 



308 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 



OBITUARIES. 

ALBERT HARRISON HOYT. 

Albert Harrison Hoyt died June 10, 1915. He was 
born in Sandwich, N. H., December 6, 1826, was 
graduated from Wesley an University in 1850, was 
commissioner of public schools for Rockingham 
County, N. H., 1852-1853, was clerk of the Supreme 
Judicial Court of New Hampshire, 1853-1856, and 
was admitted to the New Hampshire bar in 1855. 
He practiced in Portsmouth where he was City 
Solicitor, 1857-1859. He served with distinction 
through the Civil War retiring with the brevet title 
of lieutenant-colonel. Since 1887 he has held an 
important position in the United States sub-treasury 
in Boston and resided in that city. On June 28, 1860, 
he married Sarah F. Green of Elizabeth, N. J., who 
died in 1893. In 1878 Dartmouth conferred upon 
him the honorary degree of A. M. 

. He was a member of the New England Historic 
Genealogical Society, and edited its Register from 
1868 to 1875. He was elected to this Society in 1875 
and at his death he was the fifth in seniority of mem- 
bership and the oldest of our members in years. He 
made these contributions to the Proceedings: " His- 
torical and Bibliographical notes on the Laws of 
New Hampshire" in April, 1876; and a memorial 
sketch of Lucius Robinson Paige, in October, 1896. 

s. u. 

GEORGE EMERY LITTLEFIELD. 

George Emery Littlefield, a resident of Cambridge, 
Mass., died at Hamilton, Mass., September 4, 1915. 



1915.] Obituaries. 309 

He was born in Boston, August 29, 1844, was gradu- 
ated from Harvard with the degree of A. B. in I860 
and took a post-graduate course for two years in the 
Lawrence Scientific School. He then entered into 
a partnership which opened the book-store in which 
he remained until just before death. This partner- 
ship continued two years, when he took sole charge 
of the business, making a specialty of historical and 
genealogical books. He soon became an authority 
upon Americana and his advice was sought by private 
collectors and libraries throughout the country. In 
July 1915 he was forced by the expiration of a lease 
to abandon the old book-store which he had occupied 
for nearly half a century and he disposed of all his 
stock and became associated with C. E. Goodspeed 
& Co. His wife, whom he had married as Emily 
Frances Willis in 1870, died August 7, 1915. 

Mr. Littlefield was elected to this Society in 1912, 
but had long been interested in its work and in secur- 
ing additions to its collections. At the April meeting 
in 1914 he read a paper entitled " Notes on the Cal- 
endar and the Almanac" which was published in the 
Proceedings for that year. He was also a member 
of the New England Historic Genealogical Society, 
of the Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont and Western 
Reserve Historical Societies, of the Society of Colonial 
Wars of Massachusetts, of the Colonial Society of 
Massachusetts, of the Club of Odd Volumes and of 
the Prince Society. He was the author of " Early 
Boston Booksellers" published in 1900, which has 
become very scarce and valuable, " Early Schools 
and School Books of New England-' ' published in 
1904, "Early Massachusetts Press" published in 
1907, and " Descriptive Catalogue of the Massachu- 
setts Exhibit of Colonial Books at the Jamestown 
Exposition." 

s. u. 



310 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

FREDERIC WARD PUTNAM. 

Frederic Ward Putnam, a member of this Society 
since 1882, died in Cambridge, Mass., August 14, 
1915. He was born in Salem, Mass., April 16, 1839, 
entered Lawrence Scientific School as a special stu- 
dent in 1856, and during the same year became a 
curator at the Essex Institute. In 1857 he was 
appointed assistant to Professor Agassiz and until 
1864 was connected with the Harvard Museum of 
Comparative Zoology. He then returned to Salem 
to take charge of the museum of the Essex Institute, 
and later of the Peabody Academy of Science. In 
1874 he was elected curator of the Peabody Museum 
of Harvard University, and in 1886 professor of 
American archaeology and ethnology. Both these 
positions he held until his retirement from active 
work in 1909. From 1903 to 1909 he also acted as 
professor of anthropology and director of the anthro- 
pological museum of the University of California. 
At the Chicago Exposition he was chief of the depart- 
ment of ethnology, was curator of anthropology at 
the American Museum of Natural History,, and was 
officially connected with many other scientific organ- 
izations. 

Since 1870 he has been engaged in researches and 
explorations in American archaeology and his repu- 
tation has become world wide. The French govern- 
ment decorated him with the Cross of the Legion of 
Honor and he was awarded the Drexel medal for arch- 
aeological research. He was connected with a very 
large number of learned and scientific societies in this 
country and abroad. These degrees were conferred 
upon him: B.S., Harvard, 1862; A.M., Williams, 
1868; Sc.D., University of Pennsylvania, 1894. In 
1864 he married Adelaide Martha Edmands of 
Cambridge, who died in 1879, and in 1882 he married 
Esther Orne Clarke of Chicago, who with three chil- 
dren survives him. 



1915.] Obituaries. 311 

Professor Putnam has published over four hundred 
papers on zoology and anthropology and has edited 
many reports and proceedings of societies and asso- 
ciations. He has added greatly to the interest of our 
meetings by his remarks and suggestions. He col- 
lected and distributed the archaeological curios of the 
Society previous to its leaving the old building. He 
has also contributed these papers to the Proceedings: 
" Notes on Copper Implements from Mexico" in 
October, 1882; "Iron from the Ohio Mounds" in 
April, 1883; "Account of Recent Archaeological Excur- 
sions in Wisconsin and Ohio" in October, 1883; "The 
Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and 
Ethnology in Cambridge" in October, 1889; "A 
Singular Ancient Work" in October, 1890; "Archae- 
ological and Ethnological Research in the United 
States" in October, 1901. 

s. u. 



312 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

REPORT OF THE TREASURER. 

The Treasurer presents his Annual Report of receipts and 
expenditures for the year ending September 30, 1915, and a 
statement of the investments of the Society. 

The net assets October 1, 1915, are $503,017.82, invested 
as follows: 

Real Estate (unproductive) $189,905.71 

Mortgage Loans 1 5, 100 . 00 

Bonds 264,114.50 

Stocks 36,834.00 

Cash in bank 819 . 61 

$506,773.82 
Less liability on Mortgage Note 3,756.00 

$503,017.82 
The Society holds $4,000 Bonds of the Chicago & Eastern 
Illinois R. R. 5's of 1937 on which the coupon due May 1, 
1915, was not paid. Our holding prior to that date was 
$9,000 and the Finance Committee deemed it best to sell 
$5,000 of them. It is believed that in the re-organization 
the bonds will have some substantial value, but it was thought 
to be conservative policy to dispose of a part of them. The 
Society has owned them many years and many of them were 
received as gifts. 

The following amounts 

C. C. Minsch&Co. $ 75.00 

J. W. Bishop & Co. 250.00 

TheMinwaxCo. 207.90 

S. D. Warren & Co. 754.09 

were paid and charged to the Salisbury Legacy and Publishing 
Funds temporarily, it being the intention of the Council to 
distribute the charge in the expense account of the Society 
over a period of three years, one third of the same to be charged 
to next year's expenses and one third each of the following 
years. A similar charge of $147.77 to the principal of the 
Purchasing Fund last year has been repaid from the income 
this year. 

No gifts to the Centennial Fund have been received during 
the vear. A. G. BULLOCK, Treasurer. 



1915.] Report of the Treasurer. 313 

PRINCIPAL ACCOUNT. 

Principal Oct. 1, 1914 $503,255 17 

Principal received since Oct. 1, 1914. 

T. Hovey Gage Life Membership 

John W. Farwell Life Membership 

Lawrence W. Jenkins Life Membership 

Henry W. Cunningham Special Gifts 

James L. Whitney Estate 

Income Special Gifts added to Principal 

Income Purchasing Fund added to Principal . 

Reimbursement of Purchasing Fund from in- 
come accounts 



$ 50.00 






50.00 






50.00 






100.00 






46.85 






19.87 






53.65 






147.77 


518, 


14 




$503,773.31 


$ 67.50 






100.00 







Expenditures from principal since Oct. 1, 1914. 

Loss on Stocks and Bonds 

Expended for books from Special Gifts 

Expended for Building Repairs charged to 

principal Salisbury Legacy 532 . 90 

Expended for paper stock to be used and 

charged to future income (charged to 

Publishing Fund) 754.09 1,454.49 



$502,318.82 



INCOME ACCOUNT. 



Income from investments $14,016. 12 

Assessments 380 . 00 

Sale of Books. . . 185.78 14,581.90 



$516,900.72 



EXPENDITURES. 

Incidental Expenses 371 . 09 

Salaries 7,099.88 

Light, Heat, Water and Telephone . 946 . 49 

Treasurer and Office Expense 447.34 

Supplies 230.56 

Books (less $100 charged to Special Gifts) 2,265.65 

Publishing 1,609.79 

Binding ;.. 546.75 

Care of Grounds and Buildings (less amount 

charged to principal Salisbury Legacy) 144.06 

Income transferred to principal 221 .29 13,882.90 

$503,017.82 



314 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

ASSETS. 

Real Estate (unproductive) $189,905. 71 

Mortgage Loans 15,100.00 

Bonds 264,114.50 

Stocks 36,834.00 

Cash on deposit in Bank 819 . 61 $506,773 . 82 



LIABILITIES. 
Worcester Art Museum Note 3,756.00 



$503,017.82 
Unexpended balances, Oct. 1, 1915 699.00 



Principal, Oct. 1, 1915 $502,318.82 

Condition of the Fund Accounts. 



Fund 


Principal 


Income 


Expended 


Balance 






1915 


1915 


1915 


Alden 


$ 1,000.00 $ 46.20 $ 46.20 




Bookbinding 


7,500.00 


475.00 


475.00 




George Chandler 


500.00 


23.10 


18.75 


$ 4.35 


Collection & Research 


17,000.00 


785.40 


785.40 




Isaac & Edward L. Davis 


23,000.00 


1,062.60 


771 . 19 


291.41 


John & Eliza Davis 


4,900.00 


226 . 38 


214.51 


11.87 


Francis H. Dewey 


4,800.00 


221.76 


212.84 


8.92 


George E. Ellis 


17,500.00 


808 . 50 


808.50 




Librarian's & General 


35,000.00 


1,774.78 


1,774.78 




Haven 


1,500.00 


69 . 30 


67.17 


2 13 


Library Building 


186,149.71 








Life Membership 


3,350.00 


154.77 


154.77 




Lincoln Legacy 


7,000.00 


323.40 


323.40 




Publishing 


31,245.91 


1,478.40 


1,478.40 




Salisbury Legacy 


103,817.39 


4,761.52 


4,761.52 




Tenney 


5,000.00 


231.00 




231.00 


Benjamin F. Thomas 


1,000.00 


46.20 


43.88 


2.32 


Special Gifts 


449.97 


19.87 


19.87 




Frances W. Haven 


2,000.00 


92.40 




92.40 


Purchasing 


2,488.12 


133.65 


133.65 




Charles Francis Washburn 


5,000.00 


231.00 


176.40 


54.60 


Centennial 


29,520.33 


1,365.58 


1,365.58 




Eliza D. Dodge 


3,000.00 


138.60 


138.60 




Hunnewell 


5,000.00 


231.00 


231.00 




James Lyman Whitney 


216.13 


9 99 


9.99 





1915.] Report of the Treasurer. 315 

Statement op Investments. 

Bonds. Per Cent. Par. Book 

Am. Telephone & Telegraph Co.. . .4 $11,000 $11,000.00 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa F6 R.R. . 4 2,000 1,540 . 00 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa F6 R.R.. 4 1,000 885.00 

Baltimore & Ohio II. R.. 3^ 5,000 4,637.00 

Bethlehem Steel Co 5 2,000 2,005 . 00 

Boston & Maine R. R Zy 2 5,000 4,593.00 

Boston Elevated Railway Co 4 2,000 2,000 . 00 

Boston Elevated Railway Co 4^ 8,000 7,960 . 00 

Business Real Est. Trust of Boston .4 2,000 1,915 . 00 

Baltimore, Md., City of 4 15,000 15,000.00 

Boston, Mass., City of 3J^ 15,000 14,325.00 

Brockton, Mass., City of 4 1,000 1,000.00 

Chicago, 111., City of 4 8,000 8,000 . 00 

Duluth, Minn., City of 4 2,000 1,940.00 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R.R. 4 5,000 5,000.00 

Chicago & Eastern Illinois R. R 5 4,000 4,000 . 00 

Chicago, Indiana & Southern R.R. 4 12,000 10,920.00 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry.43^ 2,000 1,932.50 

Chicago & Northwestern R. R 4 1,000 945.00 

Congress Hotel Co 6 5,000 5,000.00 

Cuyahoga County 5 3,000 3,151.00 

Ellicott Sq. Co., Buffalo, N. Y 5 5,000 5,000.00 

Fitchburg R. R 3^ 10,000 9,300.00 ' 

Illinois Central R. R 3^ 2,000 2,000.00 

Illinois Central R. R 5 2,000 2,010.00 

Jersey City, N. J., City of 4 5,000 4,931 .00 

Lake Shore & Michigan So. R. R. . . 4 5,000 4,621 . 00 

Lowell, Lawrence & Haverhill Ry.. 5 7,000 6,570.00 

Marlboro & Westboro Ry. Co 5 1,000 1,000 . 00 

Memphis, Tenn., City of 4 5,000 4,887.00 

Middletown, Conn., City of 3H 5,000 4,700.00 

Michigan State Telephone Co 5 3,000 2,996 . 00 

New York, City of 4^ 20,000 20,000.00 

N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R 4 10,000 10,000.00 

N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R S*A 50 50.00 

N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R 6 2,200 2,189.00 

Old Colony R. R 4 3,000 2,970.00 

Omaha, Neb., City of 4^ 15,000 15,000 . 00 

Penobscot Shore Line R. R. Co 4 5,000 4,943 . 00 

P6re Marquette R. R 4 5,000 5,000 . 00 

San Francisco, Cal., City of 4^ 5,000 4,914.00 

Seattle Electric Co 5 5,000 5,000 . 00 

Southern Indiana R.R 4 2,000 2,000 . 00 

Terre Haute Tract. Lt.& Power Co. 5 2,000 2,000 . 00 



316 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Union Pacific R. R 4 500 450.00 

Waterbury, Conn., City of 4 10,000 9,G00 . 00 

Western Electric Co 5 5,000 5,056.00 

West End St. Ry. Co 4 1,000 1,000.00 

Wilkesbarre & Eastern R. R 5 2,000 2,000 . 00 

Woonsocket, R. I., City of 4 12,000 11,179.00 

Worcester & Marlboro St. Ry. Co ... 5 3,000 3,000 . 00 

Worcester & Webster St. Ry. Co. . . . 5 2,000 2,000 . 00 

$264,114.50 

Stocks. Par Book 

Shares Value. Value. 

24 Am. Tel. & Tel. Co .. $2,400 $2,400 

11 Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe* R. R 1,100 687 

3 Baltimore & Ohio R. R. Co. (Pref .) 300 210 

6 Baltimore & Ohio R. R. Co. (Com.) 600 420 

6 Fitchburg Bank & Trust Co 600 600 

50 Fitchburg R. R. Co 5,000 5,000 

35 Mass. Gas Light Companies (Pref.) 3,500 2,900 

68 N. Y., N. II. & H. R. R. Co. 6,800 8,450 

30 Northern R. R. (N. H.) 3,000 3,000 

3 Old Boston National Bank 300 300 

11 Old South Building Trust (Pref.) , . . . 1,100 981 

8 Southern Pacific Co 800 736 

30 Union Pacific R. R. (Com.) 3,000 3,000 

16 Webster & Atlas National Bank 1,600 1,800 

25 West End St. Ry. Co. (Pref.) 1,250 1,250 

14 Worcester Gas Light Co 1,400 2,000 

25 Worcester National Bank 2,500 2,500 

6 Worcester Trust Co 600 600 

$36,834 

Mortgage Loans. 

J. Burwick, Worcester, Mass $2,100 

L. L. Mellen, Worcester, Mass 1,500 

B. F. Sawyer, Worcester, Mass 3,500 

J. P. Sexton, Trustee, Worcester, Mass , 8,000 

$15,100 

Real Estate. 
Library Building with land $189,905 . 71 

The undersigned, Auditors of the American Antiquarian 
Society, beg leave to state that the books and accounts of the 
Treasurer, for the year ending September 30, 1915, have been 
examined by W. Thane Boyden, Accountant, and his cer- 
tificate that they are correct and properly vouched is herewith 
submitted. 



1915.] Report of the Treasurer. 317 

The Auditors further report that they have personally 
examined the securities held by the Treasurer and find the 
same to be as stated by him and the balance of cash on hand 
duly accounted for. 

(Signed) BENJAMIN THOMAS HILL, 

HOMER GAGE, 
October 1, 1915. Auditors. 

Worcester, Mass., October 1, 1915. 

I hereby certify that I have examined the books and accounts 

of the Treasurer of the American Antiquarian Society, made 

up for the year ending September 30, 1915, and find same 

to be correct and properly vouched. 

(Signed) W. THANE BOYDEN, 

Accountant. 

Contributors of $100 and more to the Society's 
Invested Funds 

1832 Isaiah Thomas, Worcester (legacy) $23,152 

Nathaniel Maccarty, Worcester (legacy) 500 

1838 Edward D. Bangs, Worcester (legacy) 200 

1840 William McFarland, Worcester (legacy) 500 

1842 Christopher G. Champlin, Newport, R. I. (legacy) 100 

1852 Stephen Salisbury, Worcester 5,000 

1856 Stephen Salisbury, Worcester '. . . 5,000 

1858 Nathan Appleton, Boston 100 

Isaac Davis, Worcester. . . 200 

Edward Everett, Boston 100 

George Folsom, Worcester 100 

John Green, Worcester 100 

James Lenox, New York, N. Y 250 

Levi Lincoln, Worcester 200 

Charles C. Little, Cambridge 100 

Pliny Merrick, Worcester 100 

Stephen Salisbury, Worcester 3,545 

P. Dexter Tiffany, Worcester 200 

1867 Stephen Salisbury, Worcester 8,000 

1868 William Thomas, Boston 500 

Benjamin F. Thomas, Boston 100 

Isaac Davis, Worcester 500 

Levi Lincoln, Worcester (legacy) 940 

1869 Isaac Davis, Worcester 100 

Usher D. Parsons, Providence 100 

Nathaniel Thayer, Boston 500 



318 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

1870 Isaac Davis, Worcester 100 

Ebeiiezer Torrey, Fitchburg 100 

1871 Edward L. Davis, Worcester 100 

1872 Miss Nancy Lincoln, Shrewsbury 300 

John P. Bigelow, Boston (legacy) 1,000 

1874 Miss Nancy Lincoln, Shrewsbury (legacy) 200 

Ebenezer Alden, Randolph 100 

1875 Isaac Davis, Worcester 400 

1878 Isaac Davis, Worcester 400 

1879 Benjamin F. Thomas, Beverly (legacy) 1,000 

Edward L. Davis, Worcester 500 

1881 Joseph A. Tenney, Worcester (legacy) 5,000 

Ebenezer Alden, Randolph (legacy) 1,000 

1882 Samuel F. Haven, Worcester (legacy) 1,000 

1884 George Chandler, Worcester 500 

Stephen Salisbury, Worcester (legacy) 10,000 

1885 Stephen Salisbury, Worcester (legacy) 10,000 

Robert C. Waterston, Boston (legacy) 500 

1886 Stephen Salisbury, Jr., Worcester ; 5,000 

1887 Robert C. Waterston, Boston 100 

1889 Francis H. Dewey, Worcester (legacy) 2,000 

1891 Edward L. Davis, Worcester 5,000 

1895 George E. Ellis, Charlestown (legacy) 10,000 

1899 Stephen Salisbury, Jr., Worcester 5,000 

1900 John C. B. Davis, Washington, D. C 1,000 

Horace Davis, San Francisco, Calif 1,000 

Andrew McF. Davis, Cambridge 1,000 

1905 Andrew H. Green, New York, N. Y. (legacy) 4,840 

1907 Stephen Salisbury, Jr., Worcester (legacy) 60,000 

Charles E. French, Boston (legacy) 1,000 

1908 Stephen Salisbury, Jr., Worcester (legacy) 175,000 

1909 Mrs. Frances W. Haven, Worcester (legacy) 2,000 

1910 Charles G. Washburn, Worcester 5,000 

Mrs. Eliza D. Dodge, Worcester (legacy) 3,000 

James F. Hunnewell, Boston 5,000 

Andrew McF. Davis, Cambridge — 1,000 

Edward L. Davis, Worcester 5,000 

Charles H. Davis, Worcester 2,000 

Austin P. Cristy, Worcester 100 

Henry W. Cunningham, Boston 1,000 

Henry A. Marsh, Worcester 100 

Simeon E. Baldwin, New Haven, Conn 100 

Eugene F. Bliss, Cincinnati, 1,000 

A. George Bullock, Worcester 2,000 

William B. Weeden, Providence 500 

Charles L. Nichols, Worcester 2,500 



1915.] Report of the Treasurer. 319 

Samuel B. Woodward, Worcester 1,000 

Samuel Utley, Worcester 100 

Waldo Lincoln, Worcester . 1,000 

Samuel S. Green, Worcester 1,000 

James L. Whitney, Cambridge (legacy) 216 

1911 Austin S. Garver, Worcester 100 

Francis H. Dewey, Worcester 2,500 

Thomas Willing Balch, Philadelphia, Pa 100 

William Lawrence, Boston 100 

Charles P. Bowditch, Boston 100 

Samuel A. Green, Boston 150 

1912 James P. Baxter, Portland, Me 100 

Franklin B. Dexter, New Haven, Conn . 100 

Justin H. Smith, Boston 100 

Lincoln N. Kinnicutt, Worcester 200 

Samuel V. Hoffman, New York, N. Y 5,000 

Clarence M. Burton, Detroit, Mich 100 

Henry H. Edes, Boston 250 

Mrs. Deloraine P. Corey, Maiden 500 

1913 Albert H. Whitiu, Whitinsville 1,000 

Daniel Merriman, Boston (legacy) 1,000 

Mrs. Deloraine P. Corey, Maiden 500 

Miss Jane A. Taft, Worcester (legacy) 1,000 

Miss Katharine Allen, Worcester (legacy) : 4,000 



320 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARIAN. 



During the year ending October 1, 1915, the follow- 
ing accessions have been received: — 

Bound volumes, 4,202 

Pamphlets, 14,390 

Manuscripts, engravings, etc., 118 

In this summary the newspaper accessions have 
not been included. They total as follows: 

Bound volumes, 492 

Unbound issues, % 54,528 

This unusually large total of newspapers is due chief- 
ly to the accession of two collections. The duplicates 
from the Rhode Island Historical Society, which were 
mentioned in last year's report, have been sorted, 
arranged and bound, and are now upon the shelves. 
When this mass of newspapers, mostly in scattered 
issues or tied in bundles, was deposited in the base- 
ment, it seemed a formidable task to collate them, 
compare them with our own files and prepare them 
for the binder. All the volumes which were reasonably 
complete were bound and the scattering files were 
arranged in portfolios, by which method 19G bound 
volumes and 2,840 unbound issues were placed in the 
Rhode Island section. The list of files acquired 
follows : — 

Providence Patriot, 1814-1834. 

Manufacturers and Farmers Journal, 1821-1869. 

Providence Journal, 1830-18G9. 

Republican Herald, 1834-1850. 

Providence Herald, 1842-1872. 

Providence Daily Gazette, 1845. 

Daily Transcript, 1845, 1817. 



1915.] Report of the Librarian. 321 

Providence Post, 1850-1806. 
Providence Press, 1859-1884. 
Providence Morning Herald, 1868-1873. 
Morning Star, 1809-1880. 
Rhode Island Press, 1880-1880. 

In addition to these files, a number of issues of the 
Providence Gazette between 1782 and 1825, the United 
States Chronicle between 1789 and 1800, and the 
Newport Herald between 1789 and 1791 were used to 
complete our files, and about 300 miscellaneous and 
scattering issues of various other papers were acquired. 

These Rhode Island files were deposited here with 
the condition that they should be returned to the 
Rhode Island Historical Society in case of the loss 
or destruction of its own files. In each volume is 
placed this label, "This volume is deposited by the 
Rhode Island Historical Society with the American 
Antiquarian Society to be returned to the Rhode 
Island Historical Society in case of the destruction 
of its own file." It is an agreement which benefits 
each Society, at the same time making the papers of 
use to a wider circle of students. There are many 
historical societies and state libraries to which this 
plan would appeal, if properly brought to their atten- 
tion. I know of at least half a dozen libraries which 
are preserving duplicate files of newspapers for future 
use, and yet housing them in buildings that are far 
from fire-proof. Even some of the larger city libra- 
ries are located in thickly settled sections where the 
danger of a conflagration cannot be averted. The 
library of the American Antiquarian Society is one 
of the most fire-proof buildings in the country and 
because of its location would not be subject to a 
general conflagration. The advantage of placing 
such a newspaper file in what is practically a safe de- 
posit vault is too obvious to require extended comment. 

The other notable acquisition of the year, and one 
of the largest accumulations of unbound issues ever 
recorded in the Society's accession book, is the collec- 



322 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

tion of Bolivian newspapers obtained as a result of 
the Lichtenstein expedition to South America. This 
collection comprises 33,685 issues, all but about 2,000 
issues being papers of Bolivia, and formed part of 
the library of Donato Lanza y Lanza. The story of 
its acquisition is best told in the words of Mr. Walter 
Lichtenstein in whose pamphlet, "A Trip to South 
America," is presented the report upon his endeavor 
to gather South American material for five American 
institutions. He says: — 

"J arrived in La Paz on April 3, 1914, leaving that 
curious city on May 4th. In Bolivia I was assisted 
very much by the American Minister, Mr. John D. 
O'Rear and his clerk, Mr. Jose" E. Ponte. Partly 
through them I was able to obtain the collection 
belonging to Mr. Donato Lanza y Lanza. This 
gentleman had at one time been the leader of the 
Conservative Party in Bolivia, but on account of 
financial reverses had lost this position and finally 
offered his large collection which he had inherited 
from his uncle, Nicolas Acosta, to the Bolivian Gov- 
ernment. Congress had actually voted an appropria- 
tion of twenty thousand bolivianos for the purchase 
of this material, and the collection at the time of my 
arrival in Bolivia had been housed for some time in 
the Library of the Bolivian Senate. The Govern- 
ment, however, found itself unable to pay Mr. Lanza, 
with the result that he finally sold the collection to 
me for 9,550 bolivianos ($3724.00). The collection 
is unusually strong in Bolivian pamphlets and Bolivi- 
an newspapers. Of the latter, there were approxi- 
mately thirty thousand sheets which have been taken 
over by the American Antiquarian Society. " 

The newspapers, which constituted in value about 
one-third of the whole collection, came to this library 
piled and bundled without any semblance of order 
and required the time of two assistants for over a 
month to reduce to a systematic arrangement. As 
finally shelved, the number of issues totals as follows:— 



1915.] Report of the Librarian. 323 

Argentine, 150 

Bolivia, 31,515 

Cochabamba, 1,500 

La Paz, 24,300 

Oruro, 615 

Potosi, 600 

Santa Cruz, 400 

Sucre, 3,300 

Tarija, 600 

Miscellaneous, 200 

Chili, 375 

Panama, 180 

Peru, 735 

San Salvador, 50 

Venezuela, 680 

Total, 33,685 

Bolivia was constituted an independent republic 
in 1825, but it was not until several years later that 
the printing press became so important a factor that 
newspapers were generally published throughout the 
country. Most of the files in the collection, there- 
fore, are of the latter half of the nineteenth century, 
with a few files extending almost to the present day. 
The longer and more complete files are as follows: — 

COCHABAMBA. 

El Heraldo, 1877-1903. 

El 14 de Setiembre, 1882-1888. 

LA PAZ. 

Gaceta de Gomerno, 1841-1862. 

La Epoca, 1845-1910. 

El Telegrafo, 1858-1899. 

La Union, 1865-1902. 

La Situacion, 1869-1870. 

La Reforma, 1871-1877. 

La Democracia, 1875-1888. 

El Titicaca, 1876-1878. 

El Comercio, 1878-1910. 

La Tribuna, 1880-1891. 



324 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

El Deber, 1883-1884. 

El Diario, 1883-1907. 

La Razon, 1885-1888. 

El Imparical, 1888-1897. 

El Imparcial 2, 1898-1900. 

El Comerico de Bolivia, 1899-1913. 

El Estado, 1900-1904. 

La Defensa, 1904-1908. 

El Progresso de Bolivia, 1906-1909. 
SANTA CRUZ. 

La Estrella del Oriente, 1864-1892. 
SUCRE. 

El Nacional, 1849-1854. 

La Nueva Era, 1855-1875. 

El Cruzado, 1868-1878. 

La Industria, 1881-1908. 

La Capital, 1892-1910. 

In addition to the Bolivian files, there are a few 
short files of newspapers of other South American 
countries: — 

PERU (Lima). 

El Correo Peruano, 1846-1847. 
VENEZUELA (Caracas). 

La Opinion Nacional, 1883-1886. 

El Siglo, 1883-1889. 
PANAMA. 

La Estrella de Panama, 1874-1891. 

Many other newspaper files have been added during 
the year. Chiefly through the medium of exchange 
and purchase, nearly all the opportunities to secure 
newspapers which we lacked have been accepted. 
Our funds for this purpose are small — in fact, there 
is no fund whatever for the special object of purchas- 
ing newspapers — but occasionally members of the 
Society have generously offered to defray the expense 
of a particular purchase, so that some rather unusual 
files have been secured. A list of the more important 
files follows: — 

American Advocate (Hallowell)., 1811-12. 
Boston Transcript, 1832-33, 1840. 
Newboryport Herald, 1803. 



1915.] Report of the Librarian. 325 

Independent Politician (Dedham), 1832-34. 

Norfolk Advertiser (Dedham), 183G-38. 

Norfolk Democrat (Dedham), 1839-54. 

Dedham Gazette, 1850-70. 

Dedham Transcript, 1870-1911. 

Newport Mercury, 1802. 

Woonsocket Patriot, 1858-71, 1892-1904. 

Norwich Weekly Register, 1791-93, 1811-13. 

Guardian (Albany), 1807-08. 

New York City. 

American, 1819-20. 

American Citizen, 1804, 1806-1810. 

Badger's Weekly Messenger, 1831-33. 

Columbian, 1818-21. 

Courrier des Etats-Unis, 1828-33, 1854. 

Herald, 1837, 1840-41, 1846-55. 

Journal of Commerce, 1835, 1837-42. 

National Advocate, 1818-24. 

Public Advertiser, 1808-1810. 

Shipping List, 1844, 1846-49. 

Spectator, 1833-35. 

Standard of the Union, 1813-14. 
Harrisburg Chronicle, 1813-25. 
Pennsylvania Intelligencer, 1828-30. 
Pennsylvania Telegraph, 1835-36. 
Baltimore Sun, 1846. 
Charleston Times, 1812. 
Mississippi, Miscellaneous Piles, 1803-31. 

A long file of U Opinion Publique, the French 
newspaper published in Worcester, was deposited 
with the Society in March, 1914, by Alexander Belisle, 
with the condition that it should be returned to the 
Belisle Publishing Company if their own office file 
should be destroyed. This file came to us in unbound 
shape and with the addition of issues subsequently 
received, has been recently bound. It includes a 
scattering file for 1893-1896, practically complete 
for 1897-1904, imperfect for 1905-1907, and prac- 
tically complete from 1908-1914. 

The unusually large number of accessions noted 
at the beginning of this report is partly due to the 
receipt of a large quantity of United States Govern- 
ment Documents solicited to fill in gaps in our files. 



326 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

The Society attempts to secure, without duplication, 
everything printed by the national Government since 
the beginning, being in this respect more comprehen- 
sive perhaps than any other library outside of Wash- 
ington. Such an aim may seem to some extravagant, 
and to others inexpedient, but there surely should 
be one library in the country besides the Library of 
Congress which seeks to preserve everything printed 
by the Government and its various departments, 
and what library more naturally than this? It was 
made the recipient of all documents by a special Act 
of Congress in 1814, and since that time has received 
numerous gifts of volumes from members of Congress 
who were likewise members of the Society. The 
collection became one of the best owned by any of 
the older libraries, until in 1906 the Society, either 
by inadvertence or misapprehension, was omitted 
from the distribution list by the Superintendent of 
Documents then in charge. It was not until 1911 
that, through the efforts of Senator Lodge, the error 
was remedied and the library returned to the list. 
In the meanwhile a serious gap had been made in the 
series, which through gifts from Congressman Wash- 
burn and direct application to the government offices 
was partly filled. During the past few months a 
determined effort has been made to supply all recent, 
as well as some earlier, deficiencies. Through the 
assistance of Congressman Winslow and of the present 
Superintendent of Documents, Josiah H. Brinker, 
a mass of documents totalling 1,282 bound volumes 
and 8,350 pamphlets has been added to the collection. 

The collection of American imprints before 1820 
has received 849 additions, the number being fewer 
because of our gradually decreasing wants and so far 
as the past year is concerned because of our somewhat 
diminished income. 

Among the scarcer imprints are included a rare 
tract by Cotton Mather, entitled " Repeated Warn- 
ings, " printed by B. Green at Boston, 1712, obtained 



1915.] Report of the Librarian. 327 

by purchase from a private owner in Connecticut; 
and a hitherto unrecorded Worcester broadside of 
1779, received as a gift from Judge Utley, containing 
the Proceedings of the Convention held at Worcester 
in August, 1779, and although without imprint, 
unquestionably from the press of Isaiah Thomas. 
Six uncommon New England Primers were purchased 
in New York at auction, comprising the editions 
published at Haverhill in 1812, Concord in 1818, 
Haverhill in 1819, Pittsburgh about 1824, Kenne- 
bunk in 1827, and Boston in 1836. Our collection 
of New England Primers now numbers forty-five 
editions, all of which will be recorded in the Bibli- 
ography of New England Primers soon to be brought 
out by Chas. Fred Heartman of New York. A few 
rare almanacs have been obtained, including the 
Franklin Pocket Almanacs for 1753 and 1754 pur- 
chased from C. E. Goodspeed; and the Weatherwise 
Almanac, Providence, for 1769, with the cut of John 
Wilkes, and the Ames Almanacs, Portsmouth, for 
1757 and 1763, presented by Dr. Charles L. Nichols. 
The Ames Almanac for 1757, printed by Daniel 
Fowle at Portsmouth late in 1756, is of considerable 
bibliographical interest, in that it is undoubtedly 
the first book, if a .pamphlet can be called a book, 
printed in New Hampshire. Dr. Nichols, in response 
to a request for further information regarding this 
pamphlet, replied with a communication which has 
so much of historical value that with his permission 
I have embodied it in this Report. 

The Ames Almanac for 1757, recently acquired by the 
Society, is the first book printed in New Hampshire and is 
the only known perfect copy. The Library of Congress 
possesses a copy of the same almanac which contains in addi- 
tion an important announcement on page fifteen; but it is 
reasonable to infer that this notice was an after-thought and 
was added to the last of the edition then printing or to a new 
issue. In either case our copy has the claim to priority of 
printing and it is a valuable addition to the collection of 
almanacs. 



328 - American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

The announcement referred to in the Library of Congress 
copy relates to the origin of printing in New Hampshire and 
is of importance in that connection as it comes from the 
printer himself. Within ornamental rules at the right margin 
of the page and running at right angles with the other lines 
is the following sentence: "The first Printing Press set up 
in Portsmouth, New-Hampshire, was on August 1756; the 
Gazette published the 7th of October; and this Almanack 
November following.'' This gives definite evidence of the 
time when the press was set up, the day of the first issue of 
the newspaper and the month when the almanac was printed . 

In his History of Printing in America (vol. II, page 93, 
edition of 1874) Isaiah Thomas says: "A press having been 
established in Portsmouth, by Daniel Fowle from Boston, he 
in August, 1756, began the publication of a public journal 
entitled 'The New-Hampshire Gazette.'" In a note to the 
above statement, Joel Munsell wrote: "On the 6th of 
October, 1856, a centennial anniversary of the first newspaper 
in New Hampshire was held at Portsmouth, for which occa- 
sion a facsimile of the first number of the Gazette was printed. 
It appears by that that the date was Thursday, October 7. 
It is possible that a prospectus number was issued in August, 
as was the case with the Newport Mercury. " This note cor- 
rects the error in the statement of Thomas, but two other 
points of interest can now be added. It seems certain that 
a prospectus of the Gazette was issued because the first sen- 
tence of the Printer's address to the Public in the October 
7th issue reads: "Upon the encouragement given by a Num- 
ber of Subscribers agreeable to printed Proposals, I now 
publish the first Weekly Gazette in New Hampshire. " 

According to his custom Thomas reproduced the heading 
of the first number of the New Hampshire Gazette, but 
unfortunately — not having seen a copy of the first issue — he 
made two mistakes. The date is printed "Friday, August, 
1756," and the inscription reads "Containing the Freshest 
Advices Foreign and Domestic." Reference to the first issue 
shows that it is dated "Thursday, October 7, 1756" and that 
the inscription reads, "With the Freshest Advices, Foreign 
and Domestic." The first nine issues of the Gazette were 
published on Thursday — and after that the day was changed 
to Friday, and the inscription read " With the Freshest Advices 
&c" until no. 44, Aug. 5, 1757, the word "With " being changed 
to "Containing" in that issue. 

It is easy to trace the cause of these errors of Thomas by 
reference to the earliest issue of the New Hampshire Gazette 
(No. 61) which he possessed and which is still in the library 



1915.] Report of the Librarian. 329 

of the Society, for in this number the day is "Friday" and the 
inscription begins with the word "Containing." 

This almanac is of particular interest in connection with the 
evidence relating to the first book printed in New Hampshire. 
There are two books with date 1756; "Good News from a far 
country: in seven discourses by the Rev. Jonathan Parsons," 
and "The Excellency of the Word of God, a Sermon preached 
by Samuel Langdon at the ordination of the Rev. Samuel 
McClintock Nov. 3d 1756." The Brinley Catalogue (no. 
2496) says that this sermon of Langdon's is probably the first 
book which was printed throughout in New Hampshire. 

Examination of the files of the New-Hampshire Gazette 
shows in no. 5, Nov. 4, 1756, the following notice: "Good 
News from a far country: in seven discourses by Rev. Jonathan 
Parsons is soon to be published. Five of the sermons have 
already been set up and lack of paper prevents completion 
until a supply of paper arrives from London which is probable 
at an early date." No further notice is found in any issue 
of the Gazette referring to this publication until in no. 26, 
April, 1757 we find in advertising " Popish Cruelty displayed 
&c" at the end of the notice of this book the statement "At 
the above place (The printing office) is to be sold, Mr. Parson's 
Seven Sermons." Langdon's book is not advertised in the 
Gazette during the year 1756, or before April 1, 1757, and as 
the sermon was not preached until November 3, it is not 
probable that this sermon was ,set up in type during that 
month. 

This leaves the Ames Almanac to be accounted for. The 
note in the Library of Congress copy states that the Almanac 
was printed in November, and the Gazette of Dec. 2, adver- 
tises it as just printed. As the paper of which it is printed is 
similar to that used by the newspaper, it could not have been 
held up for lack of paper as was the Parson's "Sermons," 
or the Langdon pamphlet, which was printed on the same 
paper, as is proved by the water mark. It can then be safely 
affirmed that the almanac was issued before these books and 
was the first book printed in New Hampshire. It may be of 
interest also to state that the pamphlet "Popish Cruelty 
Displayed," advertised in the issue of April 1, 1757 and no- 
ticed in the issue of March 11 of the Gazette as "Tomorrow 
will.be sold," has escaped Evans and other bibliographers 
and was first brought to our attention by Mr. Otis G. Ham- 
mond of the New Hampshire Historical Society. It is a 12 
mo. pamphlet of 24 pages with the full title "Popish Cruelty 
displayed, being a full and true account of the Massacre of 
the Protestants in Ireland by the instigation of the Blood- 



330 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

thirsty Jesuits, Priests, Fryars, etc. Portsmouth in New 
Hampshire, printed by D. Fowle, 1757." 

The income of the various book-funds, the Isaac 
and Edward L. Davis Fund, the John and Eliza Davis 
Fund, the Francis H. Dewey Fund, the Benjamin 
F. Thomas Fund, the Frances W. Haven Fund, and 
the George Chandler Fund has been used for the 
purchase of books along the special lines of each fund. 
Twenty-eight genealogies have been obtained for the 
genealogical collection, although the income from 
the Chandler Genealogical Fund — scarcely $25.00 a 
year — compels us to buy most of these out of general 
book funds and does not admit of the purchase of the 
more expensive works. 

One of the important gifts of the year and one of 
the most valuable which has ever been made to the 
Society has come from JVIr. Charles II. Taylor, Jr., 
of Boston, who has presented his collection of books 
on American printing and journalism. It numbers 
420 volumes and 320 pamphlets, omitting the titles 
which were already in the library, and concerns almost 
every phase of the subject — the history of printing, 
the mechanics of presses and types, the history and 
bibliography of newspapers, the lives of journalists, 
advertising, trials for libel, and other allied topics 
even remotely connected with printers and printing. 
With the assistance of our own collection, which was 
fairly good from the historical side, there is a showing 
of nearly one thousand titles on the general subject. 
With the activity recently shown in the study of 
American journalism, evidenced by the establishment 
of several schools of journalism in connection with 
colleges, this collection should prove of much value 
in an institution where the original sources, in the 
newspapers themselves, are already so well repre- 
sented. In addition to this special gift, Mr. Taylor 
has continued sending to the library newspapers of 
particular interest, initial issues of magazines, and 



1915.] Report of the Librarian. 331 

numerous clippings concerning newspapers and 
printing. 

No especial attempt has been made to gather 
manuscripts, yet a few have been added which are 
worth noting. From Mr. William K» Bixby, of St. 
Louis, has been received two documents connected 
with Thomas Jefferson— one a receipt for $20.00 from 
Jefferson, dated August 7, 1807, being the eighth in- 
stallment of this subscription to the Washington 
Public School Institution, and the other a receipt, 
dated April 15, 1790, from John Trumbull to Thomas 
Jefferson, being one-half of his subscription for the 
prints of the Battle of Bunker Hill and the Death of 
General Montgomery. Mr. Bixby has in his posses- 
sion the receipt for the other half of Jefferson's sub- 
scription and the printed prospectus prepared by 
Trumbull announcing the two engravings. 
. A series of documents relating to the arrest and 
preliminary examination of alleged participants in 
the Shays' Rebellion, filed in eighteen envelopes and 
dating in 1787, has been deposited with the Society 
by the Worcester County Probate Office, since they 
were not part of the records of that office and since 
this Society was considered a proper place for their 
preservation. 

A collection of nineteen letters written by Commo- 
dore George S. Blake from 1857 to 1863, came up for 
sale at auction in Boston in March last, and were 
generously purchased for the Society by Mr. Lincoln 
N. Kinnicutt. These letters were written to the 
Commodore's brother, Joseph G. Blake, and contain 
many items of historical interest. In one letter, 
dated July 4, 1857, he thus refers to his uncle Joshua 
Blake's participation in the action at Tripoli: "You 
ask me if I have not met officers who knew all about 
our Uncle's conduct at Tripoli . . . but it was a 
delicate subject for me to refer to and I consequently 
never made many inquiries. His reputation in the 
Navy was very high as a skilful, zealous officer, and 



332 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

beyond that I never inquired, except of Com. Barron 
who never believed that he behaved otherwise than 
bravely in the action referred to. " And again on 
May 4, 1858, he says: "He commanded a gun boat 
at the first bombardment. There were six of these 
boats in two divisions of three each. They all ran 
in and engaged except Uncle J's boat, and after the 
affair was over his conduct was investigated by a 
Court of Inquiry, which acquitted him upon the 
ground that a signal of recall was made by the Con- 
stitution which he obeyed.'' Extended references 
to the Tripoli affair appear in others of the letters, 
and there are interesting statements regarding De- 
catur, Barron and the other naval officers, descrip- 
tions of the Naval Academy, and many important 
allusions to naval affairs. The letters contain numer- 
ous references to Worcester people and localities; the 
proposed artesian well, disgraceful condition of the 
burial ground; the old canal; youthful experiences of 
the writer in Worcester; his wish that Harrison 
G. O. Blake would continue Lincoln's History of 
Worcester, etc. The letters are well worth printing, 
although there is doubtless more of Commodore 
Blake's correspondence elsewhere preserved. 

Three hitherto unlisted engravings by Paul Revere 
have come to light during the year and fortunately 
all three have found a resting-place in the collections 
of this Society. The first is an advertising hand-bill 
of 1771 obtained from W. F. Adams of Springfield. 
This was the business card of William Breck of Bos- 
ton whose place of business was "at the Golden Key 
near the draw-Bridge." It is signed "P. Revere 
sculp," and like most of his engraved cards of this 
type measures six by eight inches to the margins of 
the paper. It is undated, but on the back is written 
a bill receipted with Breck's signature and dated 
October 7, 1771. Breck must have ordered another 
lot of the prints, for in Paul Revere's manuscript 
account-book is a charge of 18 shillings for 300 prints 



1915.] Report of the Librarian. 333 

entered against Mr. William Breck under date of 
September 29, 1772. 

Another hand-bill was found by Robert H. Dodd 
of New York early in the year and was purchased for 
the Society. It is a Boston store-card and is headed 
"To be Sold by Joseph Webb at His Store near Olivers 
Dock Boston. " It is signed "Paul Revere sculp," 
and is one of the most curious of all his engravings, 
chiefly because of the way in which the scroll-work 
border is hung with pots, kettles, skillets, flat irons, 
fire-dogs and other paraphernalia of the trade of an 
iron-monger. In Revere's account-book, under date 
of September 28, 17G5, is a charge of £3 against Mr. 
Joseph Webb for "Engraving a Copper Plate for 
Advertisements, " and of 7 shillings for printing 150 
copies. Judging from his account-books, Revere 
must have engraved several of these advertising 
hand-rbills for Boston merchants, yet only three have 
so far been discovered, the two noted above and a 
third — the card of William Jackson — obtained by 
the Society a few years ago. 

The other Revere engraving, acquired from Robert 
Fridenberg of New York, is a Masonic certificate of 
the familiar Revere type, filled in for Rising States 
Lodge of Boston and admitting Samuel Welch to the 
second degree of Masonry, July 25, 1790. This form, 
which is on vellum, has the imprint "Printed & sold 
opposite Liberty Stump, Boston." Although with- 
out the imprint of Revere, it is unquestionably his 
work and is almost a replica of the signed certificate 
reproduced in Goss, "Life of Paul Revere," vol. 2, 
p. 477. It has especial interest since it is signed in 
autograph by Paul Revere as Master, and also has 
an endorsement in his handwiiting as well as his 
signature. 

A collection of early Worcester views, undoubtedly 
the best of those owned in Worcester, has been placed 
here on deposit by Mr. Alfred L. Aiken of this city. 
It contains the following prints and maps:— 



334 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

WORCESTER VIEWS. 
View of Worcester, Mass., taken from Union Hill, 1831. Moore, 

Lith. after Anderson. Large folio. 
Advertisement. Exchange Coffee House. Picture of Exchange 

Coffee House at the top; inscription below. 
Great Fire in School St., 1838. Bowes, Lith. after G. L. Brown. 
View of Worcester, Mass., 1858, in tint. Endicott, N. Y., Lith. 
View of Worcester, Mass. Duplicate of the above except in color. 
State Lunatic Hospital, Worcester, Mass. Moore, Lith. 
View of the Blackstone Canal and Thomas St., 1828. Carter, 

Anderson & Co., So. Lancaster, Lith. after D. Weston. 
American Tempehance House. Bufford & Co., Lith. 
Timetable, Boston & Maine Railroad. (Sheet), dated October 23, 

1843. 
Small Wood-cut, Old South Meeting House. 

View of Main St., Worcester, Mass., 1836. Wood-cut from Barber. 
View of the Hospital, Worcester, Mass. Small steel engraving. 
View of Lincoln Square, Worcester, Mass. Small wood-cut from 

Gleason's Pictorial. 
View of Main St., Worcester, Mass. Lith. from old sheet of music. 
View of Court Hill, Worcester, Mass., 1851. Pub. by Addison 

Prentiss. Large Folio. 
Picture of Worcester Gxtards on Parade. Sheet of music, Prentiss, 

Lith. 
Birdseye View of Worcester, 1878, in tint. Pub. by Bailey & Hazen, 

Boston. 
View of Worcester, Mass., from the Insane Hospital, 1849, in tint. 

Buchanan & Co., N. Y. Lith. after Paul E. Whitefield. Large folio. 
View of Worcester House. By Lysander C. Clark, Worcester, Mass. 
City of Worcester, Mass., 18(54. Bufford, Lith: after Black & 

Matchel. Large folio. 
View of Main St., Worcester, in 1836. Small wood-cut. 
Sketch of Great Fire in School St., in 1838. Small reproduction. 
Lincoln House. Small wood-cut by Whittemore. 

WORCESTER MAPS. 

Map of the Village of Worcester, July, 1829. By Phelps. Pub. 
by Clarendon Harris. Carter, Andrews & Co., So. Lancaster, Lith. 

Map of Worcester Shiretown of the County of Worcester. By 
H. Stebbins; Pub. by Clarendon Harris, 1833. 

Plan of the Town of Worcester, 1795. Copy by Francis E. Blake, 
January, 1883. 

Plan of the Central Park of the City of Worcester. By C. Val- 
entine, Surveyor. Pub. by Henry J. Howland 1856. 

Map of Worcester, Mass., from Wall's "Reminiscences of Wor- 



1915.] Report of the Librarian. 335 

The collection of American book-plates has been 
much enriched by the activity and generous co-opera- 
tion of Rev. Herbert E. Lombard. By writing num- 
erous letters, and personally seeing collectors and 
owners of interesting plates, he has filled in many of 
the gaps in the collection which he placed here on 
deposit a year ago. This private collection he has 
now presented to the Society, as an unconditional 
gift. Including the plates secured for the Society 
during the past year, it now numbers 2,355 specimens. 
Although not so extensive as several collections in the 
country, it contains many choice plates, such as the 
earliest dated American booft-plate, or label, that of 
William Brattle, 1G77, which in itself would give pres- 
tige to any collection. The early American plates, 
including those by Revere, Hurd, and other eighteenth 
century engravers, are well represented, as was shown 
by the exhibit described in last year's Report. The 
modern plates make a good showing, with 259 varie- 
ties of the work of Spenceley and 312 of French. 
There is also a fair proportion of the work of the best 
of the living book-plate designers. There is still 
much to be obtained to round out the collection, 
especially in the period before 1830, but through 
Mr. Lombard's generosity, we have made more than 
a good beginning. It is especially desirable that this 
phase of the art of engraving should be represented 
in the collections of the Society, since here in Worces- 
ter is to be found perhaps the best collection of early 
American engraved prints existing in the country. 

Respectfully submitted, 

CLARENCE S. BRIGHAM, 

Librarian. 



336 



American Antiquarian Society. 



[Oct. 



Donors. 



MEMBERS. 



Balch, Thomas Willing 
Barton, Edmund M. 
Bates, Albert C. 
Beer, William 
Bingham, Hiram 
Bixby, William K. 
Bowditch, Charles P. 
Bowen, Clarence W. 
Brigham, Clarence S. 
Cundall, Frank 
Cunningham, Henry W. 
Davis, Andrew McF. 
Doughty, Arthur George 
Edes, Henry H. 
Evans, Charles 
Garver, Austin S. 
Gay, Frederick Lewis 
Grant, William L. 
Green, Samuel A. 
Hall, G. Stanley 
Haynes, George H. 
Hodge, Frederick W. 
Hulbert, Archer B. 
Jameson, J. Franklin 
Jenney, Charles F. 



Johnston, Henry Phelps 
Knapp, Shepherd 
Lincoln, Waldo 
Livingston, Luther S. 
Lombard, Herbert E. 
Love, William De Loss 
Matthews, Albert 
Mendenhall, Thomas C. 
Morison, Samuel Eliot 
Nichols, Charles L. 
Oliver, Vere L. 
Paine, Nathaniel 
Palmer, W T illiam P. 
Parker, Henry A. 
Quevedo, Samuel A. Lafone 
Rice, Franklin P. 
Rugg, Arthur P. 
Taylor, Charles H., Jr. 
Thomas, Allen C. 
Turner, Frederick J. 
Updike, D. Berkeley 
Utley, Samuel 
Washburn, Charles G. 
Woodward, Samuel B. 



NON-MEMBERS. 



Adams, Charles D. 
Allen, Nathan H. 
Appleton, Francis Henry 
Banister, Charles H. 
Bardeen, Charles W. 
Bartlett, Hartley W. 
Bassett, John L. 
Bath, Mrs. Charlotte E. 
Bay ley, Frank W. 



Belden, Charles F. D. 
Benton, Josiah H. 
Blacker, Francis W. 
Bomberger, Harvey S. 
Booth, Mrs. Charles M. 
Bowdoin, W. Graham, Jr. 
Bradbere, William W. 
Bradsher, Earl L. 
Brown, Frank C. 



336 



American Antiquarian, Society. 



[Oct. 



Bonore, 



MEMBERS. 



Balch, Thomas Willing 
Barton, Edmund M. 
Bates, Albert C. 
Beer, William 
Bingham, Hiram 
Bixby, William K. 
Bowditch, Charles P. 
Bowen, Clarence W. 
Brigham, Clarence S. 
Cundall, Frank 
Cunningham, Henry W. 
Davis, Andrew McF. 
Doughty, Arthur George 
Edes, Henry H. 
Evans, Charles 
Garver, Austin S. 
Gay, Frederick Lewis 
Grant, William L. 
Green, Samuel A. 
Hall, G. Stanley 
Haynes, George H. 
Hodge, Frederick W. 
Hulbert, Archer B. 
Jameson, J. Franklin 
Jenney, Charles F. 



Johnston, Henry Phelps 
Knapp, Shepherd 
Lincoln, Waldo 
Livingston, Luther S. 
Lombard, Herbert E. 
Love, William De Loss 
Matthews, Albert 
Mendenhall, Thomas C. 
Morison, Samuel Eliot 
Nichols, Charles L. 
Oliver, Vere L. 
Paine, Nathaniel 
Palmer, W'illiam P. 
Parker, Henry A. 
Quevedo, Samuel A. Lafone 
Rice, Franklin P. 
Rugg, Arthur P. 
Taylor, Charles H., Jr. 
Thomas, Allen C. 
Turner, Frederick J. 
Updike, D. Berkeley 
Utley, Samuel 
Washburn, Charles G. 
Woodward. Samuel B. 



NON-MEMBEUS. 



Adams, Charles D. 
Allen, Nathan H. 
Appleton, Francis Henry 
Banister, Charles H. 
Bardeen, Charles W. 
Bartlett, Hartley W. 
Bassett, John L. 
Bath, Mrs. Charlotte E. 
Bayley, Frank W. 



Belden, Charles F. D. 
Benton, Josiah H. 
Blacker, Francis W. 
Bomberger, Harvey S. 
Booth, Mrs. Charles M. 
Bowdoin, W. Graham, Jr. 
Bradbere, William W. 
Bradsher, Earl L. 
Brown, Frank C. 



1915.1 



Donors. 



337 



Brown, Rome G. 
Buck, Solon J. 
Carney, Sydney H., Jr. 
Cary, Henry N. 
Cary, Mrs. Henry G. 
Cary, Seth C. 
Chapin, Arthur B. 
Chase, Sarah E., Estate of 
Cheney, Sheldon 
Clark, J. C. L. 
Cochran, William C. 
Colegrove, Louise 
Cosby, Joseph T. 
Cummings, Prentiss 
Cupples, Joseph G. 
Demarest, William H. S. 
Dodd, Henry Martyn 
Edmonds, John H. 
Elkin, Mrs. William L. 
Emerson, William A. 
Fess, Simeon D. 
Folsom, Amy 
Forbes, Mrs. William T. 
Forehand, Frederick 
Fox, Irving P. 
Friedman, Lee M. 
Gates, Burton N. 
Getz, Carl H. 
Goodspeed, Charles E. 
Harriman, Charles C. 
Harris, Charles X. 
Harris, Henry F. 
Hart, Minerva 
Haynes, Henry D. 
Heartman, Chas. Fred. 
Henkels, Stan. V. 
Herrick, Leander F. 
Jackson, Cordelia 
Kearsley, Margaret 
Keve, John F. 
Kilroe, Edwin P. 
Leland, Waldo G. 
Lincoln, Frances M. 
Livingston, Mrs. Luther S. 
Logan, James 
Lovell, Arthur T. 
McCormick, Cyrus H. 



McFarland, Horace 
Marble, Mrs. Joseph Russell 
May, Elizabeth G. 
Meeker, Ezra 
Merriman, Mrs. Daniel 
Mills, Sarah M. 
Morgenstern, Julian 
Morrow, Curtis H. 
Nicholson, John P. 
North, Ralph H. 
Ogilvie, George W. 
Otis, Harrison Gray 
Palmer, William L. 
Parker, W. Thornton 
P^rcival, Harold W. 
Perry, John H. 
Phillips, Mary E. 
Phillips, Ulrich B. 
Pratt, Mrs. Charles A. 
Quezon, Manuel L. 
Read, Charles F. 
Reynolds, Mrs. Henry A. 
Richardson, Mrs. Charles F. 
Rider, Sidney S. 
Riley, Mary L. 
Ritenour, John S. 
Rockwood, Mrs. George 1. 
Rollins, Carl P. 
Russell, Lindsay 
Sanborn, John P. 
Shaw, Francis 
Shillaber, William C. 
Siebert, Wilbur H. 
Smith, Clarence D. 
Smith, Edwin Hadley 
Smith, Mrs. Mary L. 
Spooner, Mrs. Jennie C. 
Sprague, Mrs. Augustus B. R. 
Sprague, Francis W. 
Stearns, Frank W. 
Stewart, Frank H. 
Sweetser, Frances W. 
Thomas, John P., Jr. 
Thompson, Slason 
Tucker, Mrs. William J. 
Turner, John II. 
Ward, Merrill C. 



338 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

Warner, Clarence W. Winslow, Samuel E. 

Warren, Arthur C. Woodbury, Charles J. H. 

Wasson, Edmund A. Woolsey, Theodore S. 

Weeks, Stephen B. Wright, George M. 

White, Mrs. Caroline E. Wright, Henry Parks 

INSTITUTIONS AND SOCIETIES. 

Abbot Academy. 

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Academy of Science of St. Louis. 

Alabama Historical Society. 

Alliance Franchise. 

American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

American Association for International Conciliation. 

American Association of Journalism. 

American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. 

American Catholic Historical Society. 

American Geographical Society. 

American Historical Association. 

American Irish Historical Society. 

American Jewish Historical Society. 

American Oriental Society. 

American Philosophical Society. 

American Seaman's Friend Society. 

American Society for Judicial Settlement of International Disputes. 

American Steel and Wire Co. 

American Type Founders Company. 

Andover Theological Seminary. 

Antiquarian and Numismatic Society of Montreal. 

Australian Museum. 

Baltimore American. 

Bank of the Manhattan Company. 

Barre Gazette. 

Biblioteca Nazionale central e di Firenze. 

Boston, City of. 

Boston Cemetery Department. 

Boston City Hospital. 

Boston Co-operative Information Bureau. 

Boston Globe. 

Boston Health Department. 

Boston Port and Seamen's Aid Society. 

Boston Public Library. 

Boston Transcript. 

Boston Transit Commission. 

Bostonian Society. 

Bowdoin College. 



1915.] Donors. 339 

Brockton Public Library. 

Brookline Public Library. 

Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. 

Brooklyn Public Library. 

Brown University. 

Buffalo Historical Society. 

Buffalo Public Library. 

Bunker Hill Monument Association. 

Bureau of Railway Economics. 

California State Library. 

California, University of. 

Cambridge Antiquarian Society. 

Canada, Department of Mines. 

Canada, Dominion Archivist. 

Carnegie Endowment for International ^eace. 

Carnegie Institution of Washington. 

Catholic University of America. 

Chicago Historical Society. 

Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy. 

Chicago, University of. 

Christian Science Monitor. 

Clark University. 

Colgate University. 

Colonial Society of Massachusetts. 

Colorado College. 

Colorado, University of. ' , 

Columbia Historical Society. 

Columbia University. 

Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

Connecticut, Diocese of. 

Connecticut Historical Society. 

Connecticut State Library. 

Connecticut Valley Historical Society. 

Cornell University. 

Dartmouth College Library. 

Daughters of the Cincinnati. 

Dedham Historical Society. 

Diocese of Western Massachusetts. 

Drew Allis Co. 

Enoch Pratt Free Library. 

Essex Institute. 

Fairmount Park Art Association. 

Field Museum of Natural History. 

Fitchburg, City of. 

Fitchburg Public Library. 

Fitchburg Sentinel. 



340 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Forbes Library. 

General Education Board. 

Georgia Historical Society. 

Grolier Club. 

Groton Historical Society. 

Groton Landmark. 

Hartford, Automobile Club of. 

Hartford Courant. 

Hartford Theological Seminary. 

Harvard University. 

Haverhill Public Library. 

Helena Public Library. 

Hervas Laboratories of American Linguistics. 

Hispanic Society of America. 

Holy Cross College. 

Iconographic Society. 

Illinois State Historical Library. 

Illinois State Historical Society. 

Illinois, University of. 

International Typographical Union. 

Iowa, Historical Department of. 

Iowa, State Historical Society of. 

Jacksonville Public Library. 

Jamaica, Institute of. v 

Japan Society. 

Jersey City, Free Public Library. 

John Carter Brown Library. 

John Crerar Library. 

Johns Hopkins University. 

Kansas City Star. 

Kansas State Historical Society. 

Lake Mohonk Conference. 

La Plata, Universidad Nacional de. 

Leominster Public Library. 

Lewiston Journal. 

Library of Congress. 

Long Island Historical Society. 

Longmans, Green & Co. 

L'Opinion Publique. 

Los Angeles Public Library. 

Louisiana Historical Society. 

Louisville Free Public Library. 

Maine Historical Society. 

Maine State Library. 

Maryland Historical Society. 

Massachusetts, Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of. 



1915.] Donors. 341 

Massachusetts, Commonwealth of. 

Massachusetts, Free and Accepted Masons. 

Massachusetts General Hospital. 

Massachusetts Historical Society. 

Massachusetts Library Club. 

Massachusetts, Secretary of State. 

Massachusetts Society of Mayflower Descendants. 

Massachusetts State Department of Health. 

Massachusetts State Library. 

Massachusetts State Normal School, Worcester. 

Massachusetts Woman's Relief Corps. 

Mergenthaler Linotype Company. 

Messenger Printing and Publishing Company. 

Metropolitan Museum of Art. 

Metropolitan Water and Sewerage Board. 

Miami University. 

Michigan Historical Commission. 

Military Service Institution. 

Milton Historical Society. 

Minnesota Historical Society. 

Minnesota, University of. 

Mississippi Department of Archives. 

Missouri Historical Society. 

Missouri, State Historical Society of. 

Montague Press. 

Montana, University of. 

Montreal Herald. 

National Association for Constitutional Government. 

National Child Labor Committee. 

National Education Association of U.S. 

National Home Rule Association. 

National Society of Sons of American Revolution. 

Naval History Society. 

Nebraska State Historical Society. 

Nebraska, University of. 

New England Historic Genealogical Society. 

New Hampshire Historical Society. 

New Hampshire State Library. 

New Haven Colony Historical Society. 

New Jersey Historical Society. 

New Republic. 

New York Academy of Sciences. 

New York, Department of Education of City of. 

New York Genealogical and Biographical Society. 

New York, National City Bank of. 

New York Public Library. 



342 American Antiquarian Society. Oct., 

New York State Education Department. 

New York State Historical Association. 

New York State Library. 

New York Stock Exchange, Committee on Library. 

New York Tribune. 

New York, University of the State of. 

Newberry Library. 

Newport Historical Society. 

Newport Mercury. ^ 

North Carolina Historical Commission. 

North Carolina, University of. 

North Dakota, State Historical Society of. 

North Dakota, University of. 

Northwestern University. 

Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Philadelphia. 

Oakland Free Library. 

Oberlin College. 

Ohio, Historical and Philosophical Society of. 

Ohio, Industrial commission of. 

Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society. 

Oklahoma Historical Society. 

Oregon State Immigration Office. 

Panama-Pacific International Exposition. 

Pan-American Union. 

Paris Chamber of Commerce. 

Peabody Institute of Baltimore. 

Peabody Museum of American Archaeology. 

Pennsylvania Federation of Historical Societies. 

Pennsylvania-German Society. 

Pennsylvania, Historical Society of. 

Pennsylvania Society. 

Pennsylvania, University of. 

Philadelphia, Library Company of. 

Philadelphia Public Ledger. 

Portland Chamber of Commerce. 

Pratt Institute Free Library. 

Presbyterian Historical Society. 

Providence, City of. 

Providence Journal. 

Providence Public Library. 

Quebec, Literary and Historical Society of. 

Queen's University. 

Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. 

Rhode Island Historical Society. 

Rhode Island State Library. 



1915.] Donors, 343 

Riverside Public Library. 
Rosenberg Library. 

Royal Academy of Literature, History and Antiquities of Stockholm. 
Royal Canadian Institute. 
Royal Colonial Institute. 
Royal Historical Society. 

Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Com- 
merce. 
Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 
Royal Society of Canada. 
Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales. 
St. Louis Mercantile Library Association. 
St. Louis Public Library. 
Skandinavia. 
Smithsonian Institution. 
Social Law Library. 
Societ6 de Geographie de Paris. 
Societe" Nationale des Antiquaircs de France. 
Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities. 
Society of Antiquaries of London. 
Society of Pennsylvania Women in New York. 
Society of the Army of the Potomac. 
South Carolina, Historical Commission of. 
South Carolina Historical Society. 
Standard, The. 

State Charities Aid Association. 
Svea. 

Texas State Historical Association. 
Topsfield Historical Society. 
Toronto, University of. 
Union Pacific Railroad Company. 
United States Brewers' Association. 
United States Government. 
Vermont State Library. 
Vineland Historical and Antiquarian Society. 
Virginia Historical Society. 
Virginia State Library. 
Warren Academy of Sciences. 
Washington University. 

Washington University State Historical Society. 
Wesley an University. 
Western Reserve Historical Society. 
Williams College. 
Wilson, H. W., Co. 

Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters. 
Wisconsin Library Commission. 



344 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Wisconsin, State Historical Society of. 

Worcester Academy. 

Worcester Art Museum. 

Worcester Baptist Association. 

Worcester Board of Health. 

Worcester Chamber of Commerce. 

Worcester, City of. 

Worcester County Law Library. 

Worcester County Mechanics Association. 

Worcester County Musical Association. 

Worcester Free Public Library. 

Worcester Gazette. 

Worcester Polytechnic Institute. 

Worcester, Public Education Association of. 

Worcester, School Department of. 

Worcester Society of Antiquity. 

Worcester Telegram. 

Worcester Woman's Club. 

Wyoming Commemorative Association 

Yale College, Class of 1888. 

Yale University. 



1915.] Rule of Free Ships, Free Goods. 345 



FRANKLIN AND THE RULE OF FREE 
SHIPS, FREE GOODS. 

BY SIMEON E. BALDWIN. 



Early in the present year an American ship, the 
William P. Frye } carrying to Great Britain goods of 
the character of conditional contraband owned by 
British subjects, was arrested and sunk by a German 
cruiser. 

Our government made claim upon Germany for 
reparation, on the ground that the destruction of the 
vessel was a violation of international law. The reply 
maintained that it was not such a violation, but at 
the same time acknowledged liability on another 
ground, namely that the act was a violation of the 
rights of the United States under their treaty with 
Prussia, made in 1828. 

This renewed certain provisions in former treaties 
between the United States and that Power. The 
first of these dated back to 1785, and was signed in 
our behalf by Franklin, Jefferson, and John Adams. 
Franklin set his hand to it at Passy, on July 9; Jeffer- 
son added his signature at Paris, a few days later; 
and Adams his at London early in August. The 
Prussian plenipotentiary executed it in September, 
at the Hague. 

Its twelfth article contained the controlling rule, 
so far as the sinking of the Frye is concerned. 

In case either of the contracting Powers should be 
at war with a third, it declared that "the free inter- 
course and commerce of the subjects or citizens of 
the party remaining neuter with the belligerent 
Powers shall not be interrupted. On the contrary, 



346 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

in that case, as in full peace, the vessels of the neutral 
party may navigate freely to and from the ports and 
on the coasts of the belligerent parties, free vessels 
making free goods, insomuch that all things shall be 
adjudged free which shall be on board any vessel 
belonging to the neutral party, although such things 
belong to an enemy of the other; and the same free- 
dom shall be extended to persons who shall be on 
board a free vessel, although they should be enemies 
to the other party, unless they be soldiers in actual 
service of such enemy." 

The Frye was carrying enemy's goods to an enemy's 
port. She was carrying them to a "strategic area" 
or "war zone" marked off by Germany as waters on 
which commerce with this enemy could not be carried 
on, except at the risk of capture. It was practically 
impossible to take her to a German or Austrian port, 
for the submission of the legality of the seizure to a 
Prize Court. She would almost certainly have been 
re-captured by the Channel fleet. Her destruction, 
except for the Treaty of 1785, might have raised 
several questions of the first importance; one as to 
whether a belligerent Power can thus fence off an 
area of the high seas so as to make it an offence against 
her right, to take a neutral ship across it on a com- 
mercial voyage to her enemy's country; another as 
to whether, if so, the ship could lawfully carry con- 
traband food stuffs; and another as to whether, if 
the voyage were illegal, the ship could be destroyed, 
at the will of the commander of the cruiser by which 
the arrest was made. 

It was the great good fortune of the United States 
that this ancient treaty made these questions of no 
importance. The very day, I believe, after our claim 
for indemnity was received by Germany, came her 
acknowledgment of its justice by reason of this 
stipulation, made by Frederick the Great, and throw- 
ing upon the whole German empire of today, an in- 
herited obligation. 



1915.] Rule of Free Ships, Free Goods. 347 

This week's newspapers print despatches showing 
that the affair in all its aspects is to be finally settled 
in the best possible way, namely by proceedings of 
a summary nature instituted under the provisions 
of the Hague Convention of 1907 for the pacific settle- 
ment of international disputes. 

Before the Revolution Franklin had become con- 
vinced that the rule of free ships, free goods was a 
proper one for all nations to adopt. 1 

It had been recognized in Holland as early as the 
fifteenth century. 2 France had given it a place in 
her treaty with Turkey in 1604 3 , but she had rejected 
it in her maritime ordinance of 1681; and again in 
1744. It was to her, however, that Franklin deter- 
mined to appeal for aid, whenever she was ready to 
acknowledge our independence, in settling the com- 
mercial policy of the United States on the proper 
basis. 

He was made by the Continental Congress, on 
November 27, 1775, one of the secret committee on 
foreign correspondence. The members chosen were 
five, Benjamin Harrison of Virginia heading the list. 
They apparently organized by the election of Frank- 
lin as chairman; for on December 12, 1775, his name 
stands first in the signatures of three of them to a 
letter of instructions to Arthur Lee, then in London; 
and on March 2, 1776, in the commission to Silas 
Deane, as a foreign representative, which all five 
sign, Franklin's name again heads the list. The same 
is true of the instructions given to Deane on the 
following day. At this time Robert Morris had 
taken the place of Judge Johnson on the committee. 4 

Not long afterwards another committee of five 
was appointed to prepare a plan of treaties. The 

1 Political, Miscellaneous and Philosophical Pieces, etc., by Benjamin Franklin, 
London, 1779, page 54. 

* Grotius, de Jure Belli ac Pads, III, 1, 5, 4, note. 

3 Woolaey, International Law, seotion 174. 

« Clark, Silas Deane, 42; Diplomatic Correspondence of the American Revolution, 
II, 78. 



348 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

members, in the order named by the Congress, were 
Dickinson, Franklin, John Adams, Harrison, and 
Robert Morris. They constituted also the Com- 
mittee on Secret Correspondence, except that the 
place on that of the junior member, John Jay, was 
given to John Adams. 

They reported on July 20, 1776. The report was 
recommitted, with amendments, in August, and the 
committee enlarged by the addition of Richard H. 
Lee of Virginia, and James Wilson. of Pennsylvania. 
The plan reported for a treaty with France was finally 
adopted, with certain amendments, on September 
17, 177G. 5 It can hardly be doubted that the. com- 
mercial provisions were framed by Franklin. No 
other member of the committee had anything ap- 
proaching his acquaintance with negotiations of a 
diplomatic character. 

Article XVI provides that the ships of either con- 
tracting Power carrying contraband goods to an 
enemy of the other, shall not be confiscated as lawful 
prize, though such goods may be. Article XVII 
establishes the rule of "enemy's ships, enemy's goods." 

Article XXVI reads thus: 

"It shall be lawful for all and singular the subjects of the 
most Christian king, and the citizens, people and inhabitants 
of the said States, to sail with their ships with all manner of 
liberty and security, no distinction being made, who are the 
proprietors of the merchandises laden thereon, from any port 
to the places of those who now are, or hereafter shall be, at 
enmity with the most Christian king, or the United States. 
It shall likewise be lawful for the subjects and inhabitants 
aforesaid to sail with the ships and merchandises aforemen- 
tioned, and to trade with the same liberty and security from 
the places, ports and havens of those who are enemies of both, 
or either party, without any opposition or disturbance what- 
soever, not only directly from the places of the enemy afore- 
mentioned to neutral places, but also from one place belong- 
ing to an enemy to another place belonging to an enemy, 
whether they be under the jurisdiction of the same prince, or 



' Journals of Congress, II, 360; Secret Journals, II, 14. 



1915.] Rule of Free Ships, Free Goods. 349 

under several. And it is hereby stipulated, that free ships 
shall also give a freedom to goods; and that every thing shall 
be deemed to be free and exempt, which shall be found on 
board the ships belonging to the subjects of either of the 
confederates, although the whole lading, or any part thereof, 
should appertain to the enemies of either; contraband goods 
being always excepted. It is also agreed, in like manner, 
that the same liberty be extended to persons who are on board 
a free ship, with this effect, that although they be enemies to 
both, or either party, they are not to be taken out of that 
free ship, unless they are soldiers and in actual service of the 
enemies. " 

Congress, in their instruction to our representa- 
tives, sent over with this project, authorized them 
to waive Article XVI and XXVI, so that free ships 
should not make free goods. 6 

The negotiations by our three commissioners 
(Franklin, Deane, and Arthur Lee) which followed at 
Paris, were mainly conducted by Franklin, and he 
was able to save both these articles. 7 In the treaty, 
signed February 6, 1778, Article XVI appears as 
Article XIII, and Article XXVI as Article XXIII. 

Before accepting his mission to France in 1776, 
Franklin had not been entirely friendly to our offer- 
ing terms of alliance to foreign Powers. He had said 
on the floor of Congress "that a virgin State should 
preserve the virgin character, and not go about suitor- 
ing for alliances, but wait with decent dignity for 
the application of others," and in recalling this during 
the next year, in a letter of March 21, 1777, to Arthur 
Lee, he adds, "I was overruled — perhaps for the 
best." 8 

The fact that the United States were under no 
treaty obligations our Commissioners were soon able 
to use as a means of promoting the French alliance. 
On September 8, 1777, in a letter to the committee 
of Congress on Foreign Affairs, they took occasion 



6 Secret Journals, I, 29. 

' Diplomatic Correspondence of the American Revolution, 111, 48. 

*Ibid, II, 298. 



350 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

to say that as we had no treaty with France or any 
other nation giving to free ships the privilege of 
making free goods, it might be advisable for our 
cruisers on the ocean to arrest French vessels trading 
with Great Britain and confiscate their cargoes, on 
payment of the freight due on it. 9 Later, in Novem- 
ber, 1777, they issued instructions to the captains of 
American armed vessels authorizing the capture of 
any neutral ship carrying contraband to the British 
forces acting against the United States. 10 

Franklin would, no doubt, have been glad, should 
we maintain our independence, to put our trade rela- 
tions with all foreign Powers, in time of war, on a 
much broader foundation. He had the general look- 
out on the world which belongs to a philosopher who 
would have all men do as much good to other men, 
and to men of other nations, as was reasonably pos- 
sible, and as little harm. He was for free trade in 
peace, and for trade as nearly free as might be, in 
war. "To lay duties, "'he wrote to James Lovell, of 
the Committee of Congress on Foreign Affairs, in 
July, 1778, "on a commodity exported, which our 
neighbors want, is a knavish attempt to get some- 
thing for nothing. The statesman who first invented 
it, had the genius of a pickpocket, and would have 
been a pickpocket, if fortune had suitably placed 
him." 11 

To his mind, naval war had for ages been mainly 
a series of gigantic thefts. Enemy's ships were liable 
to seizure as prize of war. If they were freighted 
with goods of a neutral Power, these goods were liable 
to seizure also. Such seizures could be made by 
private marauders, who were not deemed pirates 
because they fought under a commission from their 
country, and must prove that they did not go beyond 
it, in their country's courts. 

9 Diplomatic Correspondence of the American Revolution, II, 390. 

io Ibid, 425. 

» Bigelow, Works of Franklin, VI, 200 



I915.| Rule of Free Ships, Free Goods. 351 

Franklin's philosophy of civilization had taught 
him that privateering was a barbarous practice that 
ought to be suppressed; that neutral ships, at least 
when not unlawfully carrying contraband to enemy's 
ports ought, with their cargoes, to be immune from 
seizure, even if the goods belonged to subjects of the 
enemy; and that special treaties might safely guaran- 
tee some protection, even if the ship were laden with 
contraband. 12 He endeavored to have a provision for 
the abolition of privateering (Art. XXIII) included 
in our treaty of peace with Great Britain, but even 
his own colleagues in the negotiation did not favor 
it. 13 One of them, indeed, John Adams, at a later 
period, writing in 1800, as President of the United 
States to the Secretary of State, went so far as to 
condemn the free ships, free goods rule as visionary 
and impracticable. If, he said, the principle "were 
once really established and honestly observed, it 
would put an end forever to all maritime war, and 
render all military navies useless. However desirable 
this may be to humanity, however much so phil- 
osophy may approve it, and Christianity desire it, I 
am clearly convinced it will never take place. The 
dominant power on the ocean will forever trample on 

it We must treat the subject with quiet 

attention, and if all other nations will agree to it, 
we will. But while one holds out, we shall be the 
dupes, if we agree to it. Sweden and Denmark, 
Russia and Prussia, might form a rope of sand. 
But no dependence can be placed on such a maritime 
coalition." 14 

Two years later, George Gaines of New York thus 
expressed what was probably the general sentiment 
of the bar of the Eastern States, in his Lex Mercatoria 
Americana, in commenting on the French treaty of 



!*See Ibid. VII, 70, 62, 68; VIII, 248, 287; IX, 88; Diplomatic Correspondence of 
the American Revolution. Ill, 701. 

18 Diplomatic Correspondence oi" the American Rcvolutiou, VI, 210, 409; IV, 57. 
"Works of John Adams, IX, 86. 



352 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

1800, renewing the rule in that of 1778, that free 
ships made free goods: 15 

"In compliance with the new f angled freedom of modern 
France, our late treaty with that people recognizes the mon- 
strous inconvenience of neutral bottoms making neutral 
goods: it is hoped that the veil of peace will forever hide from 
our sight the baneful results of such a convention; a compact 
which unnerves the arm of the warrior, and flattens the edge 
of his sword." 

All New England, a few years later, was inclined 
to the same opinion, as she saw rich prize cargoes 
coming into her ports in the war of 1812. 

Our treaty of 1778 with France, which was in a 
peculiar sense the work of Franklin, and the articles 
as to commerce in war which we have particularly 
considered, gave great satisfaction to the neutral 
commercial Powers. In a few months (by an ordi- 
nance of July 26, 1778) France extended the benefit 
of it provisions in this respect to all of them. 16 

It was not long before the Armed Neutrality gave 
the views by which they were dictated a far wider 
extension. On February 28, 1780, the Empress of 
Russia issued her declaration of neutral rights in the 
matter of trade, which applied the same principles; 
and this, before long, received the general adherence 
of the European continent, and led ultimately to the 
Declaration of Paris in 1856, in which the rule of 
Free Ships, Free Goods was explicitly included. 

Our Congress, in the fall of 1780, voted to support 
the Russian declaration, and instructions to that end, 
prepared by Robert R. Livingston, were issued ac- 
cordingly to our naval commanders. 17 

In 1782, Sweden offered, unasked, to make a treaty 
with us, and on this basis. The suggestion was made 
directly and solely to Franklin. 18 He reported it to 



" Page 122. 

14 Merlin, Repertoire de Jurisprudence, Prise Maritime, XXVI, til. 

"Journals of CongrobH, VI, 210, 241; Bancroft, History of the United States, VI, 358. 

isBigelow, Works of Fraufclxu, VI, 374, 383; VIII, 108, 237, 279, 296, 298. 



1915.] Rule of Free Ships, Free Goods. 353 

Congress and carried it successfully out, Congress 
soon afterwards approving a project for its execution. 
In this treaty, signed by him for the United States at 
Paris, April 3, 1783, Article VII is substantially iden- 
tical with Article XXVI of our treaty with France. 

In February, 1784, John Adams, then our minister 
at the Hague, wrote to Dr. Franklin and John Jay, 
who with him had authority to negotiate foreign 
treaties, that the Prussian minister at that court had 
told him that his sovereign would be glad to make a 
commercial treaty with the United States. They 
immediately replied advising him to open negotiations 
on the principles which governed our then recent 
treaties with Holland and Sweden. This was done; 
and the King agreed to take the latter of these as 
the general model to be followed. Early in April, 
he drew, with his own hand, a project for such a treaty, 
and sent it to Adams. Franklin and Jay, whom he 
consulted by letter, suggested a few changes of slight 
importance, which Frederick accepted. The project 
was then, early in May, forwarded to Congress for 
ratification. 19 

Before it arrived, on May 7, 1784, Jay had been 
appointed Secretary for Foreign Affairs, and Jefferson 
given his place to act with Adams and Franklin in 
negotiating commercial treaties. Meanwhile Jeffer- 
son, who was then in Congress, had been appointed 
chairman of a committee on foreign correspondence. 
Their report, together with the subject of general 
instructions to our ministers for negotiating com- 
mercial treaties, was finally acted upon, on the day 
named. Certain points were agreed on which must 
"be carefully stipulated." 

Two of these were thus stated: 

"4. That it be proposed, though not indispensably re- 
quired, that if war should hereafter arise between the two 
contracting parties, the merchants of either country, then 



" Life and Works of John Adams, VIII, 183, 189-308-. 



354 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

residing in the other, shall be allowed to remain nine months 
to collect their debts and settle their affairs, and may depart 
freely, carrying off all their effects without molestation or 
hindrance; and all fishermen, all cultivators of the earth, and 
all artisans or manufacturers, unarmed and inhabiting unforti- 
fied towns, villages or places, who labour for the common 
subsistence and benefit of mankind, and peaceably following 
their respective employments, shall be allowed to continue 
the same, and shall not be molested by the armed force of the 
enemy, in whose power, by the events of war, they may hap- 
pen to fall; but if any thing is necessary to be taken from them 
for the use of such armed force, the same shall be paid for at 
a reasonable price; and all merchants and traders exchanging 
the products of different places, and thereby rendering the 
necessaries, conveniences and comforts of human life more 
easy to obtain and more general, shall be allowed to pass free 
and unmolested; and neither of the contracting powers shall 
grant or issue any commission to any private armed vessels 
empowering them to take or destroy such trading ships, or 
interrupt such commerce. 

" 5. And in case either of the contracting parties shall 
happen to be engaged in war with any other nation, it be 
further agreed, in order to prevent all the difficulties and mis- 
understandings that usually arise respecting the merchandise 
heretofore called contraband, such as arms, ammunition and 
military stores of all kinds, that no such articles carried by 
the ships or subjects of one of the parties to the enemies of 
the other, shall on any account be deemed contraband, so as 
to induce confiscation and a loss of property to individuals. 
Nevertheless it shall be lawful to stop such ships, and detain 
them for such length of time as the captors may think neces- 
sary to prevent the inconvenience or damage that might 
ensue from their proceeding on their voyage, paying, however, 
a reasonable compensation for the loss such arrest shall 
occasion to the proprietors; and it shall further be allowed 
to use, in the service of the captors, the whole or any part of 
the military stores so detained, paying the owners the full 
value of the same to be ascertained by the current price at the 
place of its destination. 

"But if the other contracting party will not consent to dis- 
continue the confiscation of contraband goods, then that it be 
stipulated, that if the master of the vessel stopped will deliver 
out the goods charged to be contraband, he shall be admitted 
to do it, and the vessel shall not in that case be carried into 
any port, but shall be allowed to proceed on her voyage." 20 

2° Secret Journals of Congreaa, III, 452, 45(i, 483, 484. 



1915.] Rule of Free Ships, Free Goods. 355 

It will be observed that this proposes the abolition 
of privateering, and practical immunity for contra- 
band on a neutral ship. 

Jefferson arrived at Paris in August, 1784; and early 
in the following November the three Commissioners 
proposed to Prussia a new form of treaty, following 
the plan which had been approved by Congress in 
May. In the note making this proposal was enclosed 
a memorandum in support of its principal features, 
that is, the abolition of privateering and the prohibi- 
tion against the forfeiture of contraband goods. 
This paper bears upon its face strong evidence that it 
was composed by Franklin. Its style is his, and its 
arguments are such as he had often urged, both in 
private and in official correspondence. 

Frederick, in January, 1785, accepted most (includ- 
ing 4 and 5) of the terms thus proposed, and suggested 
others, to some of which our Commissioners gave their 
assent; a final agreement not being reached until 
July, 1785. 21 

Congress ratified the treaty in May, 1786. It was 
the first in recorded history which looked to the 
abolition of privateering, and none had ever gone 
farther in extending to lading of whatever sort the 
freedom of the flag. 

These provisions were not equally esteemed by all 
the Commissioners. 

It would seem probable that Jefferson was in favor 
of both abolishing privateering and making free ships 
cover even contraband goods. He certainly did not 
regard free ships, free goods as a rule of international 
law, but it was for that very reason that he advocated 
its adoption in commercial treaties. Since it was not 
established by law, let it be by convention. 22 



« Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States, 2d Series, P. P. Blair's Kd., II, 
113, 198, 217, 219, 237, 267, 269, 305, 325, 373; Life and Works of John Adams, VIII, 
222, 238. 

m Writings of Jefferson, I, 92, 93; VIII, 421; XVII, 348; Proceedings, Mass. Historical 
8oc, 2d Series, I, 24. 



356 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Franklin was, and always had been, its hearty 
friend, and an equally determined enemy of priva- 
teering. 23 

Adams' views were frankly stated in a personal 
letter to the Prussian minister at the Hague, written 
on February 13, 1785, in which he says: "I am weary 
of the slow motions of other courts and states, as 
much as I admire the despatch, intelligence, and 
decision of that of Berlin; and as much as I am 
charmed to find the King do us the honor to agree to 
the platonic philosophy of some of our articles, which 
are at least a good lesson to mankind, and will derive 
more influence from a treaty ratified by the King of 
Prussia, than from the writings of Plato or Sir Thomas 
More."* 

Franklin's signature to this great State paper was 
his last official act as an American minister at a foreign 
court. 

The immunity of contraband from capture, which 
it promised, was continued by the treaty with Prussia 
of 1799, but not by that now in force, of 1828. It was 
in truth, as Adams said, rather a platonic provision. 
Frederick probably ventured to adopt it the more 
readily because he regarded its insertion as an experi- 
ment in which he risked little, because there was little 
to risk. Fiat in vili cor pore experimentum. He did 
not contemplate the long continuance of the United 
States. The British envoy at Berlin reported his 
saying to him, in 1782, that our "great extent of 
territory alone would be a sufficient obstacle, .^ince 
a republican government had never been known to 
exist for any length of time where the territory was 
not limited and concentered." He could not fore- 
see that we were to share his own idealism, and ^hare 
it in its free, life-giving power, unrestrained by prac- 
tical conditions of unfriendly environment. 

n See Bigelow, Work* oj Framkiin. IX. KW; DipK»mnti< CmtmfmmAmtt of tin; Amencn* 
Revolution, I, Sec 128. 

» Life and Works of Joha Ad..uia. VIII, W», I, 416 



1915.] Rule of Free Ships, Free Goods. 357 

It may be added that the principle of Free Ships, 
Free Goods, so far as regards non-contraband, was, 
six years after Frederick's death, incorporated in the 
Prussian Code (Allgemeines Landrecht), and is now 
(following the pledges of the Declaration of Paris,) 
one of the provisions of the Prize Code (Prisenordnung, 
Art. 42) of the German Empire, promulgated in 1909, 
as revised in 1915. 



358 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 



VIRGINIA'S CONTRIBUTION TO SCIENCE. 

BY LYON G. TYLER. 



It is probable that no one doubts the conspicuous 
part played by Virginia along certain important lines 
of activity. In government she took a leading part 
in the American Revolution, and was the capital of 
the Southern Confederacy. In politics, she was the 
headquarters for many years of the great Jeffersonian 
party, and though a slave State, she was for years 
the strongest exponent of the democratic principle. 
In war her population has shown a remarkable mili- 
tary spirit and the names of Washington, Scott, Tay- 
lor, Lee, Johnston, and Jackson easily stand pre- 
eminent among American .generals. And in colo- 
nization not only were her presidents foremost in the 
extension of the national domain, but the South and 
West teem with the millions who are descendants 
of the early Virginia pioneers. Her association with 
Science and scientific men is not so well recognized. 

There is a reason for this. Science — practical 
science — especially loves the crowded centers, where 
its activity may receive adequate reward, and rural 
occupations and a scattered population are not sup- 
posed to be conducive to scientific pursuits. Now, 
Virginia has been a land of counties and not of cities 
and towns. 

Nevertheless, her records are not a sealed book. 
It may be readily admitted that science as a pro- 
fession has not flourished, but in the knowledge which 
has come down to us there have been indications of 
a spirit in Virginia leading to invention and research 
which promises better things when population be- 



1915.] Virginia's Contribution to Science. 359 

comes denser and more compact. Especially in the 
case of the great immortals, who hold first place in 
the temple, her contribution to science has, I think, 
been in no degree mean or contemptible. 

At any rate, I opine, a rapid review of the evidences 
of the scientific spirit in the history of Virginia, which 
is the object of this paper, may possibly not be with- 
out some interest or value to those who like to delve 
in the mysteries of the past. 

Not so much is to be expected of the first century 
of settlement when the attention of the people was 
absorbed in the mere necessities of living. But in 
the latter part of the 17th century the inquiring spirit 
began to manifest itself especially along the lines of 
natural history. The new era begins with John 
Banister — a man whom I consider as the pioneer 
scientist. He was born in England, emigrated first 
to Jamaica and settled near what is now Petersburg, 
Virginia, as early as 1G78, where he officiated as 
minister of the Church of England for the Parish of 
Appomattox, afterwards Bristol Parish. He was an 
ardent naturalist, and compiled a catalogue of Vir- 
ginia plants, which is published in Ray's "Historia 
Plantarum." He also contributed various papers to 
the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. 
Among them " Observations on the Natural Produc- 
tions of Jamaica/' "Insects of Virginia," "Curiosities 
in Virginia," "On Several Sorts of Snails/' and 
"Description of the Snake Root, " in which he was^ 
probably the first to call public attention to the 
medicinal qualities of that plant. We know little 
in addition to his private history, except that he came 
to his death by a fall while engaged in pursuing his 
favorite researches in botany. His grandson, Col. 
John Banister, was one of the prominent Virginians 
of the American Revolution. 

Contemporary with John Banister, but coming 
to Virginia at a later date was John Clayton, minister 
at Jamestown from 1684-1686. He was probably 



360 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

a graduate of Oxford University, as there are several 
John Claytons among the Oxford matriculates which 
might be taken for this man. In May, 1686, he was 
rector at Croxton at Wakefield in Yorkshire. He 
was a member of the Royal Society, and was a friend 
of Hon. Robert Boyle, the celebrated chemist, to 
whom he wrote from Jamestown, describing a remark- 
able instance of animal electricity and the fly called 
the fly-fly or "lightning bug. " He was very fond of 
scientific studies and his reflections on Virginia, pub- 
lished in the Transactions of the Royal Society on 
his return, might have been made more valuable, 
but for his loss on the way thither, as he states, of all 
his "books, chymical instruments, glasses and micro- 
scopes/' As it is, we are under great obligations to 
him for his description of Jamestown Island and of 
the climate, soil, animals and inhabitants of the 
colony. Some of his philosophic suggestions as to 
physical phenomena are rather amusing in the light 
of our present superior knowledge. In commenting 
upon the diseases in September, which were then very 
prevalent, and are now all but disappeared, he at- 
tributes them not to the troublesome mosquito, but 
to the change from summer to fall. Thus he writes: 
"That by the exhausting Heat and Ferment of the 
Blood raised too high and the Tone of the stomach 
relaxed, when the Weather breaks the blood falls, 
and like over fermented liquors, is depauperized, or 
turns eager and sharp, and there is a crude digestion, 
whence the named distempers may be supposed to 
ensue." Thunder in those days seemed to be con- 
sidered a primal fact, and lightning was one of its 
qualities or attributes, and Dr. Clayton suggests to 
the learned Society for which he is writing that thun- 
der, with its lightning, was probably identical with 
"a sulphureous, inflammable spirit," which he had 
often distilled from coal, by which I suppose he meant 
kerosene oil. 



1915.] Virginia's Contribution to Science. 361 

The early part of the 18th century was contempo- 
rary with a visit to Virginia of the great English 
naturalist, Mark Catesby, whose sister Elizabeth was 
the wife of Dr. William Cocke, Secretary of State 
of Virginia during the administration of Governor 
Alexander Spotswood. He remained in Virginia 
seven years from 1712 to 1719, and traveled exten- 
sively, and when he returned brought to England 
the finest collection of natural objects which is said 
ever to have been brought from America to that 
country at any one time. Subsequently, he spent 
four years in the Southern colonies, and in 1726 
began the publication of his natural history of Caro- 
lina, Florida and the Bahama Islands, the figures 
etched by himself and colored under his supervision. 

More distinctly to the manor was Robert Beverley, 
born about 1676, in Virginia, son of Major Robert 
Beverley, of Gloucester County. He was an active, 
enterprising man, planter, historian and naturalist — 
mainly historian, and the only historian up to that 
time in any of the colonies, according to Dr. Jameson 
of the Carnegie Institution, who had an original 
American spirit about him, but none the less a scien- 
tist who had a shrewd love of observing nature. 
Probably the most interesting chapters in his work, 
"The History of Virginia," published in 1705, are 
those relating to the natural history of the colony. 

Succeeding him should be noticed William Byrd, 
born in Virginia, in 1676, statesman, scholar, student 
of nature, "Fellow of the Royal Society, and the inti- 
mate friend of Charles Boyle, Earl of Orrery, the 
philosopher and statesman, and nephew of the great 
Robert Boyle. He built the present noble brick 
mansion at Westover on James River, and gathered 
about him the finest library on the continent. He 
wrote several very interesting tracts upon Virginia, 
which, I believe, are admitted to have no equal in 
colonial literature for grace of style and composition. 
In his letters and tracts, "The Dividing Line," and 



362 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

the "Land of Eden," he makes valuable comment 
on the mineral, vegetable and animal products of 
the colony in words that scintillate with wit and 
humor. 

Another name stands high in the list at this time — 
that of John Mitchell — by profession a physician. 
He emigrated to Virginia about 1700, and resided at 
Urbanna on the Rappahannock River. He devoted 
himself to botany and other scientific subjects, and 
discovered several new species of plants, one of which 
was called by Linnaeus in his memory " Mitchella 
repens." His articles, published in the Transactions 
and in pamphlet form, discuss botany, the origin of 
color in races, the yellow fever and electricity. After 
remaining in Virginia for nearly half a century, he 
returned to England, in 1744, where he was made 
a member of the Royal Society, published a map of 
Virginia, and died in March, 1768. 

But the glory of colonial Virginia in this field of 
natural history during the 18th century was John 
Clayton — not the minister of Jamestown of the same 
name, but another and quite a different person. He 
was son of John Clayton, the learned attorney- 
general of Virginia, and grandson of Sir John Clayton 
of Fulham in Middlesex, England. He was born at 
Fulham in 1685, studied medicine, and came with his 
father to Virginia in 1705. He was indefatigable in 
botanical researches. About 1723 he became clerk 
of Gloucester County, and held the post till his death, 
December 15, 1773, at the age of eighty-eight years. 
His office gave him leisure for studying the soil and 
"atmospheric phenomena affecting the vegetation of 
the colony. He kept a botanical garden at his home 
known as "Windsor" on the Pianketank river, and 
from this garden and other sources he amassed a 
great number of plants, which he dried and forwarded 
to Gronovius, who, in conjunction with Linnaeus, 
published a list and description of them in Latin in 
a book which was called "Flora Virginica." This 



1915.] Virginia's Contribution to Science. 363 

work contained the first complete enumeration of 
the Virginia plants, one species of which was chris- 
tened in his honor by Gronovius Claytonia, and is 
occasionally met with. He was a correspondent of 
many learned men and was also a Fellow of the 
Royal Society. 

In the meantime, a new era was impending in the 
history of science throughout the world. The icono- 
clasm of Voltaire and Rousseau against the dogmatism 
of the churches and the authority of rulers gave a 
stimulus to freer thought everywhere. Benjamin 
Franklin enthused both Europe and America by his 
remarkable demonstration that lightning was identical 
with the electric spark. In Virginia, where the church 
never had much influence, speculation on all kinds 
of questions became rife. In 1756 Franklin visited 
Williamsburg, the little capital near Jamestown, and 
received from the College of William and Mary the 
honorary degree of Master of Arts. In 1758, Francis 
Fauquier, a devotee of the sciences and a Fellow of the 
Royal Society, arrived as governor, and the same 
year Dr. William Small came to Williamsburg as 
professor of mathematics and natural philosophy 
in the College of William and Mary. Fauquier and 
Small delighted in the society of young men, and at 
Fauquier's table, where Small was a constant attend- 
ant, the youths of Virginia — Jefferson, Page, Walker,^ 
McClurg — learned their lessons in the rights of man. 
Dr. Small introduced in 1760 the lecture system at 
the College, and Jefferson, by nature a scientist him- 
self and no mean inventor, referred to Dr. Small 
as the man who " fixed the destinies of his Life," and 
John Page eulogized him as "the illustrious professor 
of Mathematics, the great Dr. Small, of Birmingham, 
the darling friend of Darwin." In 1764, after a stay 
of six years in the. colony, Small returned to England 
and took up his residence at Birmingham, where he 
had the society of the great English philosophers, 
who made that city the center of their life and labors. 



364 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Besides being "the darling friend" of Erasmus 
Darwin, he was the intimate friend of James Watt, 
and it was on his advice that Watt, in 1773, left Glas- 
gow and came to Birmingham, where he formed a 
partnership with Matthew Boulton, the founder of the 
Soho Engineering Works. For it must be remem- 
bered that in 1763 by his famous development of the 
steam engine, Watt furnished the key to the new 
era mentioned, which was one of invention and not 
chiefly one of observation as hitherto. 

Under the expanding wings of this new departure 
a society for the promotion of manufactures was 
founded, in 1759, in Williamsburg, which was author- 
ized by the general assembly to offer bounties for 
discoveries and improvements, and in May, 1773, a 
Philosophical Society — known as "The Virginia 
Society for the Promotion of Useful Knowl- 
edge" was established, of which the venerable John 
Clayton, of "Windsor, " the botanist, was president, 
and John Page, «of " Rose well, M was vice-president. 

%Page, who was lieutenant-governor under Patrick 
Henry and afterwards governor, spent much of his 
time in scientific investigations. «He invented an 
instrument, by which he measured the fall of dew 
and rain to the 300th part of an inch, and claimed that 
his invention was the first of its kind ever used in 
America — perhaps in the world; and at his residence 
on the York, he calculated an eclipse of the Sun. 
As early as 1779, fifty years before Michael Faraday's 
wonderful experiments, in a communication published 
in the American Philosophical Society's Transaction, 

• he suggested the identity of magnetism with elec- 
tricity. His neighbors called him John Partridge 
after the noted Almanac maker in Scotland. There 
is preserved in the Virginia Historical Society a gold 
medal presented to John Hobday, of Gloucester 
County, by this Virginia society of science, for his 

^invention of an improved method of threshing grain 
by horse power. 



1915.] Virginia's Contribution to Science 365 

I have touched somewhat in detail upon these early 
manifestations of the scientific spirit in Virginia, and 
the rest of my article must be of a more general char- 
acter. As we all know, invention and discovery came 
to its flower in the 19th century, and most important 
in the list of the early post revolutionary characters 
was James Rumsey, who though a native of Mary- 
land, was a citizen of Virginia, and spent the active 
part of his life in that Commonwealth. He lived at 
Shepherdstown on the banks of the Potomac, where 
he was manager of a saw mill and superintendent of 
the Potomac Company, of which Washington was a 
member. Although, as has frequently happened in 
other cases, there were others to precede him, these 
were Europeans, and as an American he was the first 
in the country to construct and navigate a boat by 
steam. In this noble experiment he also greatly 
improved upon his European predecessors. His first 
boat was fifty or sixty feet long, drawn to a point at 
both ends and worked by a steam engine, which 
forced water through a pipe out at the stern. He 
privately tested his boat in 1786, and gave a public 
demonstration of its value at Shepherdstown in 1787, 
when the novel sight of a boat moving through the 
water against the current of a river at the rate of four 
or five miles an hour, was witnessed by many persons, 
including Horatio Gates. Rumsey obtained patents 
for his invention from the legislatures of Virginia, 
Maryland, and New York, and in 1788 the Rumsey 
Society was formed in Pennsylvania, of which Ben- 
jamin Franklin was a principal member. He then 
went to Great Britain, where he demonstrated the 
utility of his plans to the Society of Arts in London, 
and procured patents from the British government 
for his steamboat and for various improvements in 
steam-engines, pumps, boilers, and mill machinery. In 
spite of all kinds of pecuniary embarrassments he suc- 
cessfully constructed a new boat of about double the 
length of his American steamer, and, after private 



366 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

trial, made preparations for its public exhibition on 
the Thames. But after all the burdens borne, and on 
the very eve of triumph, a stroke of apoplexy inter- 
vened between him and all earthly glory. On the 
evening of December 20, 1792, he delivered an elo- 
quent lecture before the committee of mechanics of 
the Society of Arts on the subject of hydrostatics, 
at the conclusion of which, while engaged in wording 
resolutions to be entered in the Society's book, he 
was taken with a violent pain in the temple. He 
became speechless and expired the next evening. 
Some few weeks later his boat was tried on the 
Thames, and according to the notice in the Gentle- 
man's Magazine attained a speed of "four knots an 
hour. ,, 

Rumsey had a close second in John Fitch, who 
contested his claim to precedence, but as far as I can 
understand the evidence, it appears conclusive in 
favor of Rumsey. He was backed by Washington, 
Jefferson, Franklin, and Benjamin Rush. The last 
named, in 1788, eulogized Rumsey's moral character, 
and represented Fitch as a man "equally known for 
plagiarism in philosophy and a licentious opposition 
to our constitution'' — which opinion of Dr. Rush is 
a delightful instance of the mingling of politics with 
science. Though Rumsey's steamboat never came 
into practical use, he paved the way for Fulton; and 
several of his inventions survived in one modified form 
or another; as for instance the tubular boiler so 
superior to the old tub or still boiler in the presenta- 
tion of fire surface and capacity for holding rarefied 
steam. One of Rumsey's patrons was Thomas Jeffer- 
son, who succeeded Franklin as President of the 
American Philosophical Society. In the vast variety 
of objects which engaged his astonishing genius, 
philosophy held no insignificant place, as is abundant- 
ly shown by his famous Notes on Virginia and his 
numerous letters to men of science. It was something 
to defend America triumphantly from the charge 



1915.] Virginia' s Contribution to Science. 367 

of the Abbe* Raynal of the degeneracy of the man of 
Europe transplanted to America, and something more 
to confound the naturalist Buffon with his superior 
knowledge on a question of natural history and force 
the admission from the French philosopher that he 
should have consulted the Virginian before publishing 
his work, " so as to be sure of his facts. " He invented 
a plow, a hemp brake, a pedometer, and a copying press. 
The name James Madison was rendered doubly 
distinguished at this period in being the common 
possession of the illustrious "Father of the Constitu- 
tion" and of his cousin once removed, the First Bishop 
of the Episcopal Church of Virginia and first Presi- 
dent of the College of William and Mary after the 
American Revolution. The latter held the chair of 
natural philosophy in William and Mary College and 
was a worthy successor of Dr. William Small. He was 
an ardent friend of the American Revolution, and so 
strong a champion of free principles that it is said of 
him that in his sermons he would never speak of "the 
kingdom of Heaven," but of "that great Republic 
where there was no distinction of rank and where all 
men were free and equal." Doubtless his introduc- 
tion in co-operation with Mr. Jefferson of the elective 
system of study at William and Mary, in 1779, was 
an expression of this feeling. He had the use of 
extensive apparatus selected by Dr. Small in London, 
perhaps the best in the United States at the time, 
and excelled in physics and astronomy. In a paper 
to the American Philosophical Society in 1779, he 
submitted an interesting disquisition on the Aurora 
Borealis, and in 1789 communicated his observation 
on a lunar eclipse and the transit of Mercury across 
the sun's disk. In the lecture room he was indefa- 
tigable, and spent four to six hours a day. He intro- 
duced what was the first systematic course of lectures 
on political economy in any American College, and 
his enthusiasm threw a peculiar charm over his lec- 
tures on natural philosophy. 



368 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

A contemporary of Dr. Madison was James Green- 
way, of Dinwiddie County, an ardent botanist. He 
wrote a number of interesting letters for the Phila- 
delphia Society, in which he dwelt upon the fertiliz- 
ing value of the pea, the nature of a certain poisonous 
plant found in Virginia, and an extinct volcano in 
North Carolina. 

The current of the 19th century now sets in 
strongly and the limits of my paper confine me to a 
very brief mention of names. 

Ephraim McDowell, born in 1771, in Rockbridge 
County, a graduate of medicine in the University of 
Edinburgh, who practiced his profession at Danville, 
Virginia, was the first to operate for ovarian tumor, 
and became famous as the father of ovariotomy. 

Benjamin Winslow Dudley, of Spotsylvania Coun- 
ty, born in 1783, a graduate of the University of 
Pennsylvania and student afterwards at London 
under Cooper and Abernathy. He performed the 
first operation for stone in the bladder and was 
spoken of as the greatest lithotomist. It has been 
said that Benjamin Dudley's career presents the 
longest list of successful operations of any surgeon of 
modern times. 

William B. Rogers, a link between Massachusetts 
and Virginia, studied from 1819 to 1825 at William 
and Mary College, where his father, Patrick Kerr 
Rogers, was Professor of chemistry and natural 
philosophy and subsequently held his father's chair, 
and six years later a similar one at the University of 
Virginia. As State officer he made the first report 
on the geology of Virginia — a work which has no 
superior, and is full of original suggestions. After 
thirty-five years' service in Virginia he moved to 
Massachusetts, where in I860 he founded in Boston 
the famous Institute of Technology and died in that 
city in 1882, having seen his pet project crowned with 
success. But Rogers never forgot the claims of 
Virginia, and shortly before his death, in a published 



1915.] Virginia's Contribution to Science. 369 

letter to John W. Draper, referred with enthusiasm 
to the freedom of its great University and " the large 
relative space," which it had always given to " physi- 
cal and mathematical science," — "an example," he 
said, "only slowly adopted by the older Universities," 
by which I suppose he meant Harvard and Yale, 
though he had too much politeness to mention them 
by name. 

Edmund Ruffin was born in Prince Edward County, 
Virginia January 5, 1794, and educated at William 
and Mary College. He was an immense reader of 
books and by his works on scientific farming produced 
an entire revolution in agriculture in Tidewater, 
Virginia. His system embraced the use of marl and 
leguminous crops as fertilizers of poor soil, drainage, 
blind ditching, and the five field rotation of crops. 
Probably there was nothing positively new in this, 
but his books and writings as Editor of the Farmers 1 
Register had a personal force about them that com- 
pelled results. Those results, as told by the census 
of the United States were that, whereas lands in 
Eastern Virginia had steadily declined in value, since 
the Revolution, leading to large emigrations south- 
ward, from 1835 to 1860 they steadily increased by 
the millions of dollars, and Virginia was never so 
prosperous as when the Civil War came on. 

John Peter Mettauer, of Prince Edward County, 
Bachelor of Arts of Hampden Sidney College, Vir- 
ginia, and M. D. of the University of Pennsylvania, 
in 1809. He was the first on this continent to operate 
for cleft palate, the first to employ iodine in the 
treatment of scrofula, and was one of the first to 
conceive the idea of curing vesico-vaginal fistula, and 
among the first in such major operations as amputa- 
tion of the shoulder, ligation of the carotid, and 
resection of the superior maxilla. 

Cyrus Hall McCormick, son of Robert McCormick, 
born February 15, 1809, in Rockbridge County, 
where on his father's farm for six years he experi- 



370 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

merited and perfected the reaper which revolution- 
ized agriculture throughout the world. Not only did 
it vastly increase the area of grain cultivation, but it 
was the stimulus of the phenomenal development of 
every manner of farm implement. It had a profound 
influence upon the fate of the Union; for William H. 
Seward attributed to it and not to the armies of the 
North the subjugation of the South. "The reaper 
is to the North what slavery is to the South," he said. 
" By taking the place of regiments of young men in 
the Western harvest fields, it releases them to do 
battle for the Union at the front, and at the same 
time keeps up the supply of bread for the nation's 
armies. Thus without McCormick's reaper, I fear 
the North could not win, and the Union would be 
dissolved." 

Matthew Fontaine Maury, born in Spotsylvania 
County, Virginia, January 14, 1806, son of Richard 
Maury and Diana Minor, his wife. He was educated 
at private schools and entered the navy. He sug- 
gested a system of reforms in the navy department, 
which adopted in 1842 introduced order where chaotic 
conditions formerly prevailed. As head of the Na- 
tional Observatory in Washington, he made a profound 
study of the varying depths, and the winds and cur- 
rents of the sea, and by his work " Sailing Directions, " 
and his "Physical Geography of the Sea and Its Meteor- 
ology, " which last work is said to have passed through 
more editions than any modern book of its kind, won 
for him the name of "Pathfinder of the Seas." He 
suggested all the principles of the modern weather 
bureau operations, instituted a system of deep-sea 
soundings, and showed that the bottom of the sea 
between Newfoundland and Ireland was a plateau 
admirably adapted for a telegraphic cable. He 
suggested to Cyrus W. Field, the character of the 
cable to be employed and how it should be laid. In 
generous recognition of this fact, Mr. Field said, "I 
am a man of few words: Maury furnished the brains; 



1015.] Virginia's Contribution to Science. 371 

England gave the money; and I did the work. 7 ' As 
chief of the water defences of the South under the 
Confederacy, he was the father of the torpedo and 
mining system now employed so generally in the 
European War. He was covered with honors and 
medals by all the European governments, was urged 
by the French government to take charge of their 
great Observatory at Paris, and invited to Russia 
by a personal letter from the grand Admiral Con- 
stantine. Instead of accepting, he preferred to live 
a plain Virginia citizen, having charge at his death, 
February 1, 1873, of the chair of meteorology at the 
Virginia Military Institute at Lexington, Virginia. 
By many he was regarded as the greatest of all 
American scientists. 

John L. Porter, 1 of Norfolk County, was born 
September 19, 1813, son of Joseph Porter, the pro- 
prietor of a ship building establishment at Ports- 
mouth, Virginia, the largest south of the Potomac- 
River. In 1846 he was appointed acting naval con- 
structor in the United States navy and superintended 
the construction of many ships. When Virginia 
seceded, he held a similar position under the Confed- 
erate Government, and later was promoted chief 
constructor. In 1846 when engaged in work for the 
United States government at Pittsburgh, Pennsyl- 
vania, he conceived the design of an iron v 
capable of going to sea, which would, nevertheless, 
be shot-proof. His plans and designs were submitted 
to the Navy Department and were not approved. 
This was ten years before England and France began 
thinking on the subject of ironclads, and so far as 
Mr. Porter was concerned was the result of his own 
ideas without assistance from anyone. In 1861 the 
possibility of the value of iron clads in war was gen- 
erally discussed, and Mr. Porter recurred to his 
scheme. He submitted the plans of 1846 slightly 



■ For a sketch of John L. Porter, ae« a History « Norfolk Co . V*., by JoLl 
Porter. 



372 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

modified to the Confederate government, accompanied 
with a model, and his ideas were applied to the 
Merrimac, a Federal warship, which had been burnt 
to the water's edge when the Gosport Navy Yard 
at Portsmouth was abandoned, in 1861, to the Con- 
federates. The subsequent career of this vessel thus 
cased in armor is known to history. In a battle with 
the Federal wooden battleships at Newport News on 
March 8, 1862, the Merrimac, or Virginia as she was 
now named, demonstrated in the most convincing 
manner the superiority of iron ships over wooden 
ones, no matter how gallantly manned and bravely 
fought. The battle was an epoch-making one, and 
revolutionized naval warfare throughout the world. 
It is a curious fact that in the use of the torpedo, 
mining and the sub-marine as instruments of war, in 
the development of trench warfare, in the employment 
of iron ships in battle, in the invention of the machine 
gun (by Gatling, a North Carolinian), and the choice 
of a uniform best adapted to service in the field, 
bluish gray, (generally adopted in the great European 
war) the old agricultural South led the nations of 
the world. 

John Mercer Brooke, son of General George Mercer 
Brooke, a distinguished officer of the old United 
States army, a member of an old Virginia family, 
was born December 18, 1826. He was associated with 
Maury at the Naval Observatory and aided him in 
his deep-sea sounding, and devised the deep-sea 
sounding apparatus, which was so useful when the 
submarine telegraph cable came to be laid. And in 
recognition of his service to science, he received from 
King William I. of Prussia, the gold science medal 
of the Academy of Berlin. In 1863 Captain Brooke 
was made chief of ordnance and hydrography under 
the Confederacy, and among the innovations intro- 
duced by him was the "air space" in artillery, which 
was soon generally accepted as one of the most im- 
portant improvements in ordnance. 



1915.] Virginia's Contribution to Science. 373 

Dr. Walter C. Reed, born in Gloucester County, in 
1846, and educated at the University of Virginia, 
from which he graduated as Doctor of Medicine in 
1868. As assistant surgeon in the United States 
army he studied the cause of yellow fever. In Feb- 
ruary, 1901, he read before the Pan-American Medi- 
cal Congress at Havana a paper in which he gave a 
modest and scientific history of the results achieved 
by himself and his colleagues, which established one 
of the most remarkable discoveries of modern sci- 
ences — that yellow fever is conveyed by the bite of 
a mosquito of a certain species. On his return to 
the United States he was received with enthusiasm 
by the Johns Hopkins Medical Association and other 
medical bodies, who realized the soundness of his 
conclusions and the importance of his discovery. 
Dr. Reed stood pre-eminent both as a man of science 
and a disinterested lover of humanity. Since the 
cause was made known, rendering prevention possible, 
the dread scourge of yellow fever has practically 
ceased. 

Probably I ought not to pass by Henry Draper, 
son of the eminent scientist Dr. John W. Draper, 
who was professor at Hampden Sidney College for 
three years. Of him it may be said that England 
gave parentage, Virginia birth, and New York train- 
ing and the field of action. He was the first to obtain 
a photograph of the fixed lines in the spectra of the 
stars, and the first to prove in this way the existence 
of oxygen in the sun — pronounced at the time the 
most brilliant discovery ever made by an American. 

With Draper, I finish this paper, though other 
names of closer identity with the State might be 
added, and I do not go into the field of the present 
day. Doubtless the resume' shows that there has 
been no lack of individual talent for science in Vir- 
ginia, and that nowhere has science excited more 
interest, but it is clear that there has been little com- 
munity support in its favor. Men born in Virginia 



374 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

have generally had to go elsewhere for preferment. 
The Philosophical Society established, in 1773, died 
with the Revolution and probably would have died 
shortly anyway. None succeeded it — at least none 
to count. The only societies that had a continuous 
existence were the political and agricultural societies. 
Country people cannot get together conveniently, 
and when they do it must be for merry making, for 
politics, or for private and public business. 

As a child, I saw the plantation life before the war, 
and was brought up with others who saw it more 
fully, and there was never anything equal to it for 
joy and happiness. The poorest white man had 
perfect independence, and even the slaves had a kind 
of independence which had to be coaxed to labor. 
But we missed in Virginia what we still miss, in spite 
of all changes that have ensued, that »which we see 
here to-day in this Society— the touch of mind with 
mind, the mingling of soul with soul, leading to great 
community results. If in Massachusetts personal 
independence has been less, community strength has 
been conspicuous from a very early period. 



1915.] Indian Myths of the Northwest. 375 



INDIAN MYTHS OF THE NORTHWEST. 

BY WILLIAM D. LYMAN. 



Since the publication of the book on the Columbia 
River by the writer, so many inquiries have come in 
asking for the original sources of Indian Myths that 
I am offering this attempt to answer in part these 
inquiries. 

To all persons of broad sympathies and of a range 
of thought beyond the narrow round of their personal 
business, the folk lore and fairy tales and religious 
myths and ceremonies of our native Indians must 
bring a sentiment of pathos and romantic interest. 
Generally, our dominant race has had little patience 
with the so-called inferior races, and has brushed them 
out of the way with ruthless disregard of either his- 
tory, poetry, or justice. Fortunately there have 
always been some among the conquerors who have 
had humanity and sympathy enough to turn aside 
from the general rush of " civilized men" in their 
scramble for land, minerals, timber, and other natural 
resources, and to try to draw from the submerged 
aborigines their conceptions of the unseen powers 
and their own origin and destiny, as well as the expla- 
nation of the nature and sources of the material uni- 
verse. 

Like all primitive men the Oregon Indians have an 
extensive mythology. With childlike interest in the 
stars and moon and sun and fire and water and forests, 
as well as plants and animal life and their own natures, 
they have sought out and passed on a wealth of legend 
and fancy which in its best features is worthy of a 
place with the exquisite creations of Norse and 



376 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Hellenic fancy, even with much of the crude and 
grotesque. 

Yet it is not easy to secure these legends just as the 
Indians tell them. In the first place, few of the early 
explorers knew how or cared to draw out the ideas of 
the first uncontaminated Indians. The early settlers 
generally had a stupid intolerance in dealing with 
Indians that made them shut right up like clams and 
withhold their stock of ideas. Later the missionaries 
generally inclined to give them the impression that 
their "heathen" legends and ideas were obstacles to 
their "salvation," and should be extirpated from 
their minds. Still further the few that did really get 
upon a sympathetic footing with them and draw out 
some of their myths, were likely to get them in frag- 
ments and piece them out with Bible stories or other 
civilized conceptions, and thus the native stories have 
become adulterated. 

It is difficult to get the Indians to talk freely, even 
with those whom they like and trust. Educated 
Indians seem to be ashamed of their native lore, and 
will generally avoid talking about it with Whites at 
all unless under exceptional conditions. Christian- 
ized Indians seem to consider the repetition of their 
old myths a relapse into heathenism, and hence will 
parry efforts to draw them out. In general, even 
when civilized, Indians are proud, reserved, suspicious, 
and on their guard. And with the primal Indians, 
few can make much headway. The investigator 
must start in indirectly, not manifesting any eager- 
ness, and simply suggest as if by accident some pe- 
culiar appearance or incident in sky or trees or water, 
and let the Indian move on in his own way to empty 
his own mind, never suspecting any effort by his 
listener to gather up and tell again his story. And 
even under the most favoring conditions, one may 
think he is getting along famously, when suddenly 
the Indian will pause, glance furtively at the listener, 



1915.] Indian Myths of the Northwest. 377 

give a moody chuckle, relapse into a stony and apa- 
thetic silence, — that is the end of the tale. 

Our stories have been derived mainly from the 
reports of those who have lived much among the 
Indians, and who have been able to embrace the rare 
occasions when, without self-consciousness or even 
much thought of outsiders, the Natives could speak 
out freely. There is usually no very close way of 
judging of the accuracy of observation or correctness 
of report of these investigators, except as their state- 
ments are corroborated by others. These stories 
sometimes conflict, different tribes having quite differ- 
ent versions of certain stories. Then again the 
Indians have a peculiar habit of "continued stories, " 
by which at the tepee fire one will take up some well 
known tale and add to it and so make a new story of 
it, or at least a new conclusion. As with the minstrels 
and minnesingers of feudal Europe at the tournaments, 
the best fellow is the one who tells the most thrilling 
tale. 

One confusing condition that often arises with 
Indian names and stories is that some Indians use a 
word generically and others use the same word 
specifically. For instance, the native name for 
Mount Adams, commonly given as "Pahtou, " and 
Mt. Rainier or Tacoma, better spelled "Takhoma" 
as sounded by the Indians, really mean any high 
mountain. A Wasco Indian once told me that his 
tribe called Mt. Hood, "Pahtou," meaning the "big 
mountain/ • but that the Indians on the other side of 
the Columbia River applied the same name to Adams. 
A very intelligent Puyallup Indian told me that the 
name of the "Great White Mountain'' was "Tak- 
homa," with accent and prolonged sound on the 
second syllable, but that any snow peak was the 
same, with the second syllable not so prolonged, 
according to height or distance of the peak. Mt. St. 
Helens was also "Takhoma," but with the "ho" 
not so prolonged. But among some other Indians 



378 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

we find Mt. St. Helens known as " Lawailaclough," 
and with some Mt. Hood is known as "Yetsl." 
Still other names are "Loowit" for St. Helens and 
"Wiyeast" for Hood. Adams seems to be known to 
some as " Klickitat.' ' "Kulshan" for Baker, mean- 
ing the "Great White Watcher," is one of the most 
attractive of Indian names and should be preserved. 
There is "Shuksan," or "The place of the Storm 
Wind," the only one of the Northwestern peaks which 
has preserved its Indian name. In reference to 
"Takhoma" a Puyallup woman told me once that 
among her people the name meant the "Breast that 
Feeds," or "The Breast of the Milk White Waters," 
referring to the glaciers or the white streams that issue 
from them. On the other hand, Winthrop, in 
"Canoe and Saddle," states that the Indians applied 
the name "Takhoma" to any high snow peak. Mr. 
Edwin Eells of Tacoma tells me that he derived from 
Rev. Father Hylebos of the same city, the statement 
that the name "Takhoma" was compounded of 
"Tah" and "Koma, " and that among certain Indians 
the word "Koma" meant any snow peak, while 
"Tah" is a superlative. Hence "Takhoma" means 
simply the great peak. 

We find something of the same inconsistencies in 
regard to the Indian names of rivers. Our maps 
abound with supposed Indian names of Rivers and 
yet an educated Nez Perce Indian named Luke, 
living at Kamiah, Idaho, told me that the Indians, 
at least of that region, had no names of rivers, but 
only of localities. He said that " Kooskooskie, " 
which Lewis and Clark understood to be the name of 
what we now call the Clearwater, was in reality a 
repetition of "Koos," their word for water, and they 
meant merely to say that it was a strong water. On 
the other hand we find many students of Indian lan- 
guages who have understood that there were names 
for the large rivers, even for the Columbia. In the 
beautiful little book by B. H. Barrows, published and 



1915.] Indian Myths of the Northwest. 379 

distributed by the Union Pacific Railroad Company, 
we find the name "Shocatilicum" or "Friendly 
Water" given as the Chinook name for the Columbia. 
It is interesting to notice that this same word for 
" friendly water " appears in Vol. ii, of the Lewis and 
Clark Journal, but with different spelling, in one 
place being "Shocatilcum" and in another place, 
" Chockalilum. " Reverend Father Blanchet is au- 
thority for the statement in Historical Magazine, 
11, 335, that the Chinook Indians used the name 
"Yakaitl Wimakl" for the Lower Columbia, and a 
Yakima Indian called William Charley, gives "Chew- 
anna" as still another Indian name for the Columbia. 

We have many supposed Indian names for God, as 
"Nekahni," or "Sahalie," but Miss Kate McBeth, 
long a missionary among the Nez Perces, tells me 
that those Indians had no native name for the deity. 
Of these Indian myths many deal with the chief God, 
as "Nekahni," "Sahalie," "Dokidatl/' "Snoqualm," 
or "Skomalt, " while others have to do with the lesser 
grade of the supernatural beings, as the Coyote god, 
variously named "Tallapus, " "Speelyi," or "Sincn- 
aleep." Others may treat of "Skallalatoots" (Fai- 
ries), "Toomuck" (Devils), or the various forms of 
"Tomanowas" (magic). A large number of these 
myths describe the supposed origin of strange fea- 
tures of the natural world, rocks, lakes, whirlpools, 
winds and waterfalls. Some describe the "animal 
people," "Watetash," as the Klickitats call them. 
Some of the best are fire-myths. 

And now in regard to the chief original sources 
and the most reliable investigators of these myths. 
This survey is necessarily incomplete. The endeavor 
is to name the students and writers of myths as far 
as possible. I have failed to secure reports from some, 
both whites and Indians, from whom I had hoped to 
obtain valuable matter. The hope is that this article 
will lead to other contributions and that it may be- 



380 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

come a nucleus for the gathering of such material as 
to render this subject less fragmentary than now. 

First in the natural order of the investigators and 
records of Indian myths come the early explorers and 
writers of old Oregon. Most of these give us little 
on the special subject of myths, though they give 
much on the habits, customs, occupations, and imple- 
ments of the natives. The earliest explorer in Oregon, 
so far as I know, to give any native legend is Gabriel 
Franchere, who came to Astoria with the Astor Fur 
Company in 1811. In his narrative, upon which 
Irving's " Astoria" is largely based, we find a fine story 
of the creation of men by Etalapass, and their sub- 
sequent improvement by Ecannum. Franchere says 
that this legend was related to him by Ellewa, one of 
the sons of Concomly, the one-eyed Chinook chief, 
who figures conspicuously in Franchere's narrative. 
Of valuable books of the same period of Franchere, 
are Ross Cox's " Adventures, " and Alexander Ross's 
" Adventures on the Columbia," both of which con- 
tain valuable references to the customs and super- 
stitious ideas of the natives, though not much in the 
way of myths. Ross gives an interesting myth of the 
Oakinackens ("Okanogans, " as we now say) about 
the origin of the Indians or Skyloo on the white man's 
island, Samahtumawhoolah. The Indians were then 
very white and ruled by a female spirit, or Great 
Mother, named "Skomalt," but their island got loose 
and drifted on the ocean for many suns, and as a 
result they became darkened to their present hue. 
Ross gives also an account of the belief of the Oak- 
inackens in a good spirit, one of whose names is 
"Skyappe, " and a bad spirit, one of whose names was 
"Chacha. " The chief deity of those Indians seems 
to have been the great mother of life, "Skomalt," 
whose name also has the addition of "Squisses. " 
Ross says that those Indians change their names 
constantly and doubtless their deities did the same. 



1915.] Indian Myths of the Northwest. 381 

Of valuable books a few years later than those just 
named, one especially deserving of mention is Dr. 
Samuel Parker's "Exploring Tour to Oregon," the 
result of observations made in 1835 and 1836. This, 
however, contains little in the way of mythology. 
Captain Charles Wilkes, the American explorer of 
the early forties, gives a very interesting account of 
a Palouse myth of a beaver which was cut up to make 
the tribes. This is evidently another version of the 
Klickitat story of the great beaver, " Wishpoosh, " 
of Lake Cleelum. One of the most important of the 
early histories of Oregon is Dunn's, the materials for 
which were gathered in the decade of the forties. 
With other valuable matter it contains accounts of 
the religious conceptions of the Indians, and here we 
find the legend of the Thunder Bird of the Tinneh, a 
northern tribe. In this same general period, though 
a little later, we find the most brilliant of all writers 
dealing with early Oregon; that is, the gifted scholar, 
poet and soldier, Theodore Winthrop. His book, 
"Canoe and Saddle," has no rival for literary excel- 
lence and graphic power of all the books which have 
dealt with the Northwest. The book was first pub- 
lished in 1862, and republished fifty years later in 
beautiful form by John H. Williams of Tacoma. 
"Canoe and Saddle" commemorates a journey from 
Puget Sound across the mountains and through the 
Yakima and Klickitat countries in 1854. It contains 
several fine Indian stories, notably that of the Miser 
of Mt. Tacoma, and that of the Devil of the Dalles. 
Winthrop does not state from whom directly he 
secured the second of these myths, but no doubt from 
the Indians themselves, although the peculiar rich 
imagination and picturesque language of Winthrop 
are in evidence throughout the narration. The tale 
of the Miser of Mt. Tacoma is attributed by Winthrop 
to Hamitchou, an Indian of the Squallygamish tribe. 

At about the same time as Winthrop, occurred the 
visit and investigations of James G. Swan, whose 



382 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

book, "The Northwest Coast," was published in 
1857. In this is found the creation myth of the 
Ogress of Saddle Mountain, relating the issuing forth 
of Indians from eggs cast down the mountain side by 
the Ogress. Many years ago Rev. Myron Eells told 
the writer a variation of that story, which has ap- 
peared in sundry forms and publications, being the 
story of Toulux the South Wind, Quootshoi, the witch, 
and Skamson, the Thunder Bird. In addition to the 
legend of the Thunder Bird, Swan gives many items 
of peculiar interest. Among these we find his idea 
that certain customs of the Indians ally them with the 
Ten Lost Tribes of Israel. His final impression seems to 
be, however, that they are autochthonous in America. 
He refers to the observation of Gen. George Gibbs of 
the similarity of Klickitat myths to those in Long- 
fellow's "Hiawatha." He also refers to the beeswax 
ship of the Nahalem. In connection with the thought 
of Indian resemblance to the Ten Lost Tribes, it is 
worth noticing that this has come from various 
directions. Miss Kate McBeth has expressed the 
same in connection with the Nez Perces. It was also 
a favorite idea with B. B. Bishop, one of the earliest 
builders of steamboats on the Columbia, who lived 
many years at Pendleton. He told the writer that 
the Indians at the Cascades had a spring festival with 
the first run of salmon. They would boil whole the 
first large salmon caught, and have a ceremony in 
which the whole tribe would pass in procession around 
the fish, each taking a bit. They exercised the utmost 
care to leave the skeleton intact, so that at the end 
it had been picked clean but with not a bone broken. 
Mr. Bishop thought that this was a survival of the 
Jewish idea of the Paschal Lamb. 

Among the great collectors of all kinds of historical 
data in what might be called the middle period of 
Northwest history and not exactly belonging to any 
one of the specific groups is H. H. Bancroft. In his 
"Native Races" are found many myths, with refer- 



1915.] Indian Myths of the Northwest. 383 

ences given, but these mainly deal with Mexican, 
Central American, and Californian Indians. He 
refers to Holmburg's ethnological studies in German 
as containing valuable matter in regard to our North- 
western Indians. Harmon's Journal, with its refer- 
ence to the Tacullies of British Columbia and their 
legend of the Musk Rat, is also named. In the same 
connection, we find reference to Yehl the Raven, an 
especial favorite of the Indians of British Columbia 
and the upper part of Puget Sound. 

From what may be termed the first group of nar- 
rators of native tales, we may turn to those that may 
be called the scientific ethnologists. I am indebted 
to Dr. Franz Boas, himself the foremost of the group, 
for the list of these professional students of the sub- 
ject. These men took up the matter in a more scien- 
tific and methodical way than the travellers and 
pioneers and have presented the results of their work 
in form that appeals to the scholar, the work of trained 
investigators, seeking the facts and giving them as 
exactly as possible, not affected by the distortions 
and exaggerations common to unscientific observers. 
They were all connected with the Smithsonian Insti- 
tute, and their work was mainly under the Govern- 
ment. The bibliography, as given me by Dr. Boas, 
is as follows: 

Edward Sapir, Wishram Texts (publications of the American Ethno- 
logical Society, Vol. II). 

Leo J. Frachtenberg, Coos Texts (Columbia University contributions 
to Anthropology, Vol. I). 

Leo J. Frachtenberg, Lower Umpqua Texts (Ibid., Vol. IV). 

James Teit, Traditions of the Thompson Indians (Memoirs of the 
American Folk Lore Society, Vol. V. This is not Washington, but 
practically identical with material from the interior of Washington). 

James Teit, Mythology of the Thompson Indians (Jesup North Pacific 
Expedition Publications, Vol. VIII). 

James Teit, The Shuswap (Ibid. Vol. II). 

Franz Boas, Indianische Sagen von der Nord-Pacinschen Kiiste Ameri- 
kas. 

Franz Boas, Mythology of the Indians of Washington, and Oregon 
(Globus, Vol. LXIII, pp. 154-157, 172-175, 190-193). 



384 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

H. J. Spinden, Myths of the Noz Perce (Journal of American Folk Lore, 

VoL XXI). 
Louisa McDermott, Myths of the Flathead Indians (Ibid. Vol. XIV). 
Franz Boas, Sagen der Kootenay (Berlin Society for Anthropology, 

Ethnology, etc., Vol. XXIII, pp. 161-172). 
Livingston Farrand, Traditions of the Quinault Indians (Publications 

of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition, Vol. II). 
Franz Boas, Chinook Text (Bureau of Ethnology, Gov't Printing Office, 

1894). 
Franz Boas, Cathlamet Texts (Ibid). 
James Teit, Traditions of the Lilloost Indians (Journal of American 

Folk Lore, Vol. XXV). 
Jeremiah Curtin, Myths of the Modocs (Little, Brown & Co.). 

To these may be added, as of special value, the 
studies of Prof. Albert S. Gatschet among the Modocs, 
found under the title, "Oregonian Folk-Lore," in the 
Journal of American Folk-Lore, Vol. IV, 1891, Hough- 
ton, Mifflin & Co. The other volumes of the Journal 
of American Folk-Lore from 1888 to 1913 contain 
valuable matter. 

Dr. Boas found a treasury of information in an old 
Indian named Charlie Cultee at Bay Center in Willapa 
Harbor, Washington, and from that source derived 
the material for the most scientific and uncolored 
study of Indian lore yet given to the public. These 
appear in the Chinook Texts of Dr. Boas. In this 
is a fine story of the first ship seen by the Clatsops. 
This is found also in H. S. Lyman's History of Oregon. 
In Professor Gatschett's book are found some of the 
finest fire myths and fish myths of the Northwest. 

Following the groups of the explorers and the pro- 
fessional ethnologists, may come the larger body of 
miscellaneous collectors and writers, who, through 
local papers and magazines and published books, as 
well as personal narration, have rescued many quaint 
and curious gems of Indian mythology from oblivion 
and through various channels have imparted them 
to the slowly accumulating stock. 

Those no longer living may properly appear first. 
I am mentioning here only those whom I know directly 
to have been students of the subject and to have de- 



191 5. J Indian Myths of the Northwest. 385 

rived matter directly from the Indians and given it 
in some available form to the world. Of course there 
were many others who spun Indian "yarns/' in the 
way of transient entertainment, some of whom I knew 
as a boy in Old Oregon. Well do I remember listen- 
ing with bated breath to Jo Meek or J. S. Griffin or 
Dr. Geiger or Father Eelis tell tales of the wars and 
adventures of the old times, but I do not recall any 
regular myths from these men. No doubt, too, many 
readers of this article will be able to refer to investi- 
gators whom I do not mention but who deserve a 
place in such a list. 

Of comparatively recent students no longer living, 
Silas Smith of Astoria was one of the best. His 
father was Solomon Smith of the Wyeth Expedition, 
while his mother was Celiast, daughter of the Clatsop 
chief Cobaiway. Through his Indian mother Mr. 
Smith obtained much interesting matter, much of 
which was preserved by H. S. Lyman in his history of 
Oregon, and in articles in the Oregonian, Historical 
Quarterly, and other publications. II. S. Lyman was 
also an original investigator, deriving his data mainly 
from Silas Smith and from a group of Indians who 
formerly lived at the mouth of the Nekanicum. 
These stories appear in his history of Oregon and in a 
group contained in the "Tallapus Stories" published 
in the Oregonian. Another intelligent and patient 
investigator was Rev. Myron Eells who lived for 
many years on Hood's Canal. Many years ago I 
heard from him legends from the Indians which he 
derived directly from the natives, such as the Thunder 
Bird, the Flood around Mt. Tacoma (which he 
thought colored by the story of Noah in the Bible), 
and others. In the book by Mr. Eells entitled "Ten 
Years Missionary Work in Skokomish" he gives a 
valuable description of the Tomanowas. In various 
numbers of the American Antiquarian, Mr. Eells 
has valuable articles as follows:— " The Religion of 
the Twana Indians/' July, 1879; "Dokidatl, or the 



386 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

God of the Puget Sound Indians/' November, 1884; 
"The Indians of Puget Sound, " May, 1888 and March 
1890. 

Prominent among the scholars and lecturers of 
Oregon is the great name of Thomas Condon, for a 
long time in the state university, and the earliest 
student in a large way of the geology of the North- 
west. He was interested in Indian myths as in almost 
everything that had to do with man and nature. 
The legend of the Bridge of the Gods, particularly 
appealed to him. I heard him tell that story almost 
as long ago as I can remember, though apparently 
others had discovered it earlier. One of the notable 
students of both the geology and anthropology of 
the Northwest was George Gibbs, who came to Ore- 
gon as a government geologist in 1853. In his report 
on the Pacific Railroad in House of Representatives 
Documents of 1853-4, he gives the first published 
version, so far as I can discover, of the Bridge of the 
Gods. He tells the story thus: "The Indians tell 
a characteristic tale of Mt. Hood and Mt. St. Helens 
to the effect that they were man and wife; that they 
finally quarreled and threw fire at one another, and 
that St. Helens was victor; since when Mt. Hood 
has been afraid, while St. Helens, having a stout 
heart, still burned. In some versions this story is 
connected with the slide which formed the Cascades 
of the Columbia. " Mr. Gibbs also gives some 
Yakima legends. 

One of the most distinguished of all the literary 
pioneers of Old Oregon was Samuel A. Clark. In 
his "Pioneer Days in Oregon' ' are several interesting 
legends well told. In this we find the legend of the 
Nahalem, with Ona and Sandy and all their tribula- 
tions. We find here told also the story of the Bridge 
of the Gods, in which Hood and Adams are repre- 
sented as the contending forces, having been origi- 
nally the abutments of the Bridge of the Gods. But 
the most noted contribution of Mr. Clark to this 



191 5. J Indian Myths of the Northwest. 387 

legend was his poem called "The Legend of the 
Mountains," referring to the fabled Bridge, which 
appeared in Harper's Magazine of February, 1874. 
This represents Mt. St. Helens as a goddess for whom 
Hood and Adams contended, hurling huge stones at 
each other and finally breaking down the bridge. 
The story of the Bridge became the most noted of all 
native myths, being related to practically every trav- 
eller that made the steamboat trip down the Colum- 
bia. It was used by Frederick H. Balch, a gifted 
young man who died at an early age, but who gave 
such promise of literary ability, that we well may 
believe that with maturity he would have been one of 
the foremost writers of the Pacific Coast. His vivid 
and dramatic story, "The Bridge of the Gods," is 
generally recognized as the best story yet written in 
the Northwest. Of another version of the bridge 
myth we shall have occasion to speak later in con- 
nection with the original work of Fred A. Saylor, one 
of the leading students of this subject. Before leav- 
ing those who have passed on we will mention Joaquin 
Miller, in whose book, "My Life among the Modocs" 
is found the legend of Mt. Shasta. 

Let us now turn to those discoverers and writers 
of Indian myths who are still living. The majority 
of these are from the nature of the case adaptors and 
transcribers, . rather than original students. But 
some among thern are entitled to the place of genuine 
investigators. Among these a foremost place must 
be accorded to Fred A. Saylor of Portland. He was 
for several years editor of the Oregon Native Son, and 
for it he wrote a number of stories which he derived 
directly from the Indians. A student of these stories 
from boyhood he has accumulated the largest collec- 
tion of matter both published and unpublished of any 
one in the Northwest. This collection is preserved 
by him in fourteen large scrap books, and constitutes 
a treasury of valuable data which it is to be hoped 
may soon appear in a published form for the delight 



388 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

and profit of many readers. Aside from the legends 
published in the Native Son, legends written by Mr. 
Saylor may be found in the Oregonian, Oregon 
Journal, Pacific Monthly, and Western Lady, as well 
as in the publication appearing at the time of the 
Lewis and Clark Fair entitled " Portland— 1905, 
What to see and How to see it." Among the legends 
of which Mr. Saylor is entitled to be regarded as the 
discoverer, are these: The Legend of Tahoma; 
Why the Indian fears Golden Hair, or the Origin of 
Castle Rock; Speelyi, or the Origin of Lataurelle 
Falls and the Pillars of Hercules; Thorns on Rose- 
bushes; The Noah of the Indians; The Strange Story 
of a Double Shadow; The Legend of Snake River 
Valley; A Wappatoo Account of the Flood; The Last 
Signal Fire of the Multnomah; The Legend of the 
Willamette; The Love of an Indian Maid; Enumpth- 
la; Coyote's Tomb; Multnomah. The last named 
has been presented by students on the campus of the 
State University and also at the Agricultural College 
of Oregon. To Mr. Saylor also must be attributed 
the preservation and original version of the splendid 
story of the Tomanowas Bridge and the three moun- 
tains, Wiyeast (Hood), Klickitat (Adams),. Lowitt 
(St. Helens). This is a variant of the Bridge of the 
Gods, really a finer story, and was derived by Mr. 
Saylor from a Klickitat Indian, Wyanoshot by name, 
known as McKay by the Whites in early times 
throughout Yamhill and Washington Counties. This 
version was abundantly verified by Mr. Saylor by 
repeated inquiries among other Indians. To my 
notion this is the finest of all Indian legends, and is 
the source of the story as narrated in my "Columbia 
River." This version of Mr. Saylor appeared first 
in the Oregon Native Son for January, 1900. With 
it are given also the various other versions with their 
respective authors, making this number of the Native 
Son one of peculiar value. 



1915.] Indian Myths of the Northwest. 389 

I am indebted to Mr. Saylor for some valuable data 
on writers of whom I did not have exact knowledge. 
Among these may be named the following: Legends 
of the Nisqualie Indians, by James Wickersham; 
Legend of Crater Lake, by Mark B. Kerr, in the Ore- 
gon Native Son of July, 1899; Myths of the Chehalis, 
by Robert J. Jackson; Myths of the Makahs, by James 
T. Markistan, the last two of these writers being 
native Indians of the tribes of which they write; 
Legends of Elephant Rock, by R. A. Watson, in the 
Oregonian of August, 1904; Legend of Coulee's Pillar, 
which as published is fiction, but the genuine account 
of which is preserved by Mr. Saylor in an unpublished 
form; Legend of Chintimini (Mary's Peak) in both 
prose and poetry by J. B. Horner in the Oregon Native 
Son of June, 1900; Legend of Mt. Hood in verse by 
Col. F. V. Drake partly published in the Oregon 
Native Son of June, 1909; Legend of Dead Indian 
Lake, by J. T. Forest in the Northwest Journal of 
the early nineties; Legend of Kaniskee, by J. N. 
Hibbs; The Loves of the Mountains, by Mrs. De Etta 
Cogswell; The Monarch of the Mountains, by C. W< 
Pefley; Battle of the Titans, by Rufus C. Rorapacker; 
Legend of Canawitz, by H. D. Chapman, in the 
Oregon Native Son, 1900; The Death Song of Itsayaya 
(Coyote), by C. E. S. Wood. It may be added in 
connection with the legend of Mr. Wood that he is 
the author of several Nez Perce Legends which were 
printed by his son for personal distribution and have 
not reached the general public. To Mr. Fred Lock- 
ley of the Pacific Monthly and Oregon Journal, well 
known throughout the Northwest as an entertaining 
and valuable writer, should be attributed the story of 
Whistling Quail in the Pacific Monthly of May, 1899. 

Of investigators known more directly and inti- 
mately by the author none seems more worthy of 
extended and favorable mention than Dr. G. B. 
Kuykendall of Pomeroy, Washington. He was for 
a number of years the physician for the Yakima 



390 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Reservation at Fort Simcoe. He began his work of 
collecting in 1875, deriving his knowledge directly 
from the Indians. He tells me that his authorities 
were almost entirely old Indians, for from such only 
could he secure narrations of unadulterated charac- 
ter. His first published writings were in the West 
Shore of Portland in 1887. His most mature contri- 
bution, which may indeed be considered the best yet 
given to the public, is found in Vol. II of the "History 
of the Pacific Northwest/' published by the North 
Pacific History Co. of Portland in 1889. This is an 
admirable piece of work, and students of the sub- 
ject will find here a treasure of Native lore. The 
following is the list of stories given by Dr. Kuykendall 
in this volume: Wishpoosh the Beaver God and the 
Origin of the Tribes; Speelyi fights Enumtla; Speelyi 
outwits the Beaver Women; Rock Myths; Legend of 
the Tick; Mountain Lake Myths; The Origin of Fire; 
Water Nymphs; Wawa the Mosquito God; Origin of 
the Loon; Castiltah, the Crayfish; Wakapoosh, the 
Rattle Snake; The Tumwater Luminous Stone God; 
The Wooden Firemen of the Cascades; Contest be- 
tween the Chinooks and Cold Wind Brothers; Speel- 
yi's Ascent to Heaven; Coyote and Eagle attempt to 
bring the Dead back from Spirit Land ; The Isle of the 
Dead. Dr. Kuykendall gives also an account of the 
dances, laws, medicine, marriage, spiritualism, naming 
of children, mourning customs and burial ceremonies 
of the Indians, and tells their idea of the soul and of a 
future state. 

Another original investigator and the author of the 
most unique and picturesque book devoted exclu- 
sively to Indian myths of which I know is W. S. Phil- 
lips of Seattle, well known by his nom de plume of 
"El Oopiaacho." The book by Mr. Phillips is "To- 
tem Tales." In a recent letter Mr. Phillips tells me 
that he gathered the matter for "Totem Tales" from 
the Puget Sound Indians and from Haida Indians 
who had come south. This work was mainly done 



1915.] Indian Myths of the Northwest. 391 

about twenty-five years ago. He verified much of 
his matter by comparing with Judge Swan, and by 
the stories acquired by Dr. Shaw, who was at one time 
Indian Agent at Port Madison, and whose wife was 
one of the daughters of old Chief Sealth (Seattle). 
He derived matter for comparison also from Rev. 
Myron Eells. The chief Indian authority of Mr. 
Phillips was old Chisiahka (Indian John to the 
Whites), and it was a big tree on the shore of Lake 
Union that suggested the idea of the " Talking Pine" 
which the author wove so picturesquely into the 
narrative. A year ago Mr. Phillips published his 
Chinook Book, the most extensive study of the jargon 
language yet made. He has also just got out a most 
attractive book entitled "Indian Tales for Little 
Folk." 

Another present day investigator, whose work is 
especially worthy of mention is Rev. J. Neilson Barry 
of Baker, Oregon, an enthusiastic and intelligent 
student of every phase of the history of the North- 
west. In Chap. Ill of Vol. I of Gaston's "Centen- 
nial History of Oregon," Mr. Barry gives a valuable 
contribution to Indian legends. 

Yet another original student is Miss Kate McBeth 
of Lapwai, Idaho, who with her sister lived for years 
among the Nez Perces performing a most beneficient 
missionary work for them. In her book, "The Nez 
Perces since Lewis and Clark," may be found the 
Kamiah myth, and a few others derived directly from 
those Indians. I learned from Mr. John J. Guyer, 
school inspector at the Kamiah Indian Agency, that 
an Indian named James Stuart of Kooskia, Idaho, is 
an authority on Nez Perce lore, but I have not been 
able to derive matter directly from him. Mention 
may well be made here also of a Nez Perce Indian 
named Luke, living at Kamiah, who has a very intelli- 
gent knowledge of all kinds of Indian matters. Miss 
McBeth tells me that the Nez Perces do not like to 
discuss generally their "heathen " stories and customs. 



392 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

In connection with the Nez Perces it may be stated 
that Yellow Wolf of Nespilem Washington is an 
authority on the Myth of the Kamiah Monster. 

Still another enthusiastic student of Indian Leg- 
ends is Lucullus V. McWhorter of North Yakima. 
He is an adopted member of the Yakima tribe, and 
has been of incalculable benefit to the Indians in 
instructing them as to their rights, in presenting their 
cause to the Government, and in making known their 
needs as well as some of their wrongs to the general 
public through voice and pen. He has made a 
specialty in recent years of organizing the Indians 
and taking them to "Round Ups" and "Frontier 
Days." A recent pamphlet by him on the treatment 
of the Yakimas in connection with their water rights 
is an "eye opener" on some phases of Indian service 
and Indian problems. Mr. McWhorter has gathered 
a large amount of matter from the Indians, in which 
is material for three books: Traditions of the 
Yakimas; Hero Stories of the Yakimas; Nez Perce 
Warriors in the War of 1877. Among the proteges of 
Mr. McWhorter from whom he tells me much of 
interest could be derived, are Chief Yellow Wolf of 
the Joseph band of Nez Perces, and Humishuma 
or Morning Dove, an Okanogan woman of unusual 
beauty and intelligence and well instructed in the 
English language. It may be stated that Morning 
Dove will soon publish an Indian romance, entitled 
"Cogeawea." 

There are a number of valuable magazine articles 
of whose authors I have no extended knowledge. 
Among these is one by James Deans in the March 
and September numbers of the American Antiquarian 
under the title, "The Raven in the Mythology of 
Northwest America." 

Any reference to any phase of Oregon would be 
incomplete without mention of John Minto, one of 
the most honored of pioneers, one of the noblest of 
men, and one of the best examples of those ambitious, 



1915.] Indian Myths of the Northwest. 393 

industrious, and high minded State builders who gave 
the Northwest its loftiest ideals. Mr. Minto was a 
student of the Indians and discovered and gave to 
the world various Clatsop and Nehalem legends. 
Hon. E. L. Smith of Hood River, well known as an 
official and legislator of both Oregon and Washington, 
and a man of such character that all who ever knew 
him have the highest honor for him in every relation 
of life, has made a life long study of the natives and 
has a great collection of myths both in mind and on 
paper. He is one of the most sympathetic, tolerant, 
and appreciative of investigators, one whom the 
Indians of the mid-Columbia trust implicity. He 
has written little for publication in comparison with 
what he knows, and it is to be hoped that his stores 
of material may be brought within reach before long. 
One of the prominent pioneers of Yakima, Hon. A. J. 
Splawn, now Mayor of that city, has in preparation a 
volume on the early days of the Yakima Valley, in 
which, as I understand, he will include matter upon 
the Indians and their myths. This book will be 
awaited with interest. Worthy of mention as a gen- 
eral student of the geography and language of the 
Indians is Mr. John Gill of Portland. While he has 
not made a specialty of myths, he has studied the 
habits and language with special attention, and his 
dictionary of the Chinook jargon is one of the most 
valuable collections of the kind. 

It is proper to mention here several people whom I 
know to be well versed in native lore, yet who have 
not, so far as I know, given their knowledge of legends 
or myths to the public in book or magazine form. 
The most conspicuous, indeed, of this group is no 
longer living. This was Dr. William C. McKay, a 
grandson of the McKay of the Astor Fur Co. who lost 
his life on the Tonquin. The mother of Dr. McKay 
was a Chinook " princess." He was a man of great 
ability and acquired a fine education. He lived for 
years in Pendleton, Oregon, where he died a number 



394 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

of years ago. In the possession of his children and 
grandchildren there is undoubtedly valuable material 
and if it could be reduced to written form it would 
furnish matter of great interest. Among living stu- 
dents of Indians from whom much matter of interest 
could no doubt be secured, may be named Thomas 
Beall of Lewiston, Louis McMorris of Walla Walla, 
W. P. Winans of Walla Walla, Mrs. Lulu Donnell 
Crandell of the Dalles, Major R. D. Gwydir of Spo- 
kane, Mr. Claire Hunt of Colville, Wash., Mrs. Eliza 
Spalding Warren of Walla Walla, Wash., C. H.Walker 
of Albany, Oregon, Edwin Eells of Tacoma, Rev, Father 
Hylebos of Tacoma, Ezra Meeker of Seattle, George 
H. Himes of Portland, and Mrs. Nancy 0. Jacobs of 
Portland. Of course this list could be indefinitely 
extended. Certain Indians, in addition to others 
mentioned earlier in this article, may be properly 
named here who could give material for interesting 
narrations. Among these are Henry Sicade and 
William Wilton, living on the Puyallup Reservation 
near Tacoma, Nugent Kautz and Augustus Kautz 
and Jerry Meeker of Tacoma, Samuel McCaw of 
Yakima, Wash., and Charlie Pitt of the Warm 
Springs Agency in Oregon. 

In conclusion it is fitting that mention be made of 
a considerable number of authors who while they do 
not claim to be original investigators, have incor- 
porated into other writings or have gathered up from 
the investigators and presented in attractive form the 
results of the studies of the original students. Con- 
spicuous among these present day authors we find 
Mr. John H. Williams of Tacoma, whose superb 
books, "The Mountain that was God/' and "The 
Guardians of the Columbia," rank at the head of all 
books of the Northwest for beauty of illustration and 
description. In these Mr. Williams has artistically 
interwoven some of the original native tales. His 
reprint of Winthrop's "Canoe and Saddle," deserves 
renewed mention here. Those who have been de- 



1915.] Indian Myths of the Northwest. 395 

lighted with his earlier books will be pleased to know 
that he will soon publish a companion volume on 
Puget Sound. Properly mentioned here is the book 
by Miss Katherine Judson of Seattle, "Myths and 
Legends of the Pacific Northwest, " which may be 
regarded as the best arranged short collection of this 
specific topic yet given. 

I am aware that this summary is necessarily incom- 
plete. One of my hopes in offering it to the public 
is that it may lead to added contributions. As we 
contemplate the beauty and grandeur of our dear Old 
Oregon and the pathos, heroism, and nobility of its 
history, and as we see the pitiful remnant of the Indi- 
ans, we cannot fail to be touched with the quaint, 
the pathetic, and the suggestive myths and legends 
that are passing with them into the twilight. In our 
proud days of possession and of progress we do well 
to pause and drop the tear of sympathy and place the 
chaplet of commemoration upon the resting place of 
the former lords of the land, and to recognize their 
contributions to the common stock of human thought. 



396 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 
AMERICAN NEWSPAPERS, 1690-1820. 

Part IV: MASSACHUSETTS (except boston) 

COMPILED BY CLARENCE S. BRIGHAM 

The following bibliography attempts, first, to present a 
historical sketch of every newspaper printed in the United 
States from 1690 to 1820; secondly, to locate all files found 
in the various libraries of the country; and thirdly, to give 
a complete check list of the issues in the library of the 
American Antiquarian Society. 

The historical sketch of each paper gives the title, the date 
of establishment, the name of the editor or publisher, the fre- 
quency of issue and the date of discontinuance. It also 
attempts to give the exact date of issue when a change in title 
or name of publisher or frequency of publication occurs. 

In locating the files to be found in various libraries, no at- 
tempt is made to list every issue. In the case of common news- 
papers which are to be found in many libraries, only the longer 
files are noted, with a description of their completeness. Ran? 
newspapers, which are known by only a few scattered issues, 
are minutely listed. 

The check list of the issues in the library of the American 
Antiquarian Society follows the style of the Library of Con- 
gress " Check List of Eighteenth Century Newspapers," and 
records all supplements, missing issues and mutilations. 

The arrangement is alphabetical by states and towns. 
Towns are placed according to their present State location. 
For convenience of alphabetization, the initial "The" in the 
titles of papers is disregarded. Papers are considered to be of 
folio size, unless otherwise stated. There are no abbreviations, 



1915.) Bibliography of American Newspapers. 897 

except in the names of the libraries where files are located, and 
these should be easily understood. A superior italic u rn" is 
used in the listing of the Society's files to signify mutilated 
copy. The bibliography includes only newspapers, and does 
not list magazines; the distinction has sometimes been difficult 
to draw, but the test has generally been the inclusion of current 
news. Neither in the historical sketches nor in the listing of 
files is any account taken of the existence of the paper after 
1820. 

All files, except in a few instances, have been personally 
examined by the compiler of this list, and the facts stated have 
been drawn from an inspection of the papers themselves and 
not based on secondary authorities. 

The bibliography will be published in the Proceedings in 
about eight installments, after which the material will be gath- 
ered into a volume, with a historical introduction, acknowl- 
edgment of assistance rendered, and a comprehensive index 
of titles and names of printers. Reprints of each installment 
will net be made, nor will the names of papers or printers be 
indexed in the Proceedings. Since the material will all be held 
in type until after the printing of the final installment, the 
compiler will welcome additions and corrections. 



398 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 



MASSACHUSETTS 

IBrookfield] Moral and Political Telegraphe, 1795-1796. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of number- 
ing, of the " Worcester County Intelligencer." The 
new title was "The Moral and Political Telegraphe; Or, 
Brookfield Advertiser" and the first issue was on May 6, 

1795, vol. 1, no. 31, published by Elisha H. Waldo. The 
paper was discontinued with the issue of Aug. 17, 1796, 
vol. 2, no. 98. 

Boston Pub. Lib. has May 6 -Sept. 30, Nov. 4, 18, 
Dec. 30, 1795; Apr. 27 -May 11, 25, June 22, 29, July 27, 

1796. Harvard has July 22, Aug. 12, Sept. 9, Dec. 30, 
1795. Essex Inst, has July 29, 1795; Apr. 13, 27, 1796. 
A. A. S. has: 

1795. May 6 to Dec. 30. 

1796. Jan 6 to Aug. 17. 

Missing: Apr. 6. 

[Brookfield] Political Repository, 1798-1802. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 14, 1798, by Ebenezer 
Merriam & Co., with the title of "The Political Reposi- 
tory: Or, Farmer's Journal." Discontinued with the 
issue of May 4, 1802, vol. 4, no. 195. 

Boston Pub. Lib. has Mar. 5 -Dec. 24, 1799. Har- 
vard has Aug. 28, Oct. 9, Nov. 6, 1798; Jan. 29, Feb. 12, 
Apr. 16, July 23, 30, 1799; Jan. 21, May 20, 1800; Feb. 3, 
1801 -Apr. 27, 1802. Boston Athenaeum has 1799-1802, 
scattering issues (not found, 1916). Mass. Hist. Soc. has 
July 9, 1799. Ct. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 31, 1799. N. Y. 
State Lib. has Feb. 5, 1799; Oct. 21, Nov. 18- Dec. 23, 
1800; 1801, incomplete; Jan. 12, 19, 1802. N. Y. Pub. 
Lib. has Mar. 4, Apr. 15, 22, 1800. Long Id. Hist. Soc. 
has May 19, 1801. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Sept. 2, 1800; 
Feb. 2, 1802. Lib. Cong, has Nov. 5, 1799; Dec. 23, 
1800, extra. A. A. S. has: . 

1798. Aug. 14 to Dec. 25. 

1799. Jan. 1 to Dec. 81. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 399 

1800. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 
Extraordinary: Jan. 28. 
Extra: Dec. 23. 

Missing: Dec. 30. 

1801. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 

Missing: Jan. 6, Aug. 11. 

1802. Jan. 5 to May 4. 

[Brookfield] Worcester County Intelligencer, see Worcester 
Intelligencer. 

[Brookfield] Worcester Intelligencer, 1794-1795. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 7, 1794, by Isaiah Thomas 
and Elisha H. Waldo, with the title of "The Worcester 
Intelligencer: Or, Brookfield Advertiser." With the 
issue of Jan. G, 1795, the title was altered to "The Wor- 
cester County Intelligencer: Or, Brookfield Advertiser." 
The last issue with this title was that of Apr. 28, 1795, 
vol. 1, no. 30, after which the title was changed to "Moral 
and Political Telegraphe," which see. With this issue 
of Apr. 28, 1795, Thomas withdrew from the firm. 

Boston Pub. Lib. has Oct. 7, 1794-Apr. 28, 1795. 
Harvard has Feb. 24-Mar. 17, Apr. 21, 1795. A. A. S. 
has : 

1794. Oct. 7 to Dec. 30. 

1795. Jan. 6 to Apr. 28. 

(Cambridge] New England Chronicle, 1775-1776. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of volume 
numbering, of the "Essex Gazette," published at Salem. 
The last issue of the "Essex Gazette" was that of May 2, 
1775, vol. 7, no. 353, and the first issue of "The New- 
England Chronicle: or, the Essex Gazette" was that of 
May 12, 1775, vol. 7, no. 354, published by Samuel and 
v< Ebenezer Hall. Ebenezer Hall died Feb. 14, 1776, and 
with the issue of Feb. 22, 1776, the paper was published 
by Samuel Hall, although his name did not appear in the 
imprint until the issue of Feb. 29. The last Cambridge 
issue was that of Apr. 4, 1776, vol. 8, no. 400, after which 
the paper was removed to Boston. 



400 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Mass. Hist. Soc, N. E. Hist. Gen. Soc, Boston Athen- 
aeum, Boston Pub. Lib., Essex Inst., N. Y. Pub. Lib. 
and Wis. Hist. Soc. have practically complete files. 
Mass. State Lib., Harvard, N. Y. State Lib. and Lib. 
Cong, have incomplete files. Dartmouth has May 12, 25, 
June 15-July 21, Sept. 14, Nov. 30, 1775. Yale has 
May 12-July 27, 1775; Mar. 14, 1776. A. A. S. has: 

1775. May 12 to Dec. 28. 

1776. Jan. 4 to Apr. 4. 

[Charlestown] American Recorder, 1785-1787. 

Semi-weekly and weekly. Established Dec. 9, 1785, 
by Allen and Cushing (John W. Allen and Thomas C. 
Cushing), with the title of "The American Recorder, and 
the Charlestown Advertiser." The paper was changed 
from semi-weekly to weekly with the issue of Aug. 4, 
1786. With the issue of Sept. 22, 1786, the publishing 
firm was dissolved and the paper published by John W. 
Allen. The paper was discontinued with the issue of 
May 25, 1787. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 9, 1785-May 25, 1787. 
Boston Athenaeum has Dec. 27, 1785-Aug. 11, 1786. 
Boston Pub. Lib. has Dec. 13, 1785-Sept. 8, 22, Nov. 24, 
Dec. 8, 1786. Harvard has May 18, 1787. Essex Inst, 
has June 20, 1786. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Dec. 9, 1785- 
Aug. 11, 1786. N. Y. State Lib. has Dec. 9, 1785-July 
4, 29, 1786. Lib. Cong, has June 6, 1786; Feb. 9, 1787. 
A. A .S. has: 

1785. Dec. 9, 16, 23. 

1786. Jan. 3 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: May 12, Aug. 25.. 
Missing: Jan. 24, Mar. 14, 21, Apr. 4, 
May 2, June 2, 6, 9, July 4, 14, 21, Aug. 4. 

1787. Jan. 5 to May 25. 

Missing: May 25. 

[Charlestown] Bunker=HM Sentinel, 1820 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of number- 
ing, of the "Franklin Monitor and Middlesex Republi- 



1915.] Massachusetts. 401 

can," the last known issue of which was that of July 1, 
1820, vol. 2, no. 22. The earliest issue of the new paper 
located is that of July 29, 1820, vol. 2, no. 24, the title 
being " Bunker-Hill Sentinel And Middlesex Republican," 
published by George Clark, & Co. In this issue, which 
is the only one located, it is stated that there had been no 
paper published for the preceding two weeks. 
Boston Pub. Lib. has July 29, 1820. 

ICharlestown] Franklin Monitor, 1819-1820. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 2, 1819, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Feb. 6, 1819, 
vol. 1, no. 6. This issue was published by Bellamy & 
Green (William [?] Bellamy and Thomas Green), was 
of quarto size and was entitled " Franklin Monitor. " At 
some time between this date and Apr. 17, 1819, the title 
was changed to " Franklin Monitor. And Charlestown 
General Advertiser." With the issue of either May 22, 
or 29, 1819, the firm was dissolved and the paper published 
by Thomas Green. On Oct. 9, 1819, the title was changed 
to "Franklin Monitor and Middlesex Republican." 
On Nov. 27, 1819, Green transferred the paper to David 
Felt, but the imprint stated merely that it was published 
"For the Proprietor." With the issue of Jan. 1, 1820, 
the paper was published by George Clark, & Co., and 
printed by David Wilson. It was so printed up to the 
issue of July 1, 1820, vol. 2, no. 22, with which issue, or 
the issue of July 8, it was discontinued under this name 
and the title changed to "Bunker-Hill Sentinel," which 
see. 

Boston Pub. Lib. has Apr. 17, 25, May 1, 29, June 5, 
19, 26, July 24, 31, Aug. 28, Sept. 25, Oct. 23, 30, Nov. (>, 
Dec. 4, 18, 1819; Feb. 20, Mar. 11- Apr. 8, 22, May 13, 
27, June 3, July 1, 1820. J. M. Hunnewell has Jan. 1 - 
Mar. 25, 1800. A. A. S. has: 

1819. Feb. 6. 
May 15. 

1820. Apr. 15. 



402 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

[Concord] Middlesex Gazette, 1816- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Apr. 20, 1816, by Bettis and 
Peters (William J. Bettis and Joseph T. Peters), with the 
title of "Middlesex Gazette." During the first year, at 
some time between October 1816 and March 1817, the 
firm was dissolved and the paper published by Joseph T. 
Peters. With the issue of Apr. 18, 1818, the title was 
changed to "The Middlesex Gazette, & Advertiser." With 
the issue of Apr. 30, 1819, the title reverted to " Middlesex 
Gazette, " and the paper was transferred to Caleb Cush- 
ing. With the issue of Jan. 27, 1820, Joseph T. Peters 
repurchased the paper and continued it until after 1820. 

Essex Inst, has Apr. 5-July 5, 19-Oct. 11, Nov. 15- 
Dec. 13, 1817; Jan. 3-Mar. 7, 21, 28, 1818; May 7-27, 
June 10-Sept. 23, Oct. 7, 21, Nov. 4-Dec. 2, 16-30, 1819; 
Jan. 6, 13, 1820. Adams Tolman, Concord, has July 19, 
26, Sept. 6, Oct. 18, Nov. 8, 1817; Mar. 21, Apr. 18-June 
6, 20-Sept. 26, Oct. 10-Dec. 26, 1818; Jan. 2, 16-Mar. 
13, 27-April 17, 24, Sept. 23, Oct. 7-21, Nov. 4-Dec. 16, 
30, 1819; Jan. 13 -Dec, 1820. Mass. Hist. Soc. has 
Sept. 28, 1816. Harvard has Oct. 10, 1818. A. A. S. has: 

1816. Apr. 20. 
June 22. 

1817. July 19. 

1818. Apr. 4. 

[Conway] Farmer's Register, 1798. 

Weekly. Established Mar. 17, 1798, judging froiii the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Apr. 7, 1798, 
vol. l,no. 4, entitled " Farmer's Register," and published 
by Theodore & A. H [ay den] Leonard. At some time 
between June and August, 1798, the title was slightly 
changed to "The Farmers' Register." With the issue 
of Sept. 8, 1798, the firm was dissolved and the paper 
published by Theodore Leonard. The last issue located 
is that of Oct. 27, 1798, vol. 1, no. 33. 

Harvard has Aug. 25 -Sept. 8, 1798. Pocumtuck 
Valley Mem. Assoc, DeerfidM has Apr. 7, Oct. 27, 1798. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 403 

Phil. Lib. Co. has May 19, Aug. 18, Sept. 1, 1798. A. A. 
S. has: 

1798. May 26™. 
June 2. 
Sept. 8. 

[Dedham] Columbian Minerva, 1799-1804. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of number- 
ing, of "The Minerva," the first issue with the new title 
of the "Columbian Minerva 7 ' being that of Jan. 3, 1799, 
vol. 3, no. 117, published by Herman Mann. The paper 
was discontinued by Mann with the issue of Sept. 4, 1804. 

Dedham Hist. Soc. has Jan. 3, 1799-Sept. 4, 1804. 
Boston Athenaeum has Jan. 3, 1799 -Dec. 27, 1803, fair. 
Harvard has Jan. 10, 1799-Sept. 4, 1804, fair. Mass. 
Hist. Soc. has May 7, 1799; Jan. 16, Feb. 27, Mar. 20, 
Apr. 17, 1800; Apr. 14, 1801 ; Aug. 24, 1802. A. A. S. has: 

1799. Jan. 17, 24, 31. 
Feb. 7, 14, 21. 
Mar. 14 m . 
Apr. 11, 25"\ 
May 2 m . 

Aug. 15"'. 
Sept. 5™. 

1800. Jan. 2, 9. 

1801. Apr. 21. 
May 19. 

1802. May 25. 

1803. Apr. 19", 26. 
Aug. 16, 23, 30. 
Sept. 20. 

1804. Jan. 24. 
May 8. 

Dedham Gazette, 1813-1819. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 20, 1813, by Samuel Hall. 
With the issue of Oct. 29, 1813, the imprint was changed 
to "Printed by Samuel Hall for the Proprietors"; with 
that of Nov. 26, 1813, to "Printed for the Proprietors"; 



404 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

and with that of Jan. 6, 1815, to "Printed for the Pro- 
prietor. " With the issue of May 31, 1816, the paper was 
published by Abel D. Alleyne, the previous issue having 
announced that Jabez Chickering, who was "a principal 
agent in establishing" the paper, had withdrawn as 
proprietor. With the issue of Jan. 8, 1819, the paper 
was purchased and published by H. & W. H. Mann 
(Herman Mann, Jr., and William H. Mann). It was 
discontinued with the issue of June 25, 1819. H. Mann, 
in his "Annals of Dedham," p. 70, states that before the 
paper was purchased by the Manns, Jabez Chickering 
was proprietor, Theron Metcalf was editor and Abel D. 
Alleyne was printer. 

Dedham Hist. Soc. has Aug. 20, 1813 -Aug. 9, 1816; 
Nov. 22, 1816; Feb. 14, Mar. 7, Apr. 4, 18, May 2, 16, 
June 18, Aug. 29, Sept. 5, Oct. 17, Dec. 12, 1817; Jan. 23, 
Feb. 20, Mar. 13, 20, May 1, July 10, 24, Oct. 2, 16, 
Nov. 6, 20, 1818; Jan. 8- June 25, 1819. Mass. Hist. Soc. 
has Sept. 17, Oct. 8, 1813. Essex Inst, has Aug. 19, 26, 
Dec. 16, 1814; Feb. 3, 10, Sept. 15, 1815. N. Y. Hist. 
Soc. has Sept. 14, 1813. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Nov. 4, 
1814. Lib. Cong, has Apr. 23, 1819. A. A. S. has: 

1813. Aug. 20 to Dec. 31. 

1814. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

Missing: Sept. 2, 16, 30, Oct. 7, 14, 21, 
28, Nov. 18. 

1815. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: Oct. 27. 

Missing: Feb. 3, 10, 17, Apr. 21, 28, June 
2, 23, Aug. 11, 18, Sept. 15, 29, Oct. 6, 
13, Nov. 3, 10, Dec. 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. 

1816. Jan. 19. 
Feb. 16. 
Mar. 8, 22, 29. 
Apr. 5, 19. 
May 10. 
June 14. 

July 26. 



1915.) Massachusetts. 405 

Aug. 10, 30. 
Sept, 6, 13, 27. 
Oct. 4, 11, 18. 
Nov. 8, 15, 22, 29. 
Dec. 6, 13, 20, 27. 

1817. Jan. 3 to Dec. 2G. 

Mutilated: Aug. 1. 

Missing: Apr. 4, Aug. 15, 22, 29, Sept. 12, 
19, 20, Oct. 3. 

1818. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

Missing: Apr. 10, 17, May 29, June 5, 
12, 19, 20, July 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, Aug. 7. 

1819. Jan. 1 to June 25. 

Missing: June 4, 11, 18. 

IDedham] Minerva, 1790-1798. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 11, 1790, by Nathaniel and 
• Benjamin Heaton, with the title of "The Minerva." 
With the issue of Dec. 7, 1797, the partnership was dis- 
solved, Benjamin Heaton withdrew, and the paper was 
published by N. Heaton and H. Mann. With the issue 
probably of Jan. 4, 1798, the paper was published by 
Herman Mann. With the issue of Mar. 8, 1798, Mann 
took James H. Adams into partnership under the firm 
name of H. Mann and J. H. Adams. With the issue oJ 
Sept. 20, 1798, the proprietorship reverted to Herman 
Mann. The last issue with the title of "The Minerva" 
was that of Dec. 27, 1798, vol. 3, no. 110, after which it 
was called the "Columbian Minerva" which see. 

Harvard has Oct. 11-25, Nov. 29, Dec. 0, 20, 27, 1790; 
Jan. 3-24, Feb. 14, 28 -Apr. 11, 25, Oct. 10, 24, 31, 
Nov. 9-29, 1797; Feb. 15, Mar. 1, 8, 22, Apr. 12, 20, 
May 17, 31 -June 14, July 12, Aug. 2-16, Sept. 0-20, 
Nov. 15, Dec. 13, 27, 1798. Dedham Hist. Soc. has 
Dec. 27, 1790; Apr. 25, Dec. 7, 1797; Jan. 11.- Deis. 27, 
1798. Mass. Hist. Soc. has Aug. 23, Sept. 20, 1798. 
Wis. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 28, May 9, 1797; May 24, 1798. 
A. A. S. has: 

1797. June 0. 



406 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Sept. 26. 
Oct. 31. 
Nov. 9. 
- 1798. Jan. 25. 
Apr. 26. 
June 7. 
Aug. 30. 
Oct. 25. 
Nov. 22, 28. 
Dec. 20. 
Extra: Mar. 29. 

[Dedham] Norfolk Repository, 1805-1809. 

Weekly and semi-weekly. Established May 14, 1805, 
by Herman Mann, with the title of "The Norfolk Repos- 
itory." It was of quarto size, paged, and had a title- 
page and index at least tcfcvol. 1. It was suspended with 
the issue of Sept. 17, 1805, vol. 1, no. 19, because of the 
theft of a portion of its funds, and was resumed with the 
issue of Mar. 25, 1806, vol. 1, no. 20. The weekly issue 
was discontinued with the issue of Nov. 29, 1808, and on 
Dec. 6, 1808, a semi-weekly issue was begun, which was 
continued until Dec. 27, 1808. On Jan. 5, 1809 the paper 
was brought out in folio size, with the title of "Norfolk 
Repository" and with a new volume numbering, and was 
"Printed by H. Mann for the Editor" (Titus Strong). 
Discontinued with the issue of Dec. 28, 1809, vol. 1, no. 52. 

Dedham Hist. Soc. has May 14 -Sept. 17, 1805; Mar. 
25-Nov. 4, Dec. 2, 1806-Dec. 28, 1809. Boston Pub. 
Lib. has May 14, 1805 -Nov. 29, 1808. Harvard has 
May 14-Sept. 17, 1805; Aug. 12, 26, Sept. 30, Oct. 28, 
1806; Jan. 20-Nov. 3, 1807, scattering; Aug. 2, 16, 23, 
Sept. 6, 13, Nov. 1, 1808. Mass. Hist. Soc. has June 4, 
1805; Oct. 27, 1807; Oct. 5, 1809. Long Id. Hist. Soc. 
has Sept. 9, 1806. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 12, Feb. 9, 
16, Mar. 2-16, Sept. 28, 1809. A. A. 8. has: 
1805. May 14 to Sept. 17. 

Title-page and index, 1805-06. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 407 

1806. Mar. 25 to Dec. 30. 

Missing; Nov. 11 to Dec. 30. 

1807. Sept. 22. 

Nov. 3, 17, 24. 
Dec. 29. 

1808. Jan. 5, 12, 19, 26. 
Feb. 2, 16, 23. 
Mar. 8, 15. 

Apr. 20. 
May 31. 
June 7, 14, 21. 
July 19, 26. 
Sept. 6, 13. 

1809. Jan. 5, 12, 26. 
Feb. 2. 

Mar. 2, 9. 

[Dedham] Village Register, 182p+. 

Weekly. Established June 9, 1820, with the title of 
" Village Register, and Norfolk County Advertiser/' 
printed for the Proprietor by H. & W. H. Mann (Herman 
Mann, Jr., and William H. Mann. In his "Annals of 
Dedham," p. 76, H. Mann states that the first proprietor 
was Asa Gowen). With the issue of Oct. 27, 1820, it 
was printed by H. & W. H. Mann, for J. H. Cobb (Jona- 
than H. Cobb). Continued after 1820. 

Dedham Hist. Soc. has June 9-30, July 21-Dec. 29, 
1820. Essex Inst, has Dec. 22, 1820. A. A. S. has: 
1820. Sept. 15, 22, 29™ 
Oct. 6, 13, 20, 27. 
Nov. 3, 10, 17, 24. 
Dec. 1, 8, 15, 22-, 29. 

IFairhaven] Bristol Gazette, 1812-1813. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of volume 
numbering, of the "New Bedford Gazette," of New Bed- 
ford. The last known issue of the "New Bedford 
Gazette" is that of July 17, 1812, vol. 1, no. 40, and the 



408 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 1 , 

earliest known issue of the ''Bristol Gazette" is that of 
July 31, 1812, vol. 1, no. 42, published by Joseph Gleason, 
Jun. In February, 1813, Gleason disposed of the paper 
to Paul Taber. The last issue located is that of June 11, 
1813, but Ellis in his "History of New Bedford," p. 524, 
states that it was discontinued with the issue of July 10, 
1813. 

New Bedford Pub. Lib. has July 31, Aug. 7, 20-Sept. 
25, Oct. 9, 16, 1812; Jan. 8, 29, Feb. 26, Mar. 19, Apr. 2, 
16, June 4, 1813. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has May 28, June 4, 
11, 1813. A. A. S. has: 

1812. Aug. 7, 20. 
Oct. 23. 
Dec. 18. 

1813. May 14. 

[Greenfield] Franklin Federalist, 1817. 

Weekly. Established May 24, 1817, by Russell Wells, 
with the title of "Franklin Federalist, and Religious, 
Scientific, and Literary Repository." The paper was 
discontinued with the issue of Dec. 29, 1817, vol. 1, no. 
32, and was replaced two weeks later by "The Franklin 
Intelligencer," which see. 

Greenfield Gazette Office has May 24-Dec. 29, 1817. 
Pocumtuck Valley Mem. Assoc, Deerfield, has May 31 - 
June 21, 1817. Lib. Cong, has June 21, 1817. A. A. 
S. has: 

1817. June 7. 

July 5, 26. 

[Greenfield] Franklin Herald, 1812- 1820+ . 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of volume 
numbering, of "The Traveller. " The first issue with the 
title of "Franklin Herald" was that of Jan. 7, 1812, vol. 1, 
no. 48, published by Ansel Phelps. With the issue of 
May 12, 1812, Phelps took John Denio into partnership 
with him, under the firm name of Denio & Phelps. With 



1915.] Massachusetts. 409 

the issue of Nov. 14, 1815, this partnership was dissolved 
and the paper published by Ansel Phelps. With the issue 
of June 3, 1817, the partnership of Denio & Phelps was 
again formed and so continued until after 1820. 

Greenfield Pub. Lib. has the S. D. Conant file, Jan. 7, 
1812-Dec. 26, 1820. Harvard has Jan. 7, 1812-Jan. 5, 
1813; Dec. 28, 1813-Dec. 26, 1820. Boston Pub. Lib. 
has Apr. 13, 1813. Greenfield Gazette Office has Oct. 5, 
1813; Apr. 26, July 5, 1814; Sept. 17, 1816. Pocumtuck 
Valley Mem. Assoc, Deerfield, has Jan. 7-June 30, 1812; 
Mar. 1-Dec. 27, 1814; Jan. 3- June 4, 1816; and a few 
other scattering issues. Essex Inst, has Apr. 14, 1812. 
N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Apr. 4, 1820. Lib. Cong, has a few 
scattering issues, 1812-1817; and an incomplete file, 
Feb. 10, 1818-Dec. 26, 1820. A. A. 8. has: 

1812. Jan. 14". 





June 23. 




Nov. 24. 




Dec. 29. 


1813. 


Dec. 21. i 


1815. 


June 27. 




Aug. 1. 




Oct. 24. 




Nov. 7. 


1816. 


Oct. 29. 


1817. 


Apr. 8, 15, 22. 




Aug. 12. 




Oct. 21, 28. 


1818. 


Sept. 15, 22, 29 


1819. 


Jan. 26. 




Feb. 16. 




Mar. 30. 




Apr. 20™. 




May 18. 




June 15 m 




Nov. 2. 


1820. 


July 4. 



410 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

[Greenfield] Franklin Intelligencer, 1818. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 12, 1818, by Russell Wells, 
with the title of "The Franklin Intelligencer. " Although 
published from the same office as its predecessor, the 
"P'ranklin Federalist," it was projected as a different 
paper with a new volume numbering. The last issue 
located, and probably the last published, was that of 
Mar. 23, 1818, vol. 1, no. 11. 

Greenfield Gazette Office has Jan. 12- Mar. 23, 1818. 
Lib. Cong, has Jan. 19, Mar. 9, 23, 1818. A. A. S. has: 
1818. Jan. 19. 

Greenfield Gazette, 1792-1811. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of volume 
numbering, of "The Impartial Intelligencer." The first 
issue of the "Greenfield Gazette" was that of Aug. 2, 
1792, vol. 1, no. 27, published by Thomas Dickman. 
With the issue of Mar. 5, 1795, the title was changed to 
"Greenfield Gazette. Or, Massachusetts and Vermont 
Telegraphe"; anjd with the issue of Jan. 4, 1798, to 
, "Greenfield Gazette. An Impartial Register of the 
Times. " Dickman sold out to Francis Barker who began 
publishing the paper with the issue of Aug. 20, 1798, and 
who changed the title, with the issue of Sept. 1, 1798, to 
"Greenfield Gazette. A Register of Genuine Federalism." 
Thomas Dickman bought back the paper and again be- 
came publisher with the issue of June 17, 1799. With the 
issue of June 7, 1802, he sold out the paper to John Denio, 
who with this issue shortened the title to "Greenfield 
Gazette." Denio sold out the paper to Ansel Phelps 
who changed the title to "The Traveller" with the issue 
of Feb. 12, 1811. The last issue with the title of "Green- 
field Gazette" was that of Feb. 5, 1811, vol. 20, no. 2, 
whole no. 990. 

Greenfield Pub. Lib. has the S. D. Conant file, Aug. 2, 
1792 -Feb. 5, 1811. Greenfield Gazette Office has Oct. 
31, Dec. 12, 26, 1803; Jan. 9, 16, Nov. 19, Dec. 17, 1804; 
May 9, 1808; Nov. 14, 1809; Mar. 27, 31, Apr. 10- 



1915.] Massachusetts. 411 

24, July 3, 17, Sept. 11, Nov. 27, Dec. 18, 1810. Har- 
vard has Feb. 18, 1795 -Dec. 5, 1800, scattering; Jan. 
4, 1808-Feb. 5, 1811. Mass. Hist. Soc. has May 5, 
1806. Boston Pub. Lib. has Apr. 21, 1806. Springfield 
City Lib. has Oct. 11, 1792. Northampton Pub. Lib. has 
June 13, 1803-May 1, 1809. Pocumtuck Valley Mem. 
Assoc, Deerfield, has Jan. 2 -June 26, 1809, and a few 
other scattering issues. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has July 28, 
1796; Oct. 25, 1802. Lib. Cong, has Aug. 10, 17, Sept. 
7, 1797; Jan. 4, 1800; Jan. 23, 1801; Dec. 19, 1803; 
Jan. 2-Dec. 3, 1804, fair; June 29, Aug. 28, Oct. 30, 
Dec. 21, 1807; Apr. 18, 25, May 30, 1808; Jan. 29, 1811. 
Wis. Hist. Soc. has Aug. 14, Sept. 3, 10, 1794; Aug. 15, 
1808. A. A. S. has: 

1792. Aug. 2 to Dec. 27. 

Missing: Aug. 2, 16, 23, Oct. 25, Nov. 8, 
Dec. 13. 

1793. Jan. 3, 10, 17, 31-. 
Feb. 7, 21, 28. 
Mar. 7 m , 14, 21, 28 m . 
Apr. 18. \ 
May 2, 23, 30. 
June 6, 13. 
Supplement: May 2. 

1794. July 17, 31. 
Sept. 18. 
Dec. 18. 

1795. Jan. 1, 29. 
Feb. 12, 18. 
June 25. 
July 23, 30. 
Aug. 13, 27. 

Nov. 5, 12 OT , 18 m , 26. 
Supplement: Aug. 27. 

1796. May 12, 19", 26. 
June 2, 9, 23. 
Sept. 8, 15. 

Oct. 6, 13, 20, 27. 



412 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 





Nov. 3, 10, 17. 


1797. 


Jan. 26™ 




Feb. 2, 9, 16, 23. 




Mar. 9, 16, 23, 30. 




Apr. 13, 20. 




May 11. 




June 15, 22. 




July 13 m , 20™. 




Aug. 3, 10, 17, 24, 31. 




Sept. 7, 14, 21, 28. 




Oct. 12, 26'\ 




Nov. 29 m . 




Dec. 21". 


1798. 


Jan. 10, 17, 24. 




Feb. 7, 21, 28. 




Mar. 14, 21, 28. 




Apr. 4% 11, 25. 




May 2, 7, 14, 21, 28. 




July 9, 23. 




Oct. 13, 20. 




NovSs, 12. 




Dec. 3, 17, 24. 




Supplement: Apr. 25. 


1799. 


Jan. 21. 




Feb. 25. 




Mar. 25. 


1800. 


Apr. 11. 


1802. 


June 7, 14, 21, 28. 




July 5, 12, 19, 26. 




Aug. 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 




Oct. 4, 11, 18, 25. 




Nov. 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. 




Dec. 6, 13, 20, 27. 


1803. 


Jan. 3, 10, 17,24,31. 




Feb. 14, 21, 28. 




Mar. 7, 14. 




Apr. 18, 25. 




May 2, 9, 16. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 413 





Massachusetts 




Aug. 15, 22. 




Sept. 5™ 


1804. 


Feb. 6. 




June 11. 


1805. 


Apr. 1. 




July 1, 8, 15. 


1806. 


Oct. 6, 20. 




Dec. 15. 


1809. 


May 15. 


1810. 


Jan. 30. 




Mar. 13. 




Apr. 17. 




June 26. 




July 24. 




Sept. 25. 



[Greenfield] Impartial Intelligencer, 1792. 

Weekly. Established Feb. 1, 1792, by Thomas Dick- 
man, with the title of "The Impartial Intelligencer/' 
The last issue with this title was that of July 26, 1792, 
and with the issue of Aug. 2, 1792, the title was changed 
to "Greenfield Gazette," which see. 

Greenfield Pub. Lib. has Feb. 8-July 26, 1792. Mass. 
Hist. Soc. has Feb. 8, 29, Mar. 1, Apr. 4, 1792. Pocum- 
tuck Valley Mem. Assoc, Deerfield, has May 9, 1792. 
Wis. Hist. Soc. has June 20, 1792. A. A. S. has: 
1792. Feb. 1 to July 26. 

Mutilated: Apr. 25. 

Missing: Feb. 15, 22, 29, Apr. 5, May 2, 
June 13, July 5. 

[Greenfield] Traveller, 1811. 

Weekly. A continuation, but with a new volume 
numbering, of the "Greenfield Gazette." The first issue 
of "The Traveller" was that of Feb. 12, 1811, vol. 1, 
no. 1, published by Ansel Phelps. Phelps retained this 
title until Dec. 31, 1811, vol. 1, no. 47, and with the issue 
of Jan. 7, 1812, changed it to "Franklin Herald," which 
see. 



414 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Greenfield Pub. Lib. has Feb. 12-Dec. 31, 1811. Har- 
vard has Feb. 12-Dec. 31, 1811. Pocumtuck Valley 
Mem. Assoc, Deerfield, has June 18- Aug. 13, Dec. 24, 
1811. A. A. S. has: 
1811. Feb. 19, 26. 
Mar. 5, 12. 
Oct. 29. 

[Haverhill] Essex Patriot, 1817-1820+. 

Weekly. Established May 10, 1817, by P[eter] N. 
Green with the title of " Essex Patriot." With the issue 
of Dec. 23, 1820, Green disposed of the paper to W[illiara] 
Hastings, who continued publication until after 1820. 

Boston Athenaeum has May 10, 1817 -Dec. 30, 1820. 
Haverhill Pub. Lib. has May 17, 1817 -Apr. 18, 1818, 
fair; May 23, 30, June 13, July 4, Aug. 1, Oct. 17, Nov. 
14, Dec. 12, 1818; Feb. 20, 27, Apr. 3, 1819; Jan. 29, 
Mar. 18, Apr. 1, 22, Aug. 5, Oct. 7, 1820. Haverhill 
Hist. Soc. has May 17, 1817; May 30, 1818; June 6, 1819; 
May 27, 1820. Essex Inst, has May 17, Oct. 11, Dec. G, 
1817; Jan. 17, 31, Mar. 7, May 9, Dec. 12, 1818; Apr. 3, 
May 15, Aug. 7, Oct, 23, 1819; June 24, 1820. A. A. S. 
has: 

1817. May 10 m , 24. 
July 12, 19. 
Aug. 30. 

1818. June 6. 
Oct. 31. 
Nov. 21. 

1820. Jan. 8. 

Haverhill Federal Gazette, 1798-1799 

Weekly. Established Oct. 26, 1798, by Seth H. Moore 
& Chester Stebbins, who announce in the first issue that 
they have purchased from Angier March the " copy- 
right" of the Impartial Herald, and that "the publica- 
tion will be continued by them, under the title of the 
'Haverhill Federal Gazette.'" In the title, the word 
"Federal" was placed in an ornament in the center and 



1915.] Massachusetts. 415 

was in much smaller type. The paper was discontinued 
with the issue of Nov. 27, 1799. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 26, 1798 -Nov. 27, 1799. 
Harvard has Oct. 26, Nov. 2, 1798; July 4, 18, Aug. 8, 
29, Sept. 19, 26, Nov. 20, 1799. Essex Inst, has Nov. 2, 
16, Dec. 14, 1798; Jan. 4, 18, Feb. 1, Sept. 26, Nov. 1, 
1799. Haverhill Pub. Lib. has Nov. 23, 1798; Mar. 1, 
Oct. 10, 1799. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 28, 1798-Nov. 
27, 1799. A. A. S. has: 

1798. Nov. 9, 16, 23, 30. 
Dec. 7, 14, 28. 

1799. Jan. 4. 
Feb. 15, 22. 
Mar. 1. 
Aug. 8 m . 

Haverhill Gazette, see Haverhill Federal Gazette. 

[Haverhill] Guardian of Freedom, 1793-1795. 

Weekly. Established Sept. 13, 1793, by E. Ladd and 
S. Bragg (Eliphalet Ladd and Samuel Bragg), with the 
title of " Guardian of Freedom." With the issue of 
either Apr. 3 or 10, 1794, the paper was published by 
Eliphalet Ladd. Ladd sold the paper to Samuel Aiken, 
who began publishing it with the issue of May 29, 1794, 
but transferred it to Benjamin Edes, jun., with the issue 
of June 26, 1794. The last issue located is that of Aug. 
20, 1795, vol. 2, no. 48. 

Haverhill Pub. Lib. has Sept. 13, 1793 -Sept. 18, 1794; 
Aug. 20, 1795. Harvard has Mar. 12, Apr. 16, Aug. 6, 
1795. Essex Inst, has July 9, 1795. Lib. Cong, has 
Feb. 13, Nov. 6, 1794; Aug. 13, 1795. Mass. Hist. Soc. 
has a Printer's Boy's Address, entitled "A New- Years 
Verse," dated Haverhill, Jan. 1, 1795. A. A. S. has: 

1794. Jan. 9. 
Nov. 13, 21-. 

1795. Apr. 3,23"'. 
May 7. 
Aug. 13, 20. 



416 America?! Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

| Haverhill] Impartial Herald, 1798. 

Weekly. Established July 27, 1798, by Angier March., 
with the title of " Impartial Herald." It was discontin- 
ued with the issue of Oct. 19, 1798, vol. 1, no. 13, the es- 
tablishment being succeeded by the " Haverhill Federal 
Gazette," which see. 

Harvard has Aug. 3, 31, Sept. 7, 1798. Lib. Cong, has 
Sept. 14, 21, 1798. A. A. S. has: 
1798. Oct. 12, 19. 

(Haverhill] Merrimack Intelligencer, 1808-1817. 

Weekly. Established July 2, 1808, by William B. 
Allen with the title of " Merrimack Intelligencer. " With 
the issue of Feb. 29, 1812, William B. Allen took his 
brother Horatio into partnership under the firm name 
of W. B. & H. G. Allen. With the issue of Aug. 28, 1813, 
the firm was dissolved and the paper published by 
Horatio G. Allen. With the issue of Jan. 1, 1814, Allen 
sold out to Greenough and Burrill (William Greenough 
and Nathan Burrill). With the issue of Nov. 5, 1814, 
Greenough retired in favor of Thomas Tileston, who 
published the paper under the firm name of Burrill and 
Tileston. With the issue of Jan. 4, 1817, they disposed 
of the paper to P[eter] N. Green, who discontinued pub- 
lication with the issue of Feb. 8, 1817, vol. 9, no. 31. 

Haverhill Pub. Lib. has July 2, 1808- Dec. 30, 1815. 
Haverhill Hist. Soc. has Apr. 1, 1809; Feb. 10, May 19, 
1810; Apr. 11, 1812; Jan. 8, Apr. 16, July 16, 23, Aug. 6, 
13, Sept. 3-Oct, 15, Nov. 5, 12, 26, Dec. 3, 24, 1814; 
Jan. 14-Feb. 18, Mar. 25, July 29-Sept. 9, 1815; Feb. 
3-Apr. 6, 1816. Essex Inst, has July 2, 1808-Dec. 28, 
1811, fair; Jan. 2, 1813-June 11, 1814, fair; Mar. 4, 25, 
May 13, Sept. 2, 9, 1815. Harvard has Aug. 13, 20, 
Sept. 3, 24 -Oct. 8, 22, Nov. 12, 19, Dec. 10, 24, 1808. 
Boston Athenaeum has July 20, 1816-Feb. 8, 1817. 
N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 5, 1811. Lib. Cong, has June 
30, 1810; Sept. 7, 1811. A. A. S. has: 
1808. July 23, 30. 
Sept. 3. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 417 





Massachusetts 


1809. 


May 27. 




Aug. 26. 


1810. 


Apr. 28. 




May 12. 




July 7, 14. 




Aug. 11, 18. 




Oct. 20, 27. 


1811. 


Mar. 2, 9, 16, 23. 




May 25. 


1812. 


Feb. 1™. 




Nov. 28. 


1813. 


Nov. 20"\ 


1814. 


Mar. 12, 19. 


1815. 


Sept. 9. 


1816. 


Mar. 9. 




May 4. 



Haverhill Museum, 1804-1806. 

Weekly. Established Dec. 4, 1804, by Francis Gould, 
with the title of " Haverhill Museum." Gould had 
bought out the "Haverhill Observer" and continued the 
advertisements from that paper. Discontinued with the 
issue of Nov, 22, 1806, vol. 2, no. 52. 

Haverhill Pub. Lib. has Feb. 5, 12, Mar. 5, 19, 26, Apr. 
30, June 11, 18, July 2-Aug. 13, 27, Sept. 10, 17, Oct. 15, 
Dec. 3-17, 1805; Feb. 4, 11, Mar. 11, 18, Apr. 15-May 
13, June 3-July 1, 15-Sept. 16, 30-Oct. 21, Nov. 4, 15, 
22, 1806. Harvard has Dec. 11, 1804 -Feb. 5, 19, Mar. 
5, 12, 26 -Apr. 9, 23, May 7-28, June 11, July 2, 16, 23, 
Aug. 6-Sept. 17, Oct. 1-Nov. 26, Dec. 10, 17, 31, 1805; 
Jan. 14, 21, Feb. 4-25, Mar. 11, 25, Apr. 29, May 13, 
20, June 17, July 8, 1806. Essex Inst, has Apr. 2, Oct. 
29, 1805; May 20, 27, June 3, July 22, 29, Aug. 12, Nov. 
11, 1806. Haverhill Hist. Soc. has Feb. 19, 1805. A. A. 
S. has: 

1805. Jan. 8 m . 
Feb. 26. 

1806. Feb. 25. 



418 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Mar. 18. 
July 22. 
Sept. 2. 
Oct. 21. 
Nov. 4. 

[Haverhill] Observer, 1801-1804. 

Weekly. Established Dec. 5, 1800, by Galen H. Fay, 
with the title of "The Observer.'' With the issue of 
Jan. 7, 1803, the title was changed to "Haverhill Ob- 
server." The paper was discontinued Nov. 27, 1804, 
vol. 4, no. 52, in which issue Fay announced the sale of 
the paper to Francis Gould. Gould established the 
"Haverhill Museum" in its place. 

Harvard has Dec. 19, 1800-Nov. 20, 1804, scattering 
file. Haverhill Pub. Lib. has Feb. 13, May 22, 1801; 
Jan. 1, 1802; Jan. 29-Feb. 11, 25, Mar. 18, 25, Apr. 15, 
May 27, July 22, Aug. 19, Sept. 23, 30, Nov. 15, 29 -Dec. 
13, 1803; Jan. 24-Nov. 27, 1804. Haverhill Hist. Soc. 
has Aug. 28, 1801; Apr. .22, May 20, 1803. Essex Inst, 
has Sept. 3, Oct. 1, 1802; May 20, Sept. 30, Nov. 1, 8, 
22, 29, Dec. 13, 20, 1803; Jan. 10, 17, Feb. 7, 28, Mar. 13, 
27, Apr. 3, June 26-July 10, 31, Sept. 18, 25, Oct. 23, 
30, Nov. 13, 20, 1804. Lib. Cong, has Dec. 12, 19, 1800; 
Jan. 30, Feb. 0, 1801. A. A. S. has: 

1803. Feb. 4. 
Aug. 26. 
Sept. 2, 9. 

1804. Jan. 24. 
Feb. 28. 
Mar. 13, 20. 
June 12. 

[Lenox] Watch Light, 1808-1809. 

Weekly. Established in September, 1808, judging 
from the earliest issue located, that of Mar. 27, 1809, 
vol. 1, no. 29, the "Watch Light," published by Eldad 
Lewis. The last issue located is that of May 22, 1809, 
vol. 1, no. 37. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 419 

Robert C. Rockwell of Pittsfield has May 22, 1809. 
A. A. S. has: 

1809. Mar. 27. 
May 15. 

[Leominster] Political Focus, 1798-1799. 

Weekly. Established July 5, 1798, by Charles & John 
Prentiss. With the issue of Mar. 7, 1799, the paper was 
published by Charles Prentiss alone. The last issue 
located is that of Dec. 5, 1799. 

Harvard has July 26, Sept. 6, 13, Nov. 15, 29, 1798; 
Jan. 17 -Dec. 5, 1799, fair. Boston Pub. Lib. has Nov. 
29-Dec. 20, 1798; Jan. 3-Feb. 14, Mar. 14, 21, Apr. 11, 
May 2, 9, 30, Aug. 29, 1799. Mass. Hist. Soc. has July 
12-26, Aug. 16, Nov. 8, 1798; Apr. 25, May 30-June 
13, July 4, 25, Aug. 15-Sept. 5, 19, 26, Oct. 3, 31 -Nov. 14, 
' 28, 1799. Leominster Pub. Lib. has Sept. 6, 1798; Apr. 
18, 1799. A. A. S. has: 

1798. July 5 to Dec. 27. 

Mutilated: July 26, Aug. 2, Sept. 13, 20, 

Oct. 18, Nov. 22. 
Missing: July 5, 12, 19. 

1799. Jan. 3 to Dec. 5. 

Mutilated: Nov. 7, 14. 
Missing: Mar. 28, May 23, June 27, July 
25, Aug. 8, Nov. 21, 28, Dec. 5. 

[Leominster] Political Recorder, 1809-1810. 

Weekly. Established in July, 1809, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Mar. 15, 1810, 
vol. 1, no. 36, with the title of "Political Recorder," 
published by Salmon Wilder. Discontinued with the 
issue of July 19, 1810. (See "Leominster Enterprise, " 
June 4, 1873, quoting copy owned by James Bennett.) 

Leominster Pub. Lib. has Mar. 15, 1810. A. A. S. has: 

1810. Mar. 22. 
July 5. 



420 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

[Leominster] Rural Repository, 1795-1797. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 22, 1795, by Charles Pren- 
tiss with the title of "The Rural Repository." It was 
discontinued with the issue of Apr. 13, 1797, vol.2, no. 78. 

Leominster Pub. Lib. has Oct. 22, 1795-Oct. 13, 1796. 
Harvard has Dec. 10, 17, 31, 1795; Feb. 11, 18, Mar. 17, 
24, Apr. 14, 28, May 12, 26, June 9-23, July 7-Sept. 29, 
Oct. 13-27, Nov. 10-Dec. 8, 22, 1796-Jan. 26, Feb. 23- 
Apr. 6, 1797. Boston Pub. Lib. has Nov. 19, 1795; 
Feb. 25, Apr. 14, May 12, 26, June 16, 30, Sept. 15, 22, 
Oct. 6, 13, 1796; Mass. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 31, 1796 
Phil. Lib. Co. has Nov. 12, Dec. 3, 1795. A. A. S. has: 

1795. Oct. 29-. 

Nov. 12", 19, 26"\ 
Dec. 3-, 10-, 17, 24, 31. 

1796. Jan. 7 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: Mar. 3, 17, 24. 
Missing: Jan. 21, Feb. 11, 18, Aug. 18, 
Nov. 24, Dec. 1, 8, 15, 29. 

1797. Jan. 5 to Apr. 13. 

Missing: Jan. 5, 12, Mar. 9. 

[Leominster] Telescope, 1800-1802. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 2, 1800, by Adams & Wilder 
(Daniel Adams and Salmon Wilder), with the title of 
''The Telescope: or, American Herald." The last issue 
located is that of Sept. 30, 1802. David Wilder in hid 
''History of Leominster,' ' p. 91, states that the publica- 
tion ceased Oct. 14, 1802. 

Harvard has Jan. 23, 1800 -Sept. 30, 1802, fair. Mass. 
Hist. Soc. has May 15-Nov. 6, 1800. Leominster Pub. 
Lib. has Jan. 9, Apr. 17, 1800; Sept. 30, 1802. Essex 
Inst, has May 7, 1801. Dartmouth has Oct. 1-Dec. 31, 
1801. Ct. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 9, 23-Apr. 17, May 15, 
22, June 5, 12, July 3, Nov. 6, 1800; July 9, 1801. A. 
A. S. has: 



1915.] Massachusetts. 421 

1800. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

Mutilated: Feb. 20, Dec. 4. 
Missing: Jan. 2, 9, 16, 23, 30, Feb. 6, 13, 
Dec. 11, 18, 25. 

1801. Mar. 12". 
Apr. 9, 30. 
Aug. 27. 
Dec. 10. 

1802. Apr. 1'", 22. 

[Leominster] Weekly Messenger, 1806. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 23, 1806, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Feb. 6, 1806, 
vol. 1, no. 3, "The Weekly Messenger, and Farmer's 
Moral and Political Monitor/' published by Salmon & 
James Wilder. The last issue located is that of Dec. 18, 
.1806, vol. 1, no. 48. 

Dartmouth has Feb. 6, 13, 27-May 15, 1806. Leom- 
inster Pub. Lib. has Mar. 13, 1806. Harvard has Apr. 
24, 1806. A. A. S. has: 
1806. Feb. 20. 

Mar. 6, 13. 
Oct. 23, 30. 



Dec. 18. 

Nantucket Gazette, 1816-1817. 

Weekly. Established May 6, 1816, by Tannatt & 
Tupper (Abraham G. Tannatt and Hiram Tupper), 
with the title of "Nantucket Gazette." With the issue 
of Oct. 12, 1816, the firm was dissolved and the paper 
published by A. G. Tannatt. It was discontinued with 
the issue of Mar. 8, 1817, vol. 1, no. 41. The file in the 
Boston Public Library was that owned by Lewis G. Pray, 
a frequent contributor, whose articles are signed in his 
handwriting. 

Boston Pub. Lib. has May 6, 1816 -Mar. 8, 1817. 
Nantucket Athenaeum has May 6, 1816- Feb. 1, 1817. 
Essex Inst, has Sept. 7, 1816. A. k. S. has: 



422 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

1816. May 6 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated: July 1. 

Missing: June 10, 17, Aug. 3, 24, Sept. 28, 
Nov. 9, Dec. 21. 

1817. Jan. 25. 

Feb. 1, 8, 15, 22. 
Mar. 1. 

Nantucket Weekly Magazine, 1817-1818. 

Weekly. Established June 28, 1817, by A. G. Tannatt, 
with the title of "Nantucket Weekly Magazine: Literary 
and Commercial.' ' It was of quarto size and paged, and 
although a magazine in name could well be included as 
a newspaper. It was discontinued with the issue of Jan. 
3, 1818, vol. 1, no. 27. 

Boston Pub. Lib. has June 28, 1817-Jan. 3, 1818. 
Nantucket Athenaeum has July 5, 1817-Jan. 3, 1818. 
A. A. B. faajs: 

1817. Sept. 13, 27. 
Oct. 25. 

[New Bedford] Columbian Courier, 1798-1805. 

Weekly. Established Dec. 8, 1798, by Abraham Shear- 
man, Jun., with the title of "Columbian Courier." With 
the issue of Dec. 3, 1802, the title was changed to "Colum- 
bian Courier, and Weekly Miscellany"; and with that 
of Dec. 2, 1803, to "Columbian Courier, or Weekly 
Miscellany.'' Discontinued with the issue of Mar.. 1, 
1805, vol. 7, no. 13. 

, New Bedford Pub. Lib. has Dec. 8, 1798-Dec. 31, 1802, 
fine; Jan. 7, 1803- Feb. 22, 1805, fair. Harvard has July 
3, 1799; Jan. 3, 1800-Mar. 1, 1805. Old Dartmouth 
Hist. Soc. has Mar. 7, 1800. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 15, 
1798-Nov. 15, 1799; Mar. 13, May 29, July 3, Dec. 11, 
18, 1801; Dec. 17, 1802; Apr. 1, 1803. N. Y. Pub. Lib. 
has Dec. 2, 1803; Nov. 2, Dec. 14, 1804. Long Id. Hist. 
Soc. has Jan. 23, 1801. N. J. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 6, 1799- 
Dec. 16, 1803. Lib. Cong, has Jan. 23, 1801. A. A. S. 
has: 



1915.] Massachusetts. 

1798. Dec. 15, 22 w , 29. 

1799. Jan. 26. 
Feb. 23™ 
Mar. 2, 23, 30. 
Apr. 6. 

1800. Mar. 14. 
Sept. 2G. 
Dec. 5. 

1801. Jan. 30. 
June 5. 
July 17, 31. 
Aug. 7. 
Sept. 18. 
Nov. 6 m . 

1802. Jan. 1. 
May 28. 
Aug. 6. 
Oct. 15. 

1803. Feb. 25. 
Apr. 15. 
May 27. 
June 17, 24. 
July 1, 8. 
Aug. 5, 19, 20. 
Sept. 2. 
Nov. 4, 25. 
Dec. 2. 

1804. Feb. 17, 24. 
Mar. 9 m . 
Apr. 27. 
July 13. 
Aug. 10. 
Oct. 12. 
Dec. 21, 28. 

1805. Jan. 18. 
Feb. 15, 22. 
Mar. 1. 



423 



424 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

New Bedford Gazette, 1811-1812. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 18, 1811, by Joseph Glea- 
son, jun., with the title of "New-Bedford Gazette." 
The paper was really a continuation of the "Old Colony 
Gazette," but with a new volume numbering. In July, 
1812, it was removed to Fairhaven, where it was pub- 
lished as the "Bristol Gazette," which see. . 

New Bedford Pub. Lib. has Oct. 18, 1811-July 17, 
1812. Mass. Hist. Soc. has July 10, 1812. N. Y. Hist. 
Soc. has Nov. 29, 1811; Apr. 24, July 10, 17, 1812. 
A. A. S. has: 

1811. Oct. 18, 25. 
Nov. 8, 15, 29. 
Dec. 13. 

1812. Jan. 3. 
Feb. 21, 28. 
Mar. 20. 
May 1. 
June 12, 26. 
July 3. 

[New Bedford] Medley, 1792-1799. 

Weekly. Established Nov. 27, 1792, by John Spooner, 
with the title of "The Medley or Newbedford Marine 
Journal." Bo continued until the last issue located, that 
of Sept. 20, 1799, vol. 7, no. 48. 

New Bedford Pub. Lib. has Nov. 27, 1792-Nov. 21, 
1794; Feb. 13, May 8-Oct. 30, 1795; Nov. 11, 18, 
Dec. 23, 1796; Jan. 6, Feb. 17, Mar. 31-Oct. 27, 1797; 
Sept. 14, 1798. Old Dartmouth Hist. Soc. has 
Nov. 27, 1792-Oct. 31, 1794. Harvard has Feb. 13, 
1795 -Sept. 20, 1799, scattering file. Mass. Hist. 
Soc. has Feb. 27, July 8, 1796. N. Y. Hist. Soc. 
has Nov. 27, Dec. 22, 29, 1792; Jan. 5-26, Feb. 9, 
23, Mar. 2, July 5, 12, 26, Aug. 2, 1793; Jan. 16, 20, 
Feb. 3, 24, Mar. 3-24, June 2, 16, 23, Nov. 28, Dec. 
5, 12, 1794; Jan. 16, Feb. 6, Mar. 6, Oct. 2, 9, 30, Nov. 13 
20, Dec. 4, 11, 25, 1795; Jan. 1, 1796; Sept. 1, 1797; 



1915.1 Massachusetts. 425 

Mar. 30, July 17, Aug. 26, Sept. 7, 14, 1798. N. Y. Pub. 
Lib. has Mar. 17, 1794; June 3, 1796. Lib. Cong, has 
June 2, 1794. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Aug. 11, 1794. A. A. 
S. has: 

1792. Dec. 8, 22, 29. 
. 1793. Jan. 5, 12, 19, 26 

Feb. 2, 9, 16, 23. 

Mar. 2, 16, 23, 30 

Apr. 6, 13, 20. 

May 3, 24. 

Nov. 15, 18. 

Dec. 2" 23. 

1794. Jan. 13, 16, 20, 27 
Apr. 14. 

May 19. 
June 2, 9. 
Sept. 22'". 

1795. Jan. 2. 

Feb. 6, 13, 27. 
Mar. 27. 
Apr. 3, 10, 24. 
May 1, 8. 
June 19, 26. 
July 31. 
Aug. 7, 21. 
Nov. 6, 13-. 
Dec. 18. 

1796. Apr. 15. 
May 20 m , 27. 
June 10. 

July 1, 8, 15, 29. 
Oct. 21. 
Nov. 4. 
Dec. 2. 

1797. Jan. 13, 20, 27. 
Feb. 3™, 17, 23. 
Mar. 3, 10, 17. 31. 
Apr. 7, 14, 21-, 28. 



426 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

May 12, 19, 26. 
June 30. 
July 14™, 28. 
Aug. 11, 18. 
Sept. 8, 22. 
Oct. 13, 20, 27. 
Nov. 3, 17. 
Dec. 1, 8-, 15", 29. 

1798. Jan. 5, 12, 19. 
Feb. 9, 16, 23. 
Mar. 2. 

Apr. 6, 13, 27. 
May 4, 11, 18, 25. 
June 1, 15. 
Sept. 7. 

Nov. 16, 23, 30. 
Dec. 7™, 21, 28. 

1799. Jan. 18, 25"*. 
Feb. 15. . 
Apr. 5. 
July 19". 
Aug. 2. 

New Bedford Mercury. 1807- 1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Aug. 7, 1807, by Benjamin 
Lindsey with the title of " New-Bedford Mercury." 
It was so continued until after 1820. 

New Bedford Pub. Lib. has Aug. 7, 21 -Oct. 2, 16, 
1807 -Dec. 29, 1820. Old Dartmouth Hist. Soc. has 
Feb. 15, 1811; July 3, 17, 1812; Jan. 7-Dec. 2, 1814. 
Harvard has Sept. 11 -Dec. 11, 1807, scattering. Mass. 
Hist. Soc. has June 14, 1816. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Aug. 
14, 1807-Dec. 30, 1808; 1809-1811, scattering; Oct. ,22, 
1813; 1814-1820. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Mar. 25, Aug. 5, 
1808. Lib. Cong, has June 23, 1809. A. A. S. has: 
1807. Aug. 7, 21, 28. 
Sept. 4, 11, 25. 
Oct. 2, 23. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 427 

Nov. 6, 20, 27. 
Dec. 4, 11, 25. 

1808. Jan. 1, 8-. 
Feb. 12, 19. 
Mar. 25. 
June 3. 
Sept. 2, 9. 
Nov. 4. 
Dec. 9, 23. 

1809. Jan. 6, 27. 
Feb. 3, 10, 17. 
Mar. 3, 10. 
May 12, 19. 
June 30. 
Sept. 8. 

Oct. 20. 

Nov. 17. 

Dec. 1, 8», 15-. 

1810. Feb. 9, 16, 23. 
Mar. 9, 30. 
Apr. 13, 27. 
May 4, 18, 25. 
June 1, 29™. 

July 6, 13, 20, 27-. 
Aug. 3, 10. 
Sept. 21, 28. 
Oct. 5, 12, 19, 26. 
Nov. 30. 
Dec. 28. 

1811. Jan. 4, 18, 25. 
Feb. 1, 15, 22. 
Mar. 1, 15, 22, 29. 
Apr. 12. 

May 3, 10, 17. 
June 14, 21. 
July 12, 19, 26. 
Aug. 9, 16, 30". 
Sept. 27. 



428 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 





Oct. 4, 11, 18, 25 




Nov. 15, 29 m 




Dec 6, 13. 


1812. 


Jan. 3, 17. 




Feb. 21, 28. 




Apr. 17, 24. 




May 1. 




June 26. 




July 24, 31. 




Aug. 7. 




Oct. 16. 




Dec. 4. 


1813. 


May 14. 




June 4, 18. 




Nov. 19. 




Dec. 3. 


1814. 


Mar. 4, 25. 




Apr. 1, 15. 




June 3. 




July 15. 




Aug. 5, 19. 




Sept. 16, 23. 


1816. 


Feb. 16 m . 




Mar. 1, 8, 15, 31. 




Apr. 5. 




Nov. 29. 




Dec. 27. 


1817. 


Aug. 1. 


1818. 


Apr. 24. 




Aug. 7. 


1819. 


Aug. 6. 




Mar. 31. 


1820. 


Aug. ll m . 




Sept. 1, 8". 



(New Bedford] Old Colony Gazette 1808-1811. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 21, 1808, by Billings & 

Tucker (Elijah Billings and Tucker) with the 

title of "Old Colony Gazette." In June or July, 1809, 



1915.] Massachusetts. 429 

the firm was dissolved and the paper published by Elijah 
Billings. In April, 1810, Billings transferred the paper 
to David Hollis. Discontinued under this title with the 
issue of Oct. 11, 1811, vol. 3, no. 52, and succeeded by the 
"New-Bedford Gazette" which see. 

Harvard has Nov. 4-Dec. 2, 16-30, 1808; Jan. 20, 1809. 
N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 20 -Feb. 10, May 26, Sept. 8, 
Nov. 17, 30, Dec. 8, 1809; Mar. 2, 23, 30, Oct. 9, 1810; 
Jan. 11, Sept. 6, 1811. New Bedford Pub. Lib. has Feb. 
24, Mar. 24, May 12, 26, June 2, Aug. 11, Sept. 8, 1809; 
Aug. 3, Nov. 23, 1810; Mar. 8, 1811. Old Dartmouth 
Hist. Soc. has Mar. 29, 1811. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Aug. 
23, 1811. A. A. S. has:. 

1808. Oct. 21. 
Dec. 9. 

1809. Jan. 6. 

Feb. 3, 10, 17. 
Mar. 10, 17. 
May 5 m , 26. 
Oct. 6, 20. 
Nov. 24, 30. 
Dec. 8. 

1810. Jan. 12, 26. 
Feb. 2, 16. 
Mar. 9, 30. 
Apr. 13. 
May 4. 
June 8. 
July 6, 27. 
Aug. 3, 10. 
Sept. 28. 
Oct. 5, 19, 26. 
Dec. 14, 28. 

1811. Jan. 4, 25. 
Feb. 1. 
Apr. 5. 
May 3 m . 
Sept. 27. 
Oct. 4, 11. 



430 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

[Newburyport] American Intelligencer, 1801. 

Weekly. Established June 4, 1801, by Ephraim W. 
Allen, with the title of " American Intelligencer, and 
General Advertiser." The last issue located is that of 
July 30, 1801. 

Harvard and Ct. Hist. Soc. have June 4- July 30, 1801 

[Newburyport] Essex Journal, 1773-1777. 

Weekly. Established Dec. 4, 1773, by Isaiah Thomas 
and Henry- Walter Tinges, with the title of "The Essex 
Journal and Merrimack Packet: Or, the Massachusetts 
and New-Hampshire General Advertiser." The first 
issue, Dec. 4, 1773, was delivered "Gratis," together with 
a " Supplement" of the same date, and was followed by 
the second number on Dec. 29, 1773, also with a "Sup- 
plement." Thenceforth publication was regular. With 
the issue of June 22, 1774, there was a slight change in 
the set-up of the title, with the omission of the comma 
after the word "Or." With the issue of Aug. 17, 1774, 
Thomas withdrew from the firm, and a new firm, Ezra 
Lunt and Henry-Walter Tinges, began publication 
(changed in the imprint to E. Lunt and H. W. Tinges with 
the issue of Oct. 12, 1774). With the issue of Dec. 28, 
1774, the paper was increased to a larger folio and there 
was a slight change in the set-up of the title. With the 
issue of June 30, 1775, the size was decreased to one page 
because of scarcity of paper, and the title was changed 
to "The Essex Journal: Or, The Massachusetts and New- 
Hampshire General Advertiser, &c." The issue of July 
14, 1775, was omitted. With the issue of July 22, 1775, 
Lunt withdrew from the firm and the paper was pub- 
lished by John Mycall and Henry-Walter Tinges. With 
the issue of Aug. 4, 1775, the paper was reduced to a 
smaller folio and the title changed to "The Essex Journal, 
or, New-Hampshire Packet." The necessity of pub- 
lishing reduced issues made slight changes in the title in 
October and November, 1775, until with the issue of 
Nov. 17, 1775, the title was changed to its more per- 



19.15.] Massachusetts. 431 

manent form, "The Essex Journal and New-Hampshire 
Packet." With the issue of Jan. 19, 1776, Tinges retired 
from the firm and the paper was published by John 
My call. With the issue of Nov. 1, 177G, the title was 
changed to "The Essex Journal: or the New-Hampshire 
Packet, and the Weekly Advertiser." With the issue 
of Dec. 12, 1776, the paper was reduced in size and the 
title shortened to "The Essex Journal." Discontinued 
with the issue of Feb. 13, 1777, no. 163. 

Boston Athenaeum has Dec. 4, 1773 -Dec. 26, 1776. 
Mass. Hist. Soc.has Dec. 4, 1773 -Apr. 5, 1775, scattering; 
Nov. 25, 1775; Jan. 12, 19, Feb. 2, 9, 23, June 7, July 26, 
Aug. 16, 30, Oct. 18, Dec. 11, 1776; Jan. 2-16, Feb. 6, 
1777. Harvard has Feb. 2, 1774; July 26, 1776. Boston 
Pub. Lib. has Apr. 27, 1774. Essex Inst, has Feb. 2, 
1774 -Feb. 6, 1777, scattering. Newbury port Pub. Lib. 
has Jan. 5, Apr. 20, 1774. N. Y. State Lib. has Mar. 2- 
Apr. 13, 1774. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Jan. 26, Mar. 16, 
30, June 15, 1774; Apr. 26, May 3, 13, 1775; Apr. 5, July 
26, Sept. 20, Oct. 18, 25, Nov. 1, 1776; N. Y. Hist. Soc. 
has Jan. 12-Nov. 30, 1774; Nov. 17, 1775; July 12, 19, 
1776. Hist. Soc. Penn. has Sept. 27, 1776. Lib. Cong, 
has Apr. 6, 1774 -Dec. 8, 1775, scattering file; Jan. 5, 
1776-Feb. 6, 1777. Wis. Hist. Soc. has June 1, 1774; 
Jan. 19, Feb. 8, 22 -Mar. 15, 29, Apr. 19, 1775. A. A. 
S. has: 

1773. Dec. 4. 

1774. Apr. 20. 
May 25. 
June 8. 
Aug. 10. 
Sept. 28. 

1776. Apr. 12, 26: 
May 18, 24. 
June 1. 
Dec. 5, 12. 

1777. Jan. 23, 30. 
Feb. 6, 13. 



432 American Antiquarian Society. . [Oct., 

[Newburyport] Essex Journal, 1784-1794. 

Weekly. Established July 9, 1784, by John Mycall, 
with the title of "The Essex Journal and the Massachu- 
setts and New-Hampshire General Advertiser." With 
the issue of Dec. 20, 1786, the title was changed to "The 
Essex Journal & New-Hampshire Packet." With the 
issue of July 4, 1787, the paper was published by William 
Hoyt, but with the issue of July 15, 1789, was again 
published by John Mycall. It was discontinued, under 
this title, with the issue of Apr. 2, 1794, no. 511, being 
succeeded by the "Morning Star," which see. 

Lib. Cong, has July 9, 1784-Dec. 20, 1787, fair; Jan. 2, 
16, 30, June 25, July 9, Aug. 20, Sept. 24, Oct. 1, 15-Nov. 
5, Dec. 10, 31, 1788; Jan. 7, 1789 -Apr. 2, 1794, fair. 
Essex Inst, has July 9, 16, Oct. 1, 13, 27, Dec. 10, 29, 
1784; Feb. 9, Mar. 2, Apr. 6, July 20, Aug. 10, 17, Oct. 
19, Nov. 16, 23, 1785; Aug. 30, Nov. 15, 1786; Feb. 28, 
Mar. 14, Apr. 11, May 9, 30, Oct. 31, 1787; Jan. 23, Feb. 
13, 27, Mar. 12, 20, Apr. 9, Aug. 13, Oct. 15, 22, Nov. 12, 
26, 1788; Jan. 30, July 29, Aug. 26, Sept. 2, Oct. 28, 
Nov. 4, Dec. 23, 1789; Jan. 6-20, Feb. 24, Mar. 3, Apr. 
15, May 5, June 9, Aug. 11-25, Sept. 8-29, Dec. 16, 1790; 
Jan. 12, Feb. 2 -Mar. 23, Apr. 6, 25, May 4, June 22- 
July 6, 27, Aug. 31, Sept. 7, 21, Oct. 5, 12, 26, Nov. 2, 
Dec. 28, 1791; Feb. 8, Mar. 21, Apr. 25, May 16, July 
11, 25, Sept. 5, 12, Oct. 31, 1792; Jan. 9, Feb. 20, Apr. 3, 

24, May 15, Sept. 11, 1793; Jan. 1, Mar. 12, 1794. Har- 
vard has June 22-Sept. 21, scattering, Nov. 2, 1791; 
May 16, 1792. Mass. Hist. Soc. has Aug. 6, Sept. 24, 
1784; June 8, Aug. 10, 17, Sept. 21, 1785; May 2, 1787; 
Feb. 13, Mar. 12, 1788; Nov. 4, 18, 1789; Jan. 6, 20, 
Sept. 22, 1790; Feb. 9, Mar. 9, July 6, Oct. 26, Nov. 2, 
1791; Dec. 5, 1792; Feb. 13, July 10, 1793. Newbury- 
port Pub. Lib. has Sept. 3, Oct. 15, 22, 1788; Feb. 11, 

25, Oct. 28, 1789; Mar. 24, Aug. 18, 25, Sept. 29, Oct. 13, 
Dec. 8, 22, 29, 1790; Jan. 5, 1791 -Mar. 19, 1794, scatter- 
ing file. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has July 9, 1784-June 28, 
Sept. 27, Oct. 18, Dec. 6, 20, 1786; Feb. 7, May 2, Nov. 



1015.] Massachusetts. 433 

21, 1787; Apr. 21, June 23, Aug. 18, Nov. 24, 1790; Mar. 
2, 30, July 20, Nov. 9, 179J ; Mar. 7, Oct. 3, 1792; Mar. 6, 
July 17, Dec. 25, 1793. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Nov. 21, 
1784; Feb. 2, Nov. 10, 1785; Mar. 22, 1780; Jan. 4, 1792- 
Dec. 25, 1793, scattering. Phil. Lib. Co. has Oct. 9, 10, 
1793. Wis. Hist. Soc. has July 10, Aug. 0, 27-Sept. 24, 
Oct. 20, Nov. 10, Dec. 1, 1784; Jan. 5, 20, Mar. 30, June 

22, July 20, Aug. 3, Sept. 21, Oct. 19, Nov. 2, Dee. 14, 
1785. A. A. S. has: 

1784. July 9 to Dec. 29. 

Missing: July 9, Aug. 27, Sept. 3, 10, 
Oct. 0, 13, 20, Nov. 3, Dec. 8. 

1785. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated: Jan. 12, 20, Feb. 10, 23, Mar. 

30, Sept. 7, Oct. 20, Nov. 2, Dec. 14. 
Missing: Mar. 10, Apr. 0, 13, 20, 27, 

May 11, June 15, 29, Aug. 3, Sept. 14, 

21, Oct. 5, 12, Nov. 9, 10, 23, Dec. 21. 

1786. Jan. 4 to Dee. 27. 

Mutilated: Jan. 25, Feb. 15, Mar. 8, 15, 

22, 29, June 28, July 5, 

Missing: Jan. 4, 11, 18, Feb. 8, Apr. 12, 
19, 20, May 10, 17, 24, July 12, 19, 20, 
Aug. 10, Sept. 0, Oct. 25, Nov. 22, 29, 
Dec. 13. 

1787. Jan. 3 to Dec. 20. 

Mutilated: Feb. 7, July 11, Aug. 1, 15, 

Oct. 10. 
Missing: Jan. 10, 24, 31, Apr. 4, June 13, 

27, July 4, Aug. 22, Sept. 5, 12, 19, 

Dec. 5. 

1788. Jan. 2 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: May 21, June 4, July 23, Dec. 
3. 

Missing: Feb. 20, 27, Mar. 20, Apr. 9, 
June 25, July 2, Sept. 17, Oct. 15, 22, 
29, Nov. 5, 20, Dc<;. 17, 24. 



434 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

1789. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Jan. 14, 28, Apr. 8, Oct. 7. 

Missing: Feb. 4, 25, Mar. 4, 11; 18, 25, 
Apr. 22, 29, June 3, 10, 17, July 1, 8, 22, 
Aug. 5, 19, Sept. 23, 30, Oct. 21, 28. 

1790. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: July 21, Dec. 1. 

1791. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated: Sept. 7. 

Missing: Jan. 26, Feb. 9, 23, Mar. 23, 30, 
Sept. 14, Nov. 2, 30, Dec. 14. 

1792. Jan. 4 to Dec. 26. 

Mutilated: Feb. 8, Mar. 7, Apr. 25, June 

13, Dec. 19. 
Missing: Jan. 11, 25, Feb. 22, May 2, 23, 

30, June 27, July 11, Aug. 15, Oct. 10, 
Nov. 21, 28. 

1793. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

Mutilated: May 1, Oct. 2, 23, Nov. 6, 

Dec. 11. 
Missing: Mar. 6, Apr. 3, 17, 24, May 15, 

29, June 12, 19, 26, July 3., 10, 17, 24, 

31, Aug. 14, 21, 28, Sept. 4, 11, 18. 

1794. Jan. 1 to Apr. 2. 

Mutilated: Feb. 5, 12, 26, Apr. 2. 

Newburyport Gazette, 1807. 

Semi-weekly. Established Apr. 7, 1807, by Benjamin 
Edes, with the title of "Newburyport Gazette." The 
last issue located is that of Sept. 18, 1807, vol. 1, no. 48. 
Harvard has Apr. 7, 9, 20, 30, May 4, 18, 28, June 1, 
22, July 2-16, 23, Aug. 10, 24-Sept. 3, 10-18, 1807. 
A. A. S. has: 

1807. Apr. 7. 
May 11. 
July 6, 9. 
Aug. 10, 13, 17. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 435 

Newburyport Herald, 1797-1820+ . 

Semi-weekly. Established Oct. 31, 1797, with the 
title of "The Newburyport Herald and Country Gazette," 
by Barrett & March (William Barrett and Angier March, 
who consolidated their respective papers, the "Political 
Gazette" and the "Impartial Herald"), With the issue 
of Dec. 22, 1797, the partnership was dissolved and the 
paper published by Angier March. With the issue of 
Apr. 11, 1800, it was published by Chester Stebbins for 
the Proprietor, but with the issue of Oct. 17, 1800, it 
was again published by Angier March. Because of ill 
health March transferred the paper to Allen & Stickney 
(Ephraim W. Allen and Jeremiah Stickney) who began 
as publishers with the issue of Aug. 4, 1801. With the 
issue of June 18, 1802, Stickney disposed of his interests 
to John Barnard and the paper was published by Allen 
'& Barnard. The title was shortened to "Newburyport 
Herald" with the issue of Mar. 4, 1803. The partnership 
was dissolved and the paper published by E. W. Allen 
with the issue of July 12, 1803. With the issue of Apr. 2, 
1805, it was published by Wm. B. Allen for E. W. Allen, 
and with Dec. 3, 1805, by E. W. Allen. The office was 
burned out by a fire on May 31, 1811, which caused a 
reduction to a half-sheet for a fortnight following. The 
title was changed to " Newburyport Herald. And Country 
Gazette" with the issue of Dec. 3, 1811. Allen sold the 
paper to Henry Small, who began publishing it with the 
issue of Apr. 18, 1815 and changed the title to "New- 
buryport Herald, and Commercial Gazette"; but with 
the issue of Oct. 3, 1815, it reverted to E. W. Allen. 
With the issue of Feb. 10, 1816, it was published for 
E. W. Allen by B[enjamin] W. Folsom, and with the issue 
of Mar. 15, 1816, by B. W. Folsom. With the issue of 
Feb. 4, 1817, it was published by William Hastings for 
E. W. Allen, With the issue of Apr. 25, 1817, the title 
was changed to "Newburyport Herald, Commercial and 
Country Gazette," and it was published by William 
Hastings for the Proprietors. With the issue of Feb. 4, 



436 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

1818, E. W. Allen again became publisher, changing the 
title to "Newbury port Herald." With the issue of 
June 1, 1819, H[enry] R. Stickney's name appeared as 
printer, although the name of E. W. Allen remained as 
publisher. With the issue of Feb. 4, 1820, the name of 
E. W. Allen as publisher was the only one in the imprint, 
and so continued until after 1820. 

Essex Inst, has Oct. 31, 1797-1820, nearly complete. 
Newburyport Pub. Lib. has Nov. 14, 1797-July 30, 1802; 
Apr. 19, 1803 -Dec. 29, 1820. Newburyport Hist. Soc. 
has Jan. -Apr., Sept. 17, Oct. 19, 1802, and a few other scat- 
tering issues. Harvard has Oct. 31, 1797-Dec. 30, 1808, 
scattering file. Mass. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 2, 16, 1798. 
Boston Pub. Lib. has Aug. 14, 1798. Boston Athenaeum 
has May 1-8, 1801; Apr. 14, 1807-Mar. 28, 1809. N. Y. 
Pub. Lib. has Apr. 13, 1798; Aug. 16-23, Sept. 13, 1799; 
Sept. 25, 1804; Aug. 20, Oct. 11, 1811; Mar. 31, June 26, 
Aug. 7, 1812; Feb. 9, Mar. 23, July 6, Sept. 10, Oct. 1, 
12, 1813; Jan. 25, Feb. 25, Apr. 29, 1814; Mar. 11, 1815. 
Long Id. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 26, 30, 1800; Mar. 13, 17, 
Aug. 7, 1801. Lib. Cong, has Oct. 31, 1797-Oct. 16, 1798, 
fair; Jan. 11, Feb. 8, May 7, June 21, Sept. 17, 1799; 
Feb. 11, Mar. 7, Nov. 16, 21, Dec. 16, 1800, and a few later 
issues. A. A. S. has: 

1797. Nov. 7, 10, 14, 17. 
Dec. 1, 5, 8, 12", 19 m . 

1798. Jan. 5, 9, 16, 19, 26, 30. 
Feb. 2, 6, 9, 13, 20, 23, 27. 
Mar. 2, 13, 16, 20, 23-, 30. 
Apr. 3, 9, 17. 

May 8, 11, 25, 29. 

June 1, 5, 19. 

July 13," 17, 20, 31. 

Sept. 7-, 11, 14, 21, 25, 28. 

Oct. 12, 16, 30. 

Nov. 6, 9, 13, 20, 30. 

Dec. 4, 7, 11, 14, 18, 21,25. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 437 

1799. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Mar. 22, 26, Aug. 16, Sept. 6, 
27. 

Missing: Jan. 4, 15, 22, 29, Feb. 1, 8, 19, 
Mar. 1, 12, 15, 29, Apr. 12, 16, 19, 23, 
27, May 4 to July 9, Oct. 29. 

1800. Jan. 3 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: June 20, 24, Oct. 17, 28. 
Missing: Jan. 3, Feb. 25, 28, Mar. 18, 

June 27, Aug. 19, Oct. 7, Nov. 11 -Dec. 5, 

16, 19, 23, 26, 30. 

1801. Jan. 2 to Dec. 29. 
Extra: Nov. 17. 

Mutilated: Jan. 16, Feb. 10, 17, 24, 27, 
Mar. 6, 27, 31, Apr. 7, 14, 17, 28, May 
29, July 10. 

Missing: June 26, 30, July 3. 

1802. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Jan. 26. 

Missing: June 22, July 2, Aug. 13 to 
Dec. 31. 

1803. Jan. 4 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Feb. 11. 

Missing: Jan. 4, 7, 11, 14, 18, 21, 25, Feb. 
1, 8, 15, 18, 25, Mar. 1, 4, 8, 11, 18, 22, 
25, Apr. 1, 5, 8, 12, 15, 19, 22, 26. 

1804. Jan. 3 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated: Apr. 13, May 11. 

1805. Jan. 1, 4, 8, 11, 15, 18, 22, 25, 29. 
Feb. 1, 5, 8, 11, 15, 19, 22, 26. 
Mar. 1, 5, 8, 12™, 15, 19,22, 26, 29. 
Apr. 2, 30 m . 

May 10, 17, 31. 
June 4. 

1806. Mar. 4, 14. 

1807. Jan. 27. 
Feb. 6 m . 
July 31. 



438 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

1808. Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: May 6, Aug. 30, Nov. 29. 

Missing: Jan. 1, 8, 19, Feb. 2, Mar. 8, 11, 
18, 22, 25, Apr. 1, 5, 8, 12, May 3, 13, 20, 
27, 31, June 10, 14, 17, 24, July 1, 5, 8, 
12, 22, Aug. 2, 9, 12, 23, 26, Sept. 6, 9, 
16, 20, 23, Oct. 4, Dec. 2, 16, 27. 

1809. Apr. 28. 

May 12, 16 w , 19, 23, 26, 30. 
June 2, 6, 9, 13, 27, 30. 
July 4, 7, 11, 14, 21- 25, 28. 
Aug. 1, 4, 11, 15, 18, 22, 29. 
Sept. 1, 5, 12, 15, 19, 22. 
Oct. 3, 6, 10, 13, 24, 27, 31. 
Nov. 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, 24, 28, 30. 
Dec. 5, 12, 15, 19, 26™, 29. 

1810. Jan. 1, 5, 12"'. 
Feb. 2, 6, 13, 20. 

Apr. 6, 10, 13, 17, 20-, 24, 27. 
May 1, 4, 8, 11, 15, 18, 22, 25, 29. 
June 1, 5, 8, 12, 15, 19, 22, 26-, 29. 
July 3, 6-, 10, 13, 17, 20, 24, 27, 31. 
Aug. 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, 24, 28, 31. 
Sept. 4™, 25. 
Oct. 2-. 
Nov. 9 m . 
Dec. 4. 

1811. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Supplement : June 5. 

Mutilated: Jan. 15, Aug. 6, Sept. 13, Oct. 
8, 11, 18, 22, 25, Nov. 5, 8, 19, Dec. 20. 
Missing: Jan. 8, June 1, 5, Sept. 27. 

1812. Jan. 6, 17. 
Sept. 22"'. 

1813. Mar. 5, 12-, 16, 19, 23. 
May 4, 11,28. 

June 4. 
Sept. 17. 
Nov. 2, 19, 23. 
Dec. 14"', 28"'. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 439 

1814. Jan. 4 to Dec. 30. 

Extra: Oct. 28. 

Mutilated: Feb. 8, Apr. 1) 5, 26, May 13, 

31, June 14, Aug. 12, 16, Sept. 2, 27, 

Oct. 14, 25, 28, Dec. 9, 13. 
Missing: Jan. 4, 7, 11, 14, 18, 25, 28, Feb. 

1, 4, 11, 15, 18, 22, 25, Mar. 4, 8, 11, 15, 

18, 22, 25, 29, Dec. 2. 
, 1815. Mar. 3-, T\ 

Apr. 4 m , 7, ll m , 18 M , 21 m , 25™. 

May 5, 9, 30. 

June 20. 

Aug. 29 m . 

Sept. 5, 8 m , 12. 

Oct. 6, 17"*, 20. 

Nov. 10"\ 

Dec. 8. 

1816. Jan. 2, 5, 9, 16, 19, 23, 26 m , 30. 
Feb. 2, 6, 9, 16, 20, 23, 27. 
Mar. 1, 5, 8, 12, 15, 19, 22. 
Apr. 5, 9, 16, 23, 26, 30. 

May 3, 7, 17, 21, 25, 28, 31. 
June 4, 7, 11, 14™, 21, 28 m . 
July 2, 4, 9, 12, 19™, 23, 26, 30. 
Aug. 2, 6, 9, 13, 16, 20, 23, 27, 30. 
Sept. 6, 10, 17, 20, 24, 27. 

1817. Jan. 17. 
Feb. 14. 
Aug. 8, 29. 
Sept. 12, 16-. 
Oct. 3. 

1818. Apr. 17, 21 : 
Aug. 7, 11. 
Sept. 11,25-. 
Oct. 13'". 

1819. May 4, 7 m . 

1820. Jan. 28. 
Nov. 7. 



440 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

[Newburyport] Impartial Herald, 1793-1797. 

Weekly and semi-weekly. Established May 18, 1793, 
by Blunt and Robinson (Edmund M. Blunt and Howard 

5. Robinson). With the issue of Feb. 28, 1794, the firm 
was dissolved and the paper published by Edmund M. 
Blunt. With the issue of Aug. 23, 1794, Blunt took 
Angier March into partnership under the firm name of 
Blunt & March, who with the issue of Dec. 16, 1794, 
changed the issue to a semi-weekly. With the issue of 
Sept. 24, 1796, Blunt withdrew and the paper was pub- 
lished by Angier March. The last issue is that of Oct. 
27, 1797, vol. 5, no. 380, after which this paper and the 
"Political Gazette" were consolidated and a new paper 
published entitled "Newburyport Herald," which see. 

Essex Inst, has May 18, 1793-Dec. 29, 1795; Jan. 26, 
Feb. 2, 5, 12, 23, Mar. 18, June 14, Sept. 3, 27, Nov. 15, 
Dec. 20, 1796; Jan. 3 -Oct. 27, 1797. Newburyport 
Pub. Lib. has Oct. 12, 1793; Dec. 5, 1794-June 6, 1795; 
Oct. 30, 1795 -Sept. 24, Oct. 28, 1796. Newburyport 
Hist. Soc. has July, 1793-Dec, 1794; May-Dec, 1795. 
Harvard has Feb. 20, 1795 -Oct. 7, 1797, scattering. 
Boston Athenaeum has Sept. 12, 19, 29, Oct. 17, 27, 30, 
Dec 22, 1795; Jan. 1, 5, 19 -Mar. 29, Apr. 26, May 17, 
24, June 21, 28, July 42, 1796. Amesbury Pub. Lib. 
has Feb. 10, 1795. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has June 22, Nov. 22, 
1793; June 7, 1794; Mar. 3, May 12, July 14, 1795-Dec. 
9, 1796; Jan. 17, 20, Apr. 1, 1797. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has 
Oct. 18, 1794; Dec 25, 1795. N. Y. State Lib. has Aug. 
22, 1797. Phil. Lib. Co. has Apr. 25, Sept. 29, Nov. 
3, 17, 24, 1795; Jan. 1. 15, 19, 26, Feb. 23, Apr. 1, 5, 24, 
Aug. 9, 1796. Lib. Cong, has July 27-Aug. 10, 31, Oct. 
26, 1793; Nov. 7, 1794; Feb. 20, May 16, June 27, Aug. 8, 
11, Oct. 6, Nov. 24, Dec 1, 25, 1795; Jan. 5, 19, Mar. 
1-8, Apr. 5, 30, June 25, Nov. 1, 1796; Jan. 20-Oct. 2, 
1797. Wis. Hist. Soc has Dec 26, 1794; Jan. 2, 16, Feb. 

6, Mar. 24, 27, Apr. 3, Sept. 1, 22, Nov. 27, 1795. A. A. 
S. has: 



1915.] Massachusetts. 441 

1793. Aug. 3, 17, 24. 
Nov. 2, 9, 15", 29. 

1794. Jan. 3, 10, 17, 24. 
Feb. 14, 28. 
Apr. 18, 25. 
May 24. 

July 19. 

1795. Apr. 14, 21, 25, 28. 
May 2, 5™, 9, 19. 
June 23, 27, 30. 
July 7, 11, 14, 18, 25. 

Aug. 1, 11, 15, 18, 22-, 25, 29. 
Sept. 1, 8. 
Nov. 17, 20, 24. 
Dec. 4, 22. 

1796. May 21, 28, 31. 

June 7, 11* 18, 21, 25, 28- 

July 9, 12, 16. 

Sept. 17"'. 

Oct. 1, 18, 21, 25, 28. 

Nov. 1, 4, 15, 18, 22™, 25, 29". 

Dec. 6, 13, 20, 30. 

1797. Jan. 6, 20, 31. 

Feb. 3, 10, 14, 21, 24, 28. 
Mar. 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, 28. 
Apr. 1,4, 7, 11, 15, 18, 29-. 
June 3, 20, 24, 27. 
July 4*, 8* 15*, 22-. 
Aug. 5, 8, 15* 19-, 22. 
Sept. 12, 16, 19, 30-. 
Oct. 3, 7, 14, 17, 21, 24, 27-. 

[Newburyport] Independent Whig, 1810-1811. 

Weekly and semi-weekly. Established Mar. 22, 1810, 
judging from the date of the earliest issue located, that 
of Apr. 5, 1810, vol. 1, no. 3, published by N[athaniel] 
H. Wright, with the title of "Independent Whig." 
With the issue of Oct. 10, 1810, the publication was 



442 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

changed to semi-weekly. On Feb. 5, 1811, his office was 
destroyed by his political opponents, and it was Mar. 9, 
1811, before he was able to bring out another issue of his 
paper. It was thereafter published weekly. The last 
issue located is that of May 2, 1811, vol. 2, no. 19. In 
the "Essex Register" of June 25, 1811, Mr. Wright 
inserted an article explaining the causes of the discon- 
tinuance of his paper. 

Newburyport Pub. Lib. has Aug. 30, 1810. Newbury- 
port Hist. Soc. has Jan. 1, 1811. Amesbury Pub. Lib. 
has July 4, 1810. Essex Inst, has Nov. 7, 1810; Jan. 30, 
1811. Mass. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 9, 1811. A. A. S. has: 

1810. Apr. 5, 12. 
May 3™, 17. 
June 14, 21. 
July 4, 12, 19. 
Aug. 2, 10, 23, 30. 
Sept. 13. 

Oct. 24™ 27 m . 
Nov. 3, 10. 
Dec. 5, 8, 22, 26. 

1811. Jan. 1, 9, 12, 16, 19, 30. 
Mar. 16, 23, 28. 

May 2. 

[Newburyport] Merrimack Gazette, 1803-1804. 

Weekly. Established Mar. 21, 1803, by Caleb Cross, 
with the title of " Merrimack Gazette." With the issue 
of Sept. 17, 1803, the title was changed to " Merrimack 
Gazette, and Essex Advertiser." The last issue located 
is that of Feb. 11, 1804. It was evidently discontinued 
with the issue of Feb. 18, as the " Newburyport Herald" 
of Feb. 21, 1804, records: "The 'Merrimack Gazette,' 
a democratic paper heretofore published in this town, on 
Saturday last, about meridian, rested from its labors!" 

Essex Inst, has Mar. 21 -Aug. 20, Sept. 10-Oct. 15, 
1803- Harvard has Apr. 2, 16, 30-May 14, 28, June 
11 -Aug. 20, Sept. 3, 17 -Oct. 15, 29 -Dec. 24, 1803; Jan. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 443 

7, Feb. 11, 1804. Amesbury Pub. Lib. has July 1, 9, 
Aug. 20, 27, Sept. 1, 3, 17, Oct. 1, 8, 1803. A. A. S. has: 
1803. Sept. 3. 
Oct. 8. 

[Newburyport] Merrimack Magazine, 1805-1806. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 17, 1805, by Whittingham 
& John Gilman, with the title of " Merrimack Magazine 
and Ladies' Literary Cabinet." Although nominally 
a magazine, it contained vital records and current local 
and domestic news, and could well be included as a news- 
paper. It was of quarto size, paged and provided with 
a title-page and index. The last issue located, that of 
Aug. 9, 1806, vol. 1, no. 52, referred to the possible com- 
mencement of a second volume. 

Essex Inst, has Aug. 17, 1805- Aug. 9, 1806. Amesbury 
-Pub. Lib. has Apr. 26, 1806. A. A. S. has: 
1805. Sept. 14. 

[Newburyport] Morning Star. 1794. 

Weekly. Established Apr. 8, 1794, by Howard S. 
Robinson, with the title of "The Morning Star." With 
the issue of May 20, 1794, Robinson admitted Benjamin 
Tucker to partnership under the firm name of Robinson 
& Tucker. With the issue of Oct, 14, 1794, the firm 
was dissolved and the paper published by Benjamin 
Tucker. It was discontinued with the issue of Dec. 3, 
1794, vol. 1, no. 35, Tucker having sold out to Blunt & 
March, the publishers of the "Impartial Herald." 

Newburyport Pub. Lib. has Apr. 8 -Dec. 3, 1794. 
Essex Inst, has Apr. 8 -Nov. 26, 1794. Lib. Cong, has 
July 22, Sept. 16, 1794. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Oct. 21, 
1794. A. A. S. has: 

1794. Apr. 8 to Dec. 3. 

Mutilated: Apr. 15, 29, June 3, 10, 17, 
24, July 8, 29, Aug. 5, 12, 19, 26, Sept. 9, 
16, Oct. 21, Nov. 5, 26. 
Missing: Apr. 8, Oct. 7. 



444 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

[Newburyport] New England Repertory, 1803-1804. 

Semi-weekly. Established July 6, 1803, with the title 
of " New-England Repertory," published by John Bar- 
nard, for John Park. Beginning with the issue of Sept. 3, 
1803, the name of John Barnard was omitted from the 
imprint. The paper was discontinued at Newburyport 
with the issue of Jan. 21, 1804, vol. 1, no. 57, and was 
removed to Boston, where it was continued by John Park 
under the title of "The Repertory." 

Newburyport Pub. Lib., Essex Inst., Mass. Hist. Soc, 
Boston Pub. Lib., Boston Athenaeum, Dartmouth, N. Y. 
Hist. Soc., N. Y. State Lib., and Lib. Cong, have files, 
July 6, 1803-Jan. 21, 1804. A. A. S. has: 

1803. July 6 to Dec. 31. 

Missing: Dec. 24. 

1804. Jan. 4 to Jan. 21. 

[Newburyport] Political Calendar, 1804-1805. 

Weekly and semi-weekly. Established Mar. 26, 1804, 
with the title of "Political Calendar," published by Caleb 
Cross and edited by Joshua Lane. It was at first intended 
to call the paper the "Republican Directory," according 
to the prospectus. It was also announced as a semi- 
weekly, but it was not so published until the issue of Apr. 
19, 1804. The name of Joshua Lane, as editor, disap- 
peared from the imprint with the issue of May 3, 1804. 
With the issue of Oct. 1, 1804, the paper became a weekly, 
and with the issue of Oct. 15, 1804, the title was changed 
to "Political Calendar And Essex Advertiser." The 
last issue located is that of June 17, 1805, vol. 2, no. 89. 
Harvard has Mar. 26, 1804-June 17, 1805, fair. Essex 
Inst, has Sept. 17, 1804; Mar. 11, 1805. A. A. S. has: 
1804. Apr. 16, 23. 

May 10, 14, 17, 28, 31. 

June 4, 7 m , 11, 14. 

July 2. 

Aug. 2 m , 27. 

Sept. 3. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 445 

Oct. 15. 

Dec. 24. 

1805. Jan. 14. 

[Newburyport] Political Gazette, 1795-1797. 

Weekly. Established Apr. 30, 1795, by William 
Barrett, with the title of "Political Gazette." The last 
issue was that of Oct. 27, 1797, vol. 3, no. 27, after which 
this paper and the "Impartial Herald" were consolidated 
and a new paper published entitled the "Newburyport 
Herald," which see. 

Harvard has Apr. 30, 1795-Apr. 27, 1797, fair; Oct. 5, 
12, 20, 27, 1797. Newburyport Pub. Lib. has Apr. 30, 
1795-Jan. 26, 1796; July 21, 1796; Apr. 7, Oct. 12, 1797. 
Newburyport Hist. Soc. has Dec. 8, 1795; Aug. 17, 1797. 
Boston Athenaeum has Sept. 10, 1795-Jan. 19, Feb. 2, 
May 5 -June 30, July 14, Aug. 4, 1796. Essex Inst, has 
Dec. 23, 1796; Jan. 6, 27, Feb. 3, 1797. Lib. Cong, has 
Sept. 10, 17, Oct. 8, 1795; Feb. 16, Sept. 15, 1796; Feb. 
17, 24, June 22, Aug. 17, Oct. 27, 1797. A. A. S. has: 

1795. Aug. 6, 13, 27. 
Nov. 17, 24. 
Dec. 8, 22, 29. 

1796. Feb. 2. 
May 26. 
June 2, 9, 16. 
July 7. 
Aug. 18. 

Oct. 6 ro , 13 m , 20, 28. 
Nov. 4,18, 25. 
Dec. 2, 30-. 
Supplement: Sept. 29. 

1797. Jan. 6 to Oct. 27. 

Missing: Jan. 6, 13, 20, 27, May 4, 11, 
June 1, 8, 22, Aug. 3, Oct. 12, 27. 

[Newburyport] Statesman, 1808-1809. 

Semi-weekly. Established Aug. 15, 1808, with the 
title of "The Statesman," published by W. Griffin, for 



446 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

the Proprietor. With the issue of Aug. 29, 1808, it was 
published by Joseph Gleason, Jun'r, the Proprietor. 
The last issue located is that of Mar. 9, 1809, vol. 2, no. 6. 
Wis. Hist. Soc. has Aug. 15, 1808 -Feb. 27, Mar. 9, 
1809. Boston Athenaeum has Aug. 15, 1808-Feb. 27, 
1809, (not found, 1916). Newburyport Pub. Lib. has 
Aug. 18, Sept. 29, Nov. 3, 1808; Jan. 5, 30, Feb. 9, 20, 
23, Mar. 9, 1809. Harvard has Aug. 29, Sept. 19-29, 
Oct. 17, 31, Nov. 7, 21, 28, 30, Dec. 8, 22, 29, 1808. 
Essex Inst, has Sept. 29, Nov. 10, 1808. A. A. S. has: 

1808. Aug. 15 to Dec. 29. 

Missing: Aug. 29, Oct. 31. 

1809. Jan. 2 to Mar. 9. 

Missing: Mar. 2, 6. 

[Northampton] Anti-Monarchist, 1808-1810. 

Weekly. Established Dec. 14, 1808, with the title of 
" Anti-Monarchist, and Republican Watchman," "Pub- 
lished for the Proprietor. C. Sawtell, Printer." In 
December, 1809, the name of Sawtell, as printer, was 
omitted and the paper was merely "Published for the 
Proprietor. " There is no clue as to the name of the pub- 
lisher until the issue of Oct. 10, 1810, when Charles Shep- 
herd offers the establishment for sale. The last issue 
located is that of Nov. 14, 1810, vol. 2, no. 101, and it is 
probable that the paper finished out the volume to no. 
104. 

Harvard has Dec. 21, 28, 1808. Pocumtuck Valley 
Mem. Assoc, Deerfield, has June 28, July 26, Aug. 16. 
30, Sept. 6, 13, Oct. 18, Nov. 22, 1809. N. Y. State Lib. 
has Aug. 8, 1810. Lib. Cong, has Feb. 1, Oct. 18, Nov, 
8, 22, 1809; Aug. 29, 1810. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 21, 
1808; Jan. 25, 1809. A. A. S. has: 

1808. Dec. 14, 21, 28. 

1809. Jan. 4, 11, 25. 
Feb. 1, 8, 15. 
Mar. 1"\ 15, 22, 29. 
Apr. 5, 19. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 447 

May 3, 10 m . 

Oct. 11, 18, 25. 

Dec. 27. 

Supplement: Mar. 15, 22. 

1810. Jan. 3, 10, 17, 24, 31. 
Feb. 28-. 

Mar. 14, 21, 28, 31. 

Apr. 11. 

May 9, 16, 30-. 

June 6. 

July 4, 11, 18. 

Aug. 1, 8, 22. 

Sept. 5, 19, 26. 

Oct. 3, 10, 17, 24, 31. 

Nov. 14. 

[Northampton] Democrat, 1811-1813. 

Weekly. Established Mar. 12, 1811, "printed for the 
Proprietors," and with the title of "The Democrat." 
The editor's address refers to "the revival of the repub- 
lican press in this county," an evident reference to the 
late "Anti-Monarchist." With the issue of Jan. 7, 1812, 
the paper was "printed by Galen Ware, for the Pro- 
prietors." Beginning with March, 1812, it was printed 
by Clapp and Ware (Caleb Clapp and Galen Ware). 
With the issue of Apr. 7, 1812, the partnership was dis- 
solved and the paper printed by Caleb Clapp. The last 
issue located is that of Aug. 17, 1813, vol. 3, no. 128. 

Forbes Lib., Northampton, has Mar. 24, 1812- Mar. 2, 
1813. Pocumtuck Valley Mem. Assoc, Deerfield, has 
June 11, 18, 1811; Jan. 14, 1812; Feb. 23, Mar. 2, 1813. 
Ct. Hist. Soc. has Aug. 20, 1811. Boston Pub. Lib. has 
Apr. 14, 1812. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Aug. 18, 1812. 
A. A. S. has: 

1811. Mar. 12, 19, 26. 
Apr. 2, 23. 
May 7, 14, 21. 
July 2 m , 23, 30. 
Aug. 6, 20. 



448 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Sept. 17, 24. 
Oct. 8, 15, 29. 
Nov. 5, 12, 19. 
Dec. 3, 10, 24. 

1812. Jan. 7. 
Feb. 11. 
Mar. 17. 
Apr. 14. 
May 12, 19. 
June 9, 
July 14. 
Aug. 4, 25 m . 
Sept. 1, 22. 
Oct. 13. 
Dec. 2, 8. 

1813. Feb. 9. 
May 18. 
June 22, 29 m . 
Aug. 17. 

[Northampton] Hampshire Gazette, 1786-1820+. 

Weekly. Established by William Butler, Sept. 6, 
1786, with the title of "The Hampshire Gazette," judg- 
ing from the date of the prospectus and the earliest issue 
located, that of Sept. 13, 1786, no. 2. The title was 
changed to "Hampshire Gazette'' with the issue of Apr. 
18, 1792. With the issue of July 5, 1815, Butler trans- 
ferred the paper to William W. Clapp, although Clapp 
allowed Butler's name to stand in the imprint in this issue, 
and the issue of July 12, 1815, had no name of printer. 
With the issue of July 19, 1815, Clapp appeared as pub- 
lisher and the title was changed to "Hampshire Gazette. 
And Northampton Advertiser." With the issue of Aug. 
2, 1815, the title was changed to "Hampshire Gazette. 
And Publick Advertiser," but with that of Apr. 3, 1816, 
the "And" was omitted. With the issue of Mar. 5, 
1817, Clapp sold out the paper to Bates & Judd (Isaac 
C. Bates and Hophni Judd), although no publisher's 



1915.] Massachusetts. 449 

name appeared as an imprint. With the issue of Mar. 
12, 1817, the title was changed to "Hampshire Gazette 
& Public Advertiser." With the issue of June 11, 1817, 
the imprint was given as "Published by Thomas W. 
Shepard, & Co." Hophni Judd, one of the proprietors, 
died Mar. 15, 1818. With the issue of Jan. 5, 1819, the 
"&" in the title was changed to "and," and with the 
issue of Jan. 4, 1820, the title was shortened to "Hamp- 
shire Gazette." So continued until after 1820. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has Sept. 20, 1786 -Dec. 20, 1798; 
Jan. 19, 1803; June 4, 1800; Feb. 10, 1808; Nov. 9, 1819. 
Northampton Pub. Lib. has Sept. 12, 1787-Aug. 13, 
1788; Sept. 4, 1789 -Dec. 14, 1791; Jan. 2, 1793 -Dec. 28, 
1796; Jan. 3, 1798 -Dec. 24, 1806; Jan. 6, 1808-1820. 
Hampshire Gazette Office has 1787-1792, a few scatter- 
ing issues; Mar. 21, 1792-Dec. 11, 1793, fair; 1794-1795, 
a few issues; Jan. 20-Dec. 21, 1796; 1797-1800, a few 
issues; Feb. 4-Dec. 2, 1801, fair; 1802, a few issues; 1803- 
1804; 1807-1820. Harvard has May 9, 1792; Jan. 1, 
1794-Dec. 30, 1795; Mar. 8-Apr. 26, Oct. 11, Nov. 22, 
1797; Jan. 10, May 9, 23, July 11, 1798; Apr. 30-Dec. 
31, 1800, scattering; Jan. 7, 1801-Sept. 18, 1805, fair; 
Nov. 6, 1806; Oct. 7, 1807; Oct. 5, 1808. Forbes Lib., 
Northampton, has Feb. -Nov., 1800. Boston Pub. Lib. 
has Sept. 20, 1786- July 20, 1787, good; Aug. 22, 1787- 
Oct. 17, 1792, scattering issues; Aug. 1-15, 1798; Sept. 
14, 1803. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Feb. 21, 1787-Nov. 17, 
1790, a few issues; Mar. 12-Dec. 10, 1788, fair; Jan. 19- 
Oct. 26, 1791, fair; Mar. 30, 1796-Nov. 15, 1809, a few 
scattering issues; June 4-Dec. 31, 1817. Lib. Cong. 
has Jan. 29, 1812- Dec. 27, 1815, fair; and a few scatter- 
ing issues in 1788-1800, 1805-1811, and 1817-1820. 
Springfield City Lib. , Pocumtuck Valley Mem. Assoc, 
N. Y. Pub. Lib., and Wis. Hist. Soc. have a few scattering 
issues which are included in other files. A. A. S. has: 
1786. Sept 6 to Dec. 27. 

Also fac-sim., Sept. 20. 

Mutilated: Sept. 13. 

Missing: Sept. 6. 



450 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

1787. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 

Mutilated: Aug. 29. 

Missing: June 27, July 11, 25, Sept. 12, 
Nov. 14. 

1788. Jan. 2 to Dec. 31. 
Supplement: Feb. 6. 

Mutilated: July 23, Nov. 19, 26. 
Missing: Feb. 13, May 14, June 11, 25, 

July 9, Aug. 20, Sept. 10, Oct. 1, 8, Nov. 

12, Dec. 3, 17. 

1789. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Jan. 21, Apr. 15, May 13, 27, 

July 1, Oct. 14, 21. 
Missing: Feb. 11, 18, 25, Mar. 11, 18, 

Apr. 1. 

1790. Jan. to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: Jan. 13, 27, Oct. 6. 

Missing: Feb. 17, Mar. 24, Apr. 14, May 
12, 26, June 2, 16, 23, July 7, 14, 21, 
Sept. 8, 29, Oct. 27, Nov. 10, 24, Dec. 8, 
22. 

1791. Jan. 4. 
Feb. 9. 
Mar. 2, 9, 16. 
Apr. 6. 
June 1. 

July 6, 20. 
Aug. 24. 
Sept. 21. 
Oct. 12, 19. 
Nov. 9, 23"*. 
Dec. 7. 

1792. Jan. 4. 
Feb. 8, 29. 
Mar. 7, 14?\ 

Apr. 4^11"*, 18 m , 25. 
May 9. 

June 6, 13-, 20. 
July 4, 11, 18, 25, 



1915.] Massachusetts. 451 

Aug. l m , 8 m , 22. 
Sept. 26. 
Oct. 3, 17, 24. 
Nov. 7, 21, 28. 
Dec. 12, 19-, 26. 

1793. Jan. 2, 9, 16,23. 
Feb. 20, 27. 
Mar. 6, 20, 27. 
Apr. 10, 24. 
May 29. 

June 5. 
July 10. 
Sept. 12 m . 
Nov. 20. 

1794. Jan. 1, 8. 
Mar. 5. 
Dec. 31. 

1795. Jan. 7. 

Feb. 11, 18, 25. 
Mar. 4. 
Apr. 8. 
June 3. 
July 15. 
Aug. 26. 
Nov. 4-, 18. 
Dec. 9. 

1796. Feb. 24., 

Mar. 2, 9, 16, 23. 
Apr. 27. 
May 25. 
July 6, 13, 20. 
Sept. 14. 
Oct. 26. 
Nov. 2. 
Dec. 21, 28. 

1797. Feb. 1, 22. 
Mar. 8, 29. 
Apr. 12. 

May 10, 17, 31. 



452 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 





June 7, 14. 




July 19. 


' 


Aug. 2, 10, 30. 




Sept. 6, 13. 




Oct. 18. 




Nov. 1, 8. 




Dec. 13™. 




Extra: June 14. 


1798. 


Jan. 3. 




Feb. 14. 




Apr. 18, 25. 




Nov. 21. 




Extra: Apr. 25. 


1799. 


Apr. 3. 




Nov. 6. 


1800. 


Jan. 8, 29. 




Apr. 23. 


1801. 


Mar. 18, 25. 




Apr. 1. 




Sept. 2. 


1802. 


Sept. 8, 29-. 




Oct. 13, 27. 




Nov. 3, 17. 




Dec. 1™, 8'", 22. 


1803. 


Jan. 12, 19, 26. 




Feb. 2, 9, 16, 23. 




Mar. 2, 23, 30. 




Apr. 6, 13, 20™. 




May 11, 18, 25. 




June l m } 8-, 29. 




July 6. 




Aug. 10, 17»», 24", 31 




Sept. 7, 21, 28. 




Oct. 5. 


1805. 


Apr. 10, 17. 




Sept. 4, 18. 




Oct. 29. 


1807. 


July 15. 


1808. 


July 20. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 453 

1809. Mar. 29. 

1810. Apr. 11. 
May 2, 16. 
July 25. 
Aug. 1. 

Sept. 5, 12, 19. 

1811. Feb. 27. 
Mar. 6, 20, 27. 
Apr. 17, 24. 
May 1. 
Extra: May 27. 

1812. 'July 22. 

1813. Mar. 24. 
. Sept. 8 W . 

1814. Apr. 13. 
Dec. 7, 14, 21. 

1815. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 
Advertising Supplement: Nov. 8. 

Missing: Jan. 4 to July 5. 

1816. Jan. 3 to Dec. 25. 
Supplement: May 29. 
Extra: Oct. 30. 

Mutilated: May 15, June 26. 
Missing: Mar. 13, Apr. 24, June 5, July 24, 
Sept. 18, Oct. 23. 

1817. Jan. 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. 
Feb. 5, 12, 19, 26. 
Mar. 5. 

Apr. 2, 16, 23, 30. 
May 7, 28. 
Oct. 1". 

1818. Sept. 22, 29. 
1820. Jan. 4 to Dec. 26. 

Mutilated: Feb. 22. 
Missing: Jan. 18. 

[Northampton] Hampshire Register, 1817. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 8, 1817, judging from the 
only issue located, that of Apr. 23, 1817, no. 16, published 



454 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

by Elijah Brooks. This issue, furthermore, was stated 
to be the last published. A. A. S. has: 
1817. Apr. 23. 

[Northampton] Hive, 1803-1805. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 23, 1803, judging from the 
earliest issue located, that of Sept. 20, 1803, vol. 1, no. 
5, published by Thomas M. Pomroy. The title was 
"The Hive," and it was of quarto size, eight pages to 
the issue, but manifestly a newspaper. With the issue of 
Jan. 3, 1804, a new volume numbering was again adopted 
"in order that each volume may commence and close 
with the year. " A title-page and table of contents were 
promised at the close of the year. With the issue of Jan. 
1, 1805, vol. 2, no. 1, the size was changed to a four-page 
folio. The paper was discontinued with the issue of 
Jan. 29, 1805, vol. 2, no. 5, Pomroy having disposed of 
his establishment to William Butler, publisher of the 
" Hampshire Gazette. " 

Northampton Pub. Lib. has Oct. 4, 1803 -Dec. 11, 
1804, nearly complete, Wis. Hist. Soc. has Sept. 20- 
Dec. 27, 1803; May 15 -Dec. 25, 1804. Harvard has 
Sept. 27, Oct. 18, Nov. 1-22, Dec. 6-20, 1803; Jan. 3, 
17, 31-Feb. 21, Mar. 13, 20, Apr, 3-24, June 5, July 31, 
Aug. 14 -Sept. 18, Oct. 9-23, Nov. 13, 20, 1804; Jan. 1- 
22, 1805. Forbes Lib., Northampton, has Jan. 3 -Dec. 
25, 1804. Boston Athenaeum has 1804. Mass. Hist. 
Soc. has Mar. 20, 1804. Long Id. Hist. Soc. has Sept. 4, 
1804. Lib. Cong, has Jan. 29, 1805. A. A. S. has: 

1803. Sept. 20, 27. 
Oct. 4, 11, 18. 

1804. Jan. 31. 
Mar. 13. 
Apr. 3, 24"*. 
May 1, 8"', 15 m . 
June 5, 12, 19", 26. 

July 3", 10", 17, 24", 31". 
Aug. 7", 14", 28. 



191,5. 1 Massachusetts. 455 

Sept. 4, 11, 18, 25. 
Oct. 9, 16. 
1805. Jan. 8. 

[Northampton] Patriotic Gazette, 1799-1800. 

Weekly. Established Apr. 12, 1799, by Andrew 
Wright. Discontinued with the issue of June 23, 1800, 
vol. 2, no. 63. 

Northampton Pub. Lib. has Apr. 12, 1799 -June 2, 
1800. Harvard has June 21, Aug. 23, Oct. 4, 11, 1799; 
Feb. 6, Mar. 3, May 19, June 2-23, 1800; Ct. Hist. Soc. 
has Jan. 2-16, Feb. 6, 13, 24- Apr. 7, 21 -June 23, 1800. 
File once owned by Dr. O. O. Roberts and examined by 
me in 1913 was complete, Apr. 12, 1799-June 23, 1800. 
A. A. S. has: 

1799. Apr. 19"'. 
July 12. 

1800. Apr. 21. 
v May 5. 

[Northampton] Republican Spy, 1804-1808. 

Weekly. Removed from Springfield and established 
at Northampton with the issue of July 3, 1804, vol. 2, 
no. 54, published by Timothy Ashley, with the title of 
''Republican Spy." With the issue of June 11, 1805, 
the paper was published by Andrew Wright, and with the 
issue of Aug. 6, 1806, by Andrew Wright "for the Pro- 
prietors." Early in 1807, it was taken over and published 
by Horace Graves. With the issue of July 28, 1807, 
Graves admitted Ebenezer Clap to partnership, under 
the firm name of Graves & Clap. The paper was dis- 
continued with the issue of Nov. 16, 1808, vol. 6, no. 281. 

Harvard has July 3, 1804 -Nov. 18, 1807, imperfect 
file. Lib. Cong, has Aug. 28, Sept. 11, 18, Oct. 2, 10- 
30, Dec. 4, 1804; Feb. 19, June 11, Aug. 6, Oct. 29, Nov. 
12, 1805; Jan. 7, 28, Feb. 4, 18, Dec. 24, 1806; June 9, 
16, July 21, Nov. 25, 1807; Mar. 16, Oct. 26, Nov. 2, 
1808. Wis. Hist, Soc. has Mar. 25, Oct. 22, Nov. 19, 



456 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Dec. 10, 31, 1806; Jan. 14, Mar. 25, Apr. 8, 1807; Jan. 6- 
Nov. 16, 1808, fair. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Apr. 29, 1800. 
N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 3, 1806. Forbes Lib., North- 
ampton, has Nov. 9, 1808. A. A. S. has: 

1804. July 31. 
Dec. 11. 

1805. Feb. 5. 

Sept. 3, 10, 17. 
Oct. 8, 22. 

1806. Apr. 22. 
1808. Aug. 10-. 

[Pittsfield] American Centinel, 1787. 

Weekly. Established Sept. 28, 1787, judging from the 
date of the earliest and only issue located, "The American 
Centinel," Oct. 19, 1787, vol. 1, no. 4, published by Rus- 
sell & Storrs (Ezekiel [?] Russell and Roger Storrs). 
This statement does not harmonize with that of J. G. 
Holland, in his "History of Western Massachusetts," 
vol. 1, p. 465, where it is stated that the paper was estab- 
lished Dec. 1, 1787, judging from the second issue. 

Robert C. Rockwell, Pittsfield, has Oct. 19, 1787. 

[Pittsfield] Berkshire Chronicle, 1788-1790. 

Weekly. Established May 8, 1788, by Roger Storrs, 
with the title of "The Berkshire Chronicle." With the 
issue of Dec. 19, 1788, the size of the paper was enlarged 
and the title changed to "The Berkshire Chronicle, and 
the Massachusetts Intelligencer. " The last issue located 
is that of Sept. 30, 1790, vol. 3, no. 13. 

Berkshire Athenaeum, Pittsfield, has May 15, 1788- 
June 17, 1790. Lib. Cong, has July 17, 1788. Robert 
C. Rockwell, Pittsfield, has June 24, 1790. A. A. S. has: 
1788. May 8. 

June 5, 26. 
July 3, 24. 
Sept. 4, 25. 
Oct. 16, 30. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 457 

Nov. 13. 
Dec. 19 m . 

1789. Feb. 20. 
Apr. 24. 
May 1, 15. 
Aug. 3, 31. 
Sept. 21. 
Oct. 5". 
Nov. 2. 

Dec. 7, 14, 21. 

1790. Jan. 7, 28. 
Feb. 11, 25. 
Mar. 11, 18, 25. 
Apr. 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. 
May 6, 13, 20, 27. 
June 3, 10, 17, 24. 
July 8, 29. 

Aug. 5, 12, 26. 
Sept. 9, 16, 23, 30". 

[Pittsfield] Berkshire Gazette, 1798-1800. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 17, 1798, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Jan. 24, 1798, 
vol. 1, no. 2, " Berkshire Gazette," published by Merrill 
and Smith (Orsemus C. Merrill and Chester Smith). 
In June, 1798, Merrill retired from the firm in favor of 
Nathaniel Holly, and the paper was published by Holly 
& Smith. With the issue of Mar. 6, 1799, Holly retired 
and the paper was published by Chester Smith. The 
last issue located is that of Feb. 11, 1800, vol. 2, no. 50. 

Harvard has Jan. 24, Mar. 28, Apr. 4, Aug. 15, 29- 
Sept. 12, Oct. 17-31, Nov. 14, 1798; Jan. 2, Feb. 27, 
Apr. 10, 17, May 22, June 5-19, July 31, Aug. 7, 21, Sept. 
11, Oct. 16, 23, 1799; Jan. 14, Feb. 4, 11, 1800. Robert 
C. Rockwell, Pittsfield, has Oct. 31, 1798. A. A. S. has: 
1798. Jan. 24™. 
Feb. 28. 
Mar. 28. 



458 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Apr. 4, 11, 25. 
Aug. 1. 
Sept. 12. 
Oct. 3, 17, 31. 
Nov. 7. 
Dec. 19. 
1799. Feb. 13. 
Mar. 13. 
July 3. 

[Pittsfield] Berkshire Reporter, 1807-1815. s 

Weekly. Established by H[eman] Willard at Pitts- 
field, under the name of " The Berkshire Reporter," in 
January, 1807, the earliest Pittsfield issue located being 
that of Jan. 17, 1807, vol. 18, no. 889. The paper was 
a continuation in numbering, although not in title, of the 
"Western Star," Willard's paper at Stockbridge. With 
the issue of May 16, 1807, Willard disposed of the paper 
to Seymour & Smith (Joseph W. Seymour and Milo 
Smith). In 1809, Seymour retired and the paper was 
published by Milo Smith & Co. Smith's name dis- 
appeared from the imprint late in 1814 or early in 1815 
(he was at Stockbridge in 1815 publishing the "Berkshire 
Herald") and in 1815 the paper was printed by E[ | 

Cooper, Jun., for the Proprietors. The last issue at 
Pittsfield was that of Nov. 23, 1815, vol. 26, no. 1351, 
after which the paper was removed to Stockbridge, con- 
solidated with the " Berkshire Herald" of that town, 
and continued, without change of numbering, as the 
" Berkshire Star." See under Stockbridge. 

Harvard has Apr. 4, 1807. Berkshire Athenaeum, 
Pittsfield, has Oct. 31, 1807; Feb. 8, Aug. 15, 1812; Jan. 
7, 1813-May 19, 1814; July 28, 1814. Essex Inst, has 
June 10, 1809. Lib. Cong, has Aug. 12, 1809. Pocum- 
tuck Valley Mem. Assoc, Deerfield, has Nov. 25, 1809. 
R. H. W. Dwight, Boston, has Oct. 27, 1814. A. A. S. 
has: 

1807. Jan. 17, 24. 
Feb. 14, 28. 



1915.1 Massachusetts. 459 





Massachusetts 




Mar. 14. 




Apr. 4, 18, 25. 




May 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 




June 6, 20. 




July 25. 




Aug. 8, 15, 29. 




Oct. 10, 17, 24, 31. 




Nov. 14. 




Dec. 5, 12, 19, 26. 


1808. 


Jan. 2, 9, 16. 




Feb. 6, 20. 




Mar. 5, 12, 19. 




Apr. 9. 




May 14, 28. 




June 11, 25. 




Aug. 13, 20™, 27. 


1810. 


Apr. 25. 




May 16. 




June 6. 




Nov. 7. 


1811. 


Jan. 5. 


1812. 


Oct. 22. 


1814. 


Apr. 21. 


1815. 


July 27. 




Aug. 3, 10. 




Nov. 16. 



[Pittsfield] Sun, 1800-1820+ . 

Weekly. Established Sept. 16, 1800, by Phinehas 
Allen, with the title of "The Sun." With the issue of 
May 17, 1802, the title appeared only as a column heading 
on the first page. With the issue of May 23, 1803, the 
full page heading was resumed and the title changed to 
"The Pittsfield Sun." The title was changed with the 
issue of Sept. 15, 1804, to "The Sun"; with July 6, 1805, 
to "The Pittsfield Sun"; with Jan. 6, 1806, to "The 
Pittsfield Sun; or, Republican Monitor"; with Aug. 8, 



460 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

1807, to ''The Pittsfield Sun"; and with Nov. 19, 1817, 
to "Pittsfield Sun." Continued by Phinehas Alien until 
after 1820. 

Pittsfield Athenaeum has Sept. 16, 1800-1820. Har- 
vard has Jan. 6, 1801 -Oct. 17, 1807, scattering file; 
Dec. 10-31, 1808. Boston Pub. Lib. has Jan. 7, 1813- 
Aug. 29, 1816. Essex Inst, has Mar. 1, 1802; Oct. 3, 
1807; Sept. 26, 1810; Feb. 4, 1813. Stockbridge Pub. 
Lib. has May 9, 1812; Dec. 2, 16-30, 1813; Jan. 13, 1814; 
Dec. 4, 11, 1816; May 14, 21, June 4, July 30, 1817; 
Aug. 5, Sept. 30, Dec. 23, 1818. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has 
Sept. 23, 1800-Sept. 12, 1803; Mar. 25, 1813-July 27, 
1815. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Aug. 19, Sept. 9, 1809; Jan. 
17, 31, Feb. 14-Mar. 7, June 20-27, July 18, Oct. 10, 
1810; June 16, 30, 1814; June 29, 1815. Long Id. Hist. 
Soc. has Nov. 11, Dec. 30, 1800; July 28, Aug. 4, 1801. 
Lib. Cong, has Mar. 3, 1801; Mar. 7, 1807; Jan. 15, 1817; 
Jan. 27, 1819 -Mar. 8, Sept. 6, Nov. 15 -Dec. 27, 1820. 
Wis. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 30, 1800. A. A. S. has: 

1800. Oct. 28™ 

Nov. 4, 11™, 25. 
Dec. 2. 

1801. Feb. 24™. 
May 12. 
July 14. 
Sept. 8. 

1802. Oct. 25. 
Nov. 1. 

1803. Feb. 21. 
Apr. 4. 
July 4, 11. 
Aug. 22, 29. 
Sept. 5, 12. 
Oct. 3. 
Dec. 5. 

1804. Feb. 20. 
Mar. 5, 12, 26. 

1805. Sept. 7. 
Dec. 9. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 461 

1806. Mar. 10. 

June 28. 
July 19. 
Sept. 13, 27. 
Oct. 4. 

1807. Mar. 14. 
Apr. 18. 
May 2 W . 
June 6. 

1808. Jan. 30. 
Apr. 30. 
May 14. 
July 2. 
Aug. 13, 27. 
Sept. 17. 
Dec. 31. 

1809. Jan. 14. 

Feb. 11, 18, 25. 
Mar. 4, 11, 18. 
Apr. 1,8. 
July 8, 22, 29. 
Sept. 2. 

1810. Jan. 31. 
Feb. 28. 
Apr. 11. 
July 4. 

Aug. 8, 22-, 29. 
Sept. 5. 
Oct. 3, 31. 
Nov. 7, 28. 
Dec. 12, 26. 

1811. Jan. 5, 26. 
Apr. 13, 20, 27. 
May 11, 18, 25. 
June 8, 15. 
Aug. 3, 17, 31. 
Oct. 26. 

Nov. 2 m , 9, 16, 30. 
Dec. 7 m . 



462 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

1812. Jan. 11. 
Feb. 29. 
Mar. 14 m . 
Apr. 4. 
June 6, 27. 
Dec. 3. 

1813. July 22. 
Aug. 12. 
Sept. 2, 23. 
Oct. 7, 14. 
Nov. 4, 11. 
Dec. 2, 23. 

1814. Feb. 3. 
Mar. 3. 
Apr. 14, 21. 
June 9, 16, 23. 
July 21, 28. 
Aug. 11, 25. 
Sept. 15. 
Nov. 10. 

1815. Mar. 16. 
May 11. 
July 13. 
Sept. 28. 
Dec. 21. 

1816. Jan. 18, 25. 
Feb. 15. 
May 9. 
June 27. 
July 25. 
Oct. 31. 

Nov. 13, 20, 27. 

1817. Feb. 19. 
June 25. 

1819. Apr. 21. 
May 5. 

1820. Aug. 23. 
Nov. 29. 
Dec. 6, 13. 



1915.) Massachusetts. 463 

Plymouth Journal, 1785-1786. 

Weekly. Established Mar. 19, 1785, by Nathaniel 
Coverly, with the title of "The Plymouth Journal, and 
the Massachusetts Advertiser." The last issue located 
is that of June 13, 1786, vol. 2, no. 65, in which Coverly 
refers to the possible discontinuance of his paper n sub- 
scriptions are not paid. 

N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 28, June 6, 1786. A. A. S. 
has: • 

1785. Mar. 19. 
May 17, 31™. 
June 7, 14, 21, 28. 
July 5, 19, 26. 
Aug. 16, 31K 
Sept. 6-, 13, 20. 
Oct. 1. 

Dec. 13, 20, 27. 

1786. Jan. 3, 10-, 17. 
Feb. 14, 28". 
Mar. 14 m , 28 m . 
Apr. 4", 1I« 18, 25. 
May 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 
June 6, 13. 

Portland, see under Maine. 

[Salem] American Eagle, 1790. 

This was the title given to the first issue of the "Salem 
Gazette," Jan. 5, 1790. See under "Salem Gazette," 
1790-1820. 

[Salem] American Gazette, 1776. 

Weekly. Established June 18, 1776, with the title 
of "The American Gazette: or, the Constitutional 
Journal." It was "Printed by J. Rogers, at E. Russell's 
Printing-Office," but Ezekiel Russell was evidently the 
publisher rather than John Rogers. An " Extraordinary" 



464 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

issue, also numbered vol. 1, no. 1, was published June 19. 
The last issue located is that of July 30, 1776, and it is 
probable that this issue was the last published. 

Essex Inst, has June 19 -July 30, 1776, Mass. Hist. 
Soc. has June 18 -July 23, 1776. Lib. Cong, has June 
19, July 2, 9, 30, 1776. A. A. S. has: 
1776. June 18, 25. 

July 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 

Salem Chronicle, 1786. 

Weekly. Established Mar. 30, 1786, by George Roul- 
stone, with the title of "The Salem Chronicle, and Essex 
Advertiser. " The last issue located is that of Aug. 3, 
1786. 

Essex Inst, has Mar. 30- Apr. 20, May 4, 18-25, June 
8-July 6, Aug. 3, 1786. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has June 15, 
1786. A. A. S. has: 
1786. Apr. 7. 

[Salem] Essex Gazette, 1768-1775. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 2, 1768, by Samuel Hall, 
with the title of "The Essex Gazette." There was also 
a prospectus signed by Samuel Hall and dated July 5, 
1768. With the issue of Jan. 7, 1772, Samuel Hall ad- 
mitted his brother Ebenezer to partnership and the 
paper was published by Samuel and Ebenezer Hall. 
The last issue at Salem was that of May 2, 1775, vol. 7, 
no. 353, and the next issue was published at Cambridge, 
May 12, 1775, vol. 7, no. 354, and entitled "The New 
England Chronicle." See under Cambridge. 

Essex Inst., Mass. Hist. Soc, Yale, and Lib. Cong, 
have practically complete files, Aug. 2, 1768 -May 2, 
1775. Boston Athenaeum has Aug. 23, 1768 -June 13, 
1769; Aug. 1, 1769 -May 2, 1775. Harvard has Nov. 15, 
1768-Dec. 19, 1769; Feb. 12, 1771 -Feb. 9, 1773; Sept. 
6, 1774. N. E. Hist. Gen. Soc. has Sept. 27, 1768-Dec. 
31, 1771. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Aug. 2, 1768-July 25, 
Aug. 8, 1769; Feb. 6, 1770- Apr. 4, 1775, scattering issues. 
N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Sept. 13, 1768-July 27, 1773, im- 



1915.] Massachusetts. 465 

perfect; Dee. 27, 1774-May 2, 1775. N. Y. State Lib. 
has Nov. 29, 1768; 1769-1770, scattering issues; 1771- 
1774, good; 1775, scattering. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Aug. 2, 
1768- July 28, 1772; 1773-1775. A. A. S. has: 

1768. Aug. 16-, 23, 30. 
Sept. 6 m , 13, 20, 27. 
Oct. 4, 11, 18, 25. 
Nov. 1, 8. 

Dec. 6, 13, 20-, 27. 

1769. Feb. 21, 28. 
Mar. 21, 28. 
Apr. 11. 
May 30. 
Aug. 22"\ 

1770. Feb. 13, 27. 
Mar. 6, 27. 
Apr. 3, 24. 
May 1. 

June 5 m , 12 m , 19. 
Aug. 14. 
Sept. 11, 18. 
Nov. 6, 13. 
Dec. 4, 11, 25. 

1771. Jan. 1, 29. 
Feb. 19. 
May 7, 28. 
June 11, 18. 
July 16, 30. 
Sept. 3, 10, 24. 
Oct. 15, 22. 
Nov. 26. 
Dec. 3, 17. 

1772. Jan. 14. 
Feb. 4. 
Mar. 10. 
Apr. 14. 
Aug. 4, 25. 
Sept. 8 m . 



466 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Oct. 6, 13, 20 
Dec. 15, 22. 

1773. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 

Missing: Jan. 26, Feb. 2, 9, Mar. 2, 9, 16, 
23, 30, Apr. 13, May 11, 25, Aug. 3 ; 
17, 24, 31, Sept. 14, Oct. 5, 19, 26, Nov. 
16, 30, Dec. 7, 14. 

1774. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 

Mutilated: Dec. 6. 

Missing: Jan. 25, July 26, Aug. 2, 9, 16, 
23, 30, Sept. 6, 13, 20, 27. 

1775. Jan. 3 to May 2. 
Supplement: Feb. 2, Apr. 18. 

[Salem] Essex Register, 1807-1820+ . 

Semi-weekly. A continuation of the " Salem Regis- 
ter." The first issue of "The Essex Register" was that 
of July 23, 1807, new series, no. 1, whole no. 749, published 
by H[aven] Pool & W[arwick] Palfray, jr., assisted by S. 
Cleveland Blydon. With the issue of Jan. 6, 1808, 
Blydon's name was withdrawn, and the paper published 
by Pool &. Palfray. Pool died June 28, 1811, and begin- 
ning with the issue of July 1, 1811, the paper was pub- 
lished by Warwick Palfray, Jun., although his name did 
not appear in the imprint until the issue of Aug. 31, 1811. 
Continued by him until after 1820. Rev. William Bent- 
ley was a frequent contributor to the paper and in his 
printed "Diary" may be found many references to it. 

Essex Inst., and Lib. Cong, have practically complete 
files, July 23, 1807-1820. Boston Pub. Lib. has July 23, 
1807-Dec. 28, 1811; Apr. 25, 1812-Dec. 25, 1819. 
Harvard has July 23-Nov. 30, 1807; June 1-Dec. 31, 
1808; Jan. 2, 1811 -Oct. 29, 1814; Jan. 4-Dec. 30, 1815. 
Mass. Hist. Soc. has Apr. 4, 1812; June 12, July 3 -Sept. 
29, Oct. 13-27, Nov. 3-10, 27, Dec. 1, 18, 1813; Jan. 8- 
Dec. 31, 1814; Jan. 4-Sept. 27, 1815, fair; Oct. 7, 28, 
Nov. 29, Dec. 6, 1815; Jan. 5, 8, 1820. N. Y. Hist. Soc. 
has 1805-1818. N. Y Pub. Lib. has Mar. 14, 1810; 



1915.] Massachusetts. 467 



Jan. 23, 30, Feb. 2, 9-20, May 7-June I, 12-JuIy 6, 17, 


1811; Mar 


. 24, 1819. N. Y. State Lib. has a few scatter- 


ing issues in 1809, 1816-1818. Wis. Hist. Soc. has 1819. 


A. A. S. has: 


1807. 


July 23 to Dec. 31. 


1808. 


Jan. 6 to Dec. 31. 


1809. 


Jan. 4 to Dec. 30. 




Supplement: July 26, Dec. 13. 


1810. 


Jan. 3 to Dec. 29. 


1811. 


Jan. 2 to Dec. 28. 




Mutilated: Feb. 27. 


1812. 


Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 


1813. 


Jan. 2 to Dec. 29. 


1814. 


Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 


1815. 


Jan. 4 to Dec. 30. 




Mutilated: Mar. 15. 


1816. 


Jan. 3 to Dec. 28. 




Mutilated: Aug. 3. 


1817. 


Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 




Missing: Dec. 31. 


1818. 


Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 


1819. 


Jan. 2 to Dec. 29. 




Mutilated: Jan. 2, Feb. 27. 


1820. 


Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 




Mutilated: May 13, July 8, 22. 




Missing: July 11, Oct. 11. 



[Salem] Friend, 1807. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 3, 1807, by Stephen C. 
Blyth & Haven Pool, with the title of "The Friend." 
With the issue of Feb. 7, 1807, the imprint was changed 
to "Editor- Stephen C. Blyth. Printed and published 
by Haven Pool." Blyth had his name changed by legis- 
lative act, and with the issue of May 2, 1807, the name of 
S. Cleveland Blydon appeared in the imprint as Editor. 
Discontinued with the issue of July 18, 1807, vol. 1, no. 
29, when the paper was sold out to the " Salem Register." 



468 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Essex Inst, has Jan. 3 -July 18, 1807. Harvard has 
Jan. 3, 17-Apr. 18, May 2, 16-June 27, July 11, 1807. 
Boston Pub. Lib. has July 18, 1807. A. A. S. has: 
1807. Jan. 3 to July 18. 

Missing: Jan. 10, Mar. 21, Apr. 4, 11, 18, 
May 2, June 13, July 4, 18. 

Salem Gazette, 1774-1775 

Weekly. Established July 1, 1774, by E[zekiel] 
Russell, with the title of "The Salem Gazette, and New- 
bury and Marbiehead Advertiser. " There was also a 
prospectus issue, unnumbered, dated June 24, 1774. 
With the issue of Dec. 9, 1774, the first "and" in the 
title was changed to "or. " The last issue located is that 
of Apr. 21, 1775, no. 43. 

Essex Inst, has June 24, July 8, 1774 -Apr. 13, 1775. 
Boston Pub. Lib. has June 24, July 1, 8, 29, Aug. 19, 
Dec. 19, 1774. Mass. Hist. Soc. has July 15, 29, Aug. 
12-Sept. 2, 16-30, Nov. 18, Dec. 23, 30, 1774; Jan. 20, 
27, Feb. 10-24, 1775. Lib. Cong, has Feb. 17, Mar. 3, 
1775. British Museum has July 1, 1774-Apr. 21, 1775. 
A. A. S. has: 

1774. Sept. 16. 
Oct. 14. 
Nov. 4, 18. 

Salem Gazette, 1781. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 2, 1781, by Mary Crouch 
and Company, with the title of "The Salem Gazette, 
and General Advertiser." There was also a sheet of 
"Proposals," dated Dec. 6, 1780. The issue of Sept. 4, 
1781, vol. 1, no. 36, announced the discontinuance of the 
paper. 

Boston Athenaeum has Jan. 2 -Sept. 4, 1781. Essex 
Inst, has Jan. 2 -Apr. 24, May 8 -June 5, 19 -July 3, 24, 
Aug. 14-Sept. 4, 1781; also "Proposals" Dec. 6, 1780. 
Mass. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 2, 16, 23, Mar. 13, 27, Apr. 17, 



1915.] Massachusetts. 469 

24, June 26, July 3, Aug. 7, 21, 1781. Lib. Cong, has 
Jan. 2- June 5, 19- July 17, 1781. A. A. S. has: 
1781. Feb. 6. 

May l m , 8, 15 m . 

July 17. 

Aug. 7 m , 14 M . 

Salem Gazette, 1781-1785. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 18, 1781, by Samuel Hall, 
with the title of "The Salem Gazette." Discontinued 
at Salem with the issue of Nov. 22, 1785, vol. 5, no. 215, 
after which it was removed to Boston, and continued as 
"The Massachusetts Gazette." See under Boston. 

Essex Inst., Mass. Hist. Soc, Boston Athenaeum, 
Harvard, N. Y. Pub. Lib., Wis. Hist. Soc, and Lib. Cong, 
have practically complete files, Oct. 18, 1781 -Nov. 22, 
1785. Boston Pub. Lib. has a fair file, 1781-1785. 
Dartmouth has July 18, 1782-Nov. 22, 1785. Yale has 
Nov. 1, 1781 -Dec. 25, 1783; Apr. 8, 1784-Nov. 22, 1785. 
N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 20, 1781 -Jan. 8, 1784, fair. 
N. Y. State Lib. has May 30, 1782-Nov. 22, 1785. 
A. A. S. has: 

1781. Oct. 18 to Dec. 27. 

1782. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 
Supplement: May 16. 

Mutilated: Nov. 7. 
Missing: Apr. 4, Aug. 8. 

1783. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 
Supplement: Apr. 3, Aug. 7. 

1784. Jan. 1 to Dec. 28. 

Missing: Apr. 9, 23. 

1785. Jan. 4 to Nov. 22. 
Supplement: May 3. 

Missing: Apr. 26, July 12. 

Salem Gazette, 1790-1820-f-. 

Weekly and semi-weekly. A continuation of "The 
Salem Mercury." The first issue with the change of 



470 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

title was that of Jan. 5, 1790, which was called "The 
American Eagle/' no. 1. The next issue was called 
"The Salem Gazette," Jan. 12, 1790, "number 2, in 
1790/' published by Thomas C. Cushing, and this was 
henceforth the title. With the issue of Jan. 4, 1791, the 
early system of numbering was resumed, that issue being 
numbered vol. 5, no. 221. With the issue of Oct. 21, 
1794, the paper was published by William Carlton. With 
the issue of June 3, 1796, it was published semi-weekly. 
With the issue of July 25, 1797, it was again published by 
Thomas C. Cushing. The word "The" in the title was 
omitted beginning with the issue of Jan. 3, 1800, but was 
restored with the issue of Jan. 1, 1818. The paper was 
continued by Cushing until after 1820. 

Essex Inst., Harvard, and Lib. Cong, have practically 
complete files, Jan. 5, 1790-1820. Mass. Hist. Soc. has 
Jan. 5, 1790-Dec. 27, 1791; 1792, scattering; Jan. 8, 
Feb. 26, Mar. 5, 1793; Apr. 2, 1793-1820. Boston Athen- 
aeum has Jan. 5, 1790-Dec. 28, 1810; Jan. 3, 1812-1820. 
Boston Pub. Lib. has 1790-1796, scattering issues; 
1797-1820, good file. N. E. Hist. Gen. Soc. has Aug. 23- 
Dec. 20, 1791; 1793-1794; July -Dec, 1795; 1796, scat- 
tering issues; 1797-1820, good file. Yale has Nov. 20, 
1792-1820. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has 1792-1795, 1798-1799, 
1805, 1813-1814, 1820. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Mar. 22, 
' Apr. 5, 1791; Jan. 17, Apr. 24, Oct. 16, Dec. 11, 18, 1792; 
Jan. 1, 1793-Dec. 29, 1797; Mar. 20-Dec. 25, 1798, scat- 
tering; Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1799; 1800-1814, a few issues. 
N. Y. State Lib. has Jan. 31, 1792; Jan., 1793-May, 
1795; Aug., 1796-Dec, 1798. Phil. Lib. Co. has Oct. 8, 15, 
1793; Nov. 3, 17-Dec. 1, 1795; Jan. 5, 19, 26, Feb. 23, 
Mar. 8, 15, Apr. 5, 12, May 17, 24, June 8, 1796. Wis. 
Hist. Soc. has 1812. A. A. S. has: 

1790. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated: Dec. 28. 

Missing: Jan. 5, 12, Feb. 9, May 11, 18. 

1791. Jan. 4 to Dec 27. 

Mutilated; Sept. 13, 27. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 47 i 

Missing: Feb. 1, 15, Mar. 15, 29, Apr. 12, 
May 10, June 7, Sept. 20, Oct. 18, Nov. 

8, 15, Dec. 20. 

1792. Jan. 3 to Dec. 25. 

Mutilated: Feb. 14, Dec. 11. 
Missing: May 1, June 12, Sept. 18, Nov. 
13, Dec. 4, 25. 

1793. Jan.'l to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Apr. 10. 

Missing: Feb. 5, 12, Mar. 19, Apr. 2, 

May 14, 21; June 4, 18, 25, July 2 to 

Aug. 27, Sept. 24. 

1794. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Feb. 4, May 0, 13, 20, 27, 
June 10, July 1, 8, 22, Aug. 19, 26, Sept. 
2, 9, Oct. 7, 14, Nov. 4, 11, Dec. 2, lb. 

Missing: Apr. 15, 22, June 3, 17, 24, 
July 15, Aug. 5, 12, Dec. 9. 

1795. Jan. to Dec. 29. 
Extraordinary: Mar. 29. 

Mutilated: Mar. 10, 17, May 5, 12, June 
2, 9, 23, July 7, 14, 21, Aug. 4, 18, Sept. 
1, 8, 15, 22, Oct. 6, 13, 20, 27, Nov. 10, 
17, Dec. 1, 15. 

Missing: Nov. 3. 

1796. Jan. 5 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: June 10, July 5, 8, Aug. 2, 5, 

9, 12, Sept. 2, 6, Oct. 4, 7, 11, Nov. 15, 
22, 25, Dec. 6, 10, 20. 

Missing: Apr. 19, May 10, June 3, Aug. 2b. 

1797. Jan. 3 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: Feb. 7, Mar. 14, May 23, July 

21, Oct. 10, Nov. 17. 
Missing: July 28, Nov. 24. 

1798. Jan. 2 to Dec. 29. 

1799. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Sept. 3, Oct. 15, Dec. 27. 
Missing: Oct. 4, 29. 



472 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

1800. Jan, 3 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Dec. 12, 16. 
Missing: Sept. 9, 20, 30, Oct. 31. 

1801. Jan. 2 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: Jan. 16, 20, Feb. 27, Mar. 3, 

Dec. 1. 
Missing: Mar. 13, May 29, June 23, July 

17, Sept. 25, Dec. 25. 

1802. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: July 30. 

Missing: Jan. 8, June 15, July 23, Oct. 29, 
Nov. 2. 

1803. Jan. 4 to Dec. 30. 

Missing: Jan. 18, Apr. 19, May 3, 6, June 
3, 17, July 26, Aug. 2, Sept. 2, 16, Dec. 
30. 

1804. Jan. 3 to Dec. 28. 

Missing: Mar. 30, May 29, Dec. 14. 

1805. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

1806. Jan. 3 to Dec. 30. 

1807. Jan. 2 to Dec. 29. 

1808. Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 

1809. Jan. 3 to Dec. 29. 

1810. Jan. 2 to Dec. 28. 

1811. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

1812. Jan. 3 to Dec. 29. 

1813. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

1814. Jan. 4 to Dec. 30. 

1815. Jan. 3 to Dec. 29. 

1816. Jan. 2 to Dec. 31. 

1817. Jan. 3 to Dec. 30. 

1818. Jan. 1 to Dec. 29. 

1819. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

1820. Jan. 4 to Dec. 29. 

[Salem] Impartial Register, 1800-1801. 

Semi-weekly. Established May 12, 1800, by William 
Carlton, with the title of "The Impartial Register." 
With the issue of July 31, 1800, the title was changed 



1915.] Mamnckuutt*. 473 

to "The Solon Impartial Register. " The last issue with 
this title was that of Dec. 31, 1801, vol. 2, no. 172, after 
which the title was changed to "The Salem Reg 
which see. 

x Inst., Boston Athenaeum, and Harvard have 
practically complete files, May 12, 1800- Dec. 31, 1801. 
Boston Pub. Lib., has June 23, 1800-Dtec 31, 1801. 

N. V. Pub. Lib. has Nov. 3, Dec. 11, 22, 1800; 0< I 
15, Nov. 16, 1801. N. Y. State Lib. has June 1* 
Dec. 21, 1801. Long Id. Hist. Soc has Mar. 19, Aug 
1801. Lib. Cong, has June 10, Nov. 10, Dec. 15, 25 
29, 1800; Jan. 1 -Nov. 2, 1801. Wis. Hist Soc. has Nov. 
24, Dec. 8, 11, 1800. A. A 

1800. May 12 to Dec. 38 
Lxtra: Dec. 1. 

1801. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31 

Salem Mercury, 1786-1789. 

Weekly. Established Oct. 14, 1786, by Dabney and 
Gushing (John Dabney and Thomas C. Gushing), with 
the title of "The Salem Mercury: Political, Commercial, 
and Moral." With the issue of Apr. 15, 1788, the title 
. was shortened to "The Salem Mercury." The partner- 
ship was dissolved, the issues of Oct. 13-27, 1789, \ 
no publisher's name in the imprint, and beginning with 
the issue of Nov. 3, 1789, the publisher's name was given 
as Thomas G. Cushing. The last i.^sue with the title of 
"The Salem Mercury" was that of Dec. 29, 1789, vol. 
3, no. 368, after which the title was changed to "The 
Salem Gazette." See under Salem Gazette, 1790-182 

Essex Inst., Boston Athenaeum, Mass. Hist. Soc, 
Harvard, Yale and Lib. Cong, have practically complete 
files, Oct. 14, 1786-Dec. 29, 1789. Boston Pub. Lib 
has Oct. 14, 1786 -Dec. 25, 1787, imperfect; Feb. 19. 
Mar. 4, 11, Apr. 29, July 22, Out. 7, 14, 1788; Jan. 13- 
Dec. 29, 1789, imperfect. N. Y. Pub. Lib. haa Oct. 14, 
1786-Dec. 11, 17S7; Apr. 1 Q t 14 Nov 4, 1788; 



— 



474 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

jan. 27, May 5, Aug. 25, 1789. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has 
Jan. 6-Dec. 29, 1789. N. Y. State Lib. has 1788. 
A. A. S. has: 

1786. Oct. 14™, 21'", 28-. 
Nov. 4'", 11™, 18'", 25"'. 
Dec. 2 m , 23, 30. 

1787. Jan. 6 to Dec. 25. 

Mutilated: Jan. 13. 

Missing: Jan. 27, Feb. 3, 10, Mar. 10, 17, 
Apr. 14, 28, May 1, 8, 22, June 5, 19, 
2G, July 3, Aug. 7, 14, Oct. 9, Nov. 27. 

1788. Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Feb. 5, 12, Mar. 18, Sept. 9. 
Missing: Mar. 25, Apr. 15, June 24, Aug. 
5, Sept. 16, Nov. 4, Dec. 30. 

1789. Jan. 0, 20. 
Feb. 10, 17, 24. 
Apr. 7 m , 14, 28. 
May 5, 12 m , 19, 26. 
June 23. 

July 21. 

Aug. 18, 25. 

Sept. 1, 8, 15, 22, 29. 

Oct. 13, 27. 

Nov. 3, 10, 17, 24. 

Dec. 1, 8. 

Salem Register, 1802-1807. 

Semi-weekly. A continuation, without change of 
volume numbering, of "The Salem Impartial Register." 
The first issue with the title of "The Salem Register" 
was that of Jan. 4, 1802, vol. 3, no. 173, published by 
William Carlton. The word "The" was omitted from 
the title with the issue of Jan. 3, 1803. William Carlton 
died July 24, 1805, no paper was issued July 29, and with 
the issue of Aug. 1, 1805, the paper was published for 
his widow, Elizabeth Carlton. She died Aug. 25, 1805, 
and with the issue of Sept. 2, 1805, the paper was pub- 



1915.] Massachusetts. 475 

lished for the Proprietors. The last issue with the title 
of "Salem Register" was that of July 16, 1807, vol. 8, 
no. 56, whole no. 748, after which it was continued as the 
"Essex Register," which see. 

Essex Inst, and Harvard have practically complete 
files, Jan. 4, 1802-July 16, 1807. Boston Pub. Lib. has 
Jan. 4, 1802-Dec.30, 1805; Jan. 1 -July 16, 1807. Boston 
Athenaeum has Apr. 29, 1805-Nov. 6, 1806. Yale has 
Jan. 2, 1804 -June 20, 1805. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Oct. 
18, 21, Nov. 11, 1802; Jan. 12, 1807. Hist. Soc. Penn. 
has Feb. 15, 1802-Dec. 22, 1803. Lib. Cong, has Feb. 
18, Apr. 12, 19, May 10, 20, 1802; Jan. 6, 1803-July 16, 
1807. Wis. Hist, Soc. has Aug. 16, 19, Nov. 15, Dec. 
23-30, 1802; Jan. 3, 27, Feb. 17, Aug. 11-18, 25, Sept. 1, 
8, 22, 1803; Jan. 3-June 27, 1805. • British Museum has 
1804-1805. A. A. S. has: 

1802. Jan. 4 to Dec. 30. 
Title-page. 
Supplement: Oct. 28. 

1803. Jan. 3 to Dec. 29. 

1804. Jan. 2 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: Dec. 24. 

1805. Jan. 3 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Feb. 18. 
Missing: Jan. 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, 24, 28, 
May 30, June 13, Nov. 25, 

1806. Jan. 2 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: Jan. 2. 

Missing: Feb. 20, July 17, 31, Aug. 7, 18, 
Dec. 29. 

1807. Jan. 1 to July 16. 

[Salem] Weekly Visitant, 1806. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 1, 1806, by Haven Pool, 
with the title of "The Weekly Visitant." It was osten- 
sibly a literary periodical, of octavo size and eight pages 
to a number; but since it contained a certain amount 
of current news, as well as marriage and death notices, 



476 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

it might possibly be included as a newspaper. The last 
issue was that of Dec. 27, 1806, vol. 1, no. 52, when the 
establishment was sold out to a group of proprietors, who 
began publishing a newspaper called "The Friend. 5 ' 
Essex Inst, has Jan. 1-Dec. 27, 1806. A. A. S. has: 
1806. Jan. 1 to Dec. 27. 

Jan. 1, also second edition. 
Title-page and index. 

[Springfield] Federal Spy, 1792-1805. 

Weekly. Established Dec. 19, 1792, by James R. 
Hutchins, with the title of "The Federal Spy." With 
the issue of Jan. 29, 1793, the title was enlarged to "The 
Federal Spy and Springfield Advertiser," and with Dec. 
24, 1793, to "The Federal Spy and Springfield Weekly 
Advertiser. " In November or December, 1794, Hutchins 
disposed of the paper to John W. Hooker and Francis 
Stebbins, who published it under the firm name of J. W. 
Hooker and F. Stebbins, and who shortened the title to 
"The Federal Spy." The partnership was dissolved 
and the paper published by Francis Stebbins with the 
issue of June 7, 1796. At some date between September 
and November, 1799, Stebbins disposed of the paper to 
Timothy Ashley. At some date between April and June, 
1800, Ashley admitted Henry Brewer to partnership 
under the firm name of Ashley and Brewer. The part- 
nership was dissolved and with the issue of Mar. 8, 1803, 
the paper was published by Henry Brewer, and the title 
shortened to "Federal Spy." The title reverted to 
"The Federal Spy," at some time between July 19 and 
Aug. 16, 1803. At some time between May 21 and Sept. 
10, 1805, the paper was transferred to Luther Baker. 
The last issue was that of Dec. 31, 1805, vol. 14, no. 2. 
The paper was then bought by Thomas Dickman who 
continued it, but changed the name to the "Hampshire 
Federalist," which see. 

Boston Pub. Lib. has Dec. 19, 1792; Jan. 1-22, Feb. 
19, 26-Mar. 12, 26-Apr. 9, 23, May 14, 28, June 



1 9 1 5 . Massach usetU. 






11, IS, J~. _ tag. 20. Oct 22, Nor. 26, Dec. 24. 
1793; Jar,. 7-28 H 18 _I-Mar. 11. 25- May 6, 20. 

June 3, 10, July 8, Oct. 14. 28, 1794; A: .. 23,30 May 14 
1805. Harvard has Feb. 25. 1795- ! lay 2 1797, scatter- 
ing; Jan. 8. 1798; N B 17 -9; June 30, 1800 -Nov. 20 
1504. fair. Essex Inst, has Feb. 25. 1" ' Springfield 
City Lib. has Jim. 5 -Dec 13, 1802. Pocumtuck Valley 
Mem. Aaaoe-, Deerfield, has Mar. 29, Aug. 23, 1S03 
X. Y. Pub. Lib. has Dec. 9. 1794; July 21, 1795; June 7, 
1796. X. Y. Hist. Soo. haa Jan. 5. 1796-Apr. 11, 1797. 
scattering So\ 24, l^ul-Jan. 3, 18i E 31. 1805. 
Long Id. Hist. 3oc hat 1 30, 1800. Phil. Lib. Co 
has Oct. 27, 1795. Lib. Cong, has Apr. 2. 1793; Mar. 31, 
Sept. 2v Oct. 6, 20, 17 | -_ .. 25. 1797 a « -" 1799. 
A. A. S. hat 

1792. Dee. 19, 26. 

1793. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

1794. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Dec. 30. 

Missing: Feb. 4. Apr. 1. Nov. 4. 11. lb. 
25, Dee. 2 9. 16. 23. 

1795. Feb. 18. 
Mar. 10. 
Apr. 14. 28 
May 5' 2 _ 
June 16.. 23. 
July 14, 21. 
Aug. 4. 25. 
Sept. 22. 
Oct. 13. 
Nov. 24. 

179o. May 17, 31. 
June 7*, 14. 
July 5. 19. 
Aug. 9 : 16. 23-. 
Sept. 13. 20. 27. 
Oct. 4, 25. 
Nov. 1, 8, 15. 
Dec. 6. 13. 



478 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 



1797. 


Mar. 21. 




Nov. 7. 




Dec. ll m . 


1798. 


Feb. 26". 




July 10"', 31. 




Aug. 14, 21. 




Oct. 2 m . 




Dec. 18. 


1800. 


Jan. 7. 




Mar. 24 w . 




July 21. 




Oct. 27"\ 


1801. 


July 7. 


1802. 


Oct. 19™. 


1803. 


Feb. 7, 14. 




Aug. 16 m , 23", 30' 




Sept. 6. 




Oct. 4. 


1804. 


Mar. 13, 20. 


1805. 


Feb. 19 m ; Apr. 16 




Sept, 10, 17, 24. 




Nov. 19 m , 26'". 



[Springfield] Hampden Federalist, 1812-1820 + . 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of volume 
numbering, of the "Hampshire Federalist." The first 
issue of the "Hampden Federalist " was that of July 30, 
1812, vol. 7, no. 31, published by Thomas Dickman. 
With the issue of Apr. 28, 1819, the title was changed 
to "Hampden Federalist & Public Journal." With 
the issue of Oct. 6, 1819, Dickman transferred the paper 
to A[braham] G. Tannatt & Co., who continued it until 
after 1820. 

Springfield City Lib. has Aug. 6- Dec. 10, 1812; Jan. 
6, 1814-Dec. 27, 1820. Pocumtuck Valley Mem. Assoc, 
Deerfield, has Dec. 31, 1812; Jan. 21, Apr. 8, 1813; Oct. 
6, 1814; Aug. 11, 1819. Greenfield Gazette Office has 
Apr. 7, 1811; May 9, 1816. Essex Inst, has July 21, 



1915.] Massachusetts. 479 

1819. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Aug. 4, 1814; Jan. 16, 1817; 
Mar. 18, 1819. Lib. Cong, has July 25, Aug. 29, Dec. 
26, 1816; Sept. 18, 1817; Nov. 26, 1818. A. A. S. has: 

1814. Jan. 27. 
Mar. 17. 
Dec. 8, 15. 

1815. Sept. 21, 28. 

1816. June 20 m . 
Dec. 19. 

1817. Jan. 2. 
July 3, 10™. 

1818. Jan. 22. 

Apr. 9, 16, 23. 
Sept. 10™. 

1819. Nov. 17. 

(Springfield] Hampden Patriot, 1818-1820+. 

Weekly. Established Dec. 31, 1818, by Ira Daniels, 
with the title of " Hampden Patriot." Continued after 
1820. 

Springfield City Lib. has Dec. 31, 1818- Dec. 27, 1820. 

[Springfield] Hampshire and Berkshire Chronicle, see Hamp- 
shire Chronicle. 

[Springfield] Hampshire Chronicle, 1787-1796. 

Weekly. Established Mar. 6, 1787, by John Russell, 
with the title of "The Hampshire Chronicle." In May, 
1787, Russell took Zephaniah Webster into partnership 
under the firm name of Russell and Webster. With the 
issue of Oct. 9, 1787, the partnership was dissolved and 
the paper published by Zephaniah Webster. Webster 
sold out, and with the issue of Jan. 1, 1788, the paper was 
• published by Weld and Thomas (Ezra W. Weld and 
Isaiah Thomas). With the issue of Sept. 10, 1788, it 
was published by Ezra Waldo Weld. With the issue of 
Oct. 26, 1791, the title was changed to "Hampshire and 
Berkshire Chronicle." W^eld sold out, and with the issue 
of Jan. 1, 1793, the paper was published by Edward Cray. 



480 ' American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

The last issue was that of Aug. 30, 1796, vol. 9, no. 36, 
and it was discontinued immediately afterwards, accord- 
ing to a statement in the "American Intelligencer" of 
West Springfield of Sept. 27, 1796. 

Springfield City Lib. has Mar. 20, 1787; June 25, Juiy 
16, 1788-Sept. 21, 1791, fair. Boston Pub. Lib. has Sept. 
10, 17, 1788; Sept. 23, Oct. 14, 1789; July 6, Aug. 10, 
Dec. 21, 1791; Mar. 26, Apr. 7, 1793; Mar. 18, 1794. 
Mass. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 28, 1791; Jan. 18, 25, Feb. 15, 
29-Mar. 21, Apr. 4, 1792. Harvard has Mar. 2, 1795- 
Aug. 30, 1796, scattering file. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 
5, 1788. N. Y. Pub. Lib. has May 17, Aug. 23, 1796. 
Phil. Lib. Co. has Oct. 22, 1793. Lib. Cong, has Oct. 
16, 1787; May 13, June 17, Aug. 5, 1789; Feb. 17, 1790. 
Wis. Hist. Soc. has Apr. 6, 1791; Mar. 23, Sept. 14, 1795. 
A. A. S. has: 

1787. Mar. 6 to Dec. 25. 

Mutilated: Aug. 28, Oct. 9. 

Missing: Mar. 20, 27, Apr. 10, 24, May 15, 

22, June 12, 26, July 3, 10, 24, 31, Sept. 

4, 11, 18, 25, Oct. 2, Dec. 4. 

1788. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: May 7, 21. 

Missing: Feb. 20, Mar. 19, Apr. 2, May 

14, July 16, Aug. 6, Nov. 5, 12, Dec. 3, 

17, 24. 

1789. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: Jan. 28, Apr. 8. 

Missing: Jan. 21, Feb. 4, 11, Mar. 11, 18, 
25, Apr. 1, May 20, June 3, 10, 17, 24, 
July 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, Aug. 5, 12, 19, 
Oct. 21, 28, Nov. 11. 

1790. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: June 16. 

Missing: Jan. 6, 13, Mar. 10, July 7, 
Nov. 10. 

1791. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated: July 20. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 481 

Missing: Jan. 12, 26, Feb. 2, Mar. 9, 23, 
30, June 1, 15, Sept. 7, Oct. 26, Nov. 23. 

1792. Jan. 4 to Dec. 26. 

Mutilated: Aug. 8. 

Missing: Jan. 25, Feb. 1, 29, Mar. 14, 21, 

Apr. 18, May 16, Oct. 31, Nov. 28, Dec. 

5,26. 

1793. Jan. 1, 8, 22. 
Feb. 5, 26". 
Mar. 12, 19, 26. 
Apr. 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 
May 7, 14. 

Aug. 6. 
Oct. 1, 29. 
Dec. 3, 31. 
Supplement: Mar. 12. 

1794. Jan. 14. 
Feb. 11. 

Mar. 11, 18, 25. 
Apr. 15, 22, 29. 
May 6 m . 
June 3. 
July 8. 

Oct. 28. t 

Nov. 4, 25. 
Dec. 2. 

1795. Feb. 2, 9™, 16. 23. 
Mar. 2, 16 m . 
Apr. 13 m . 

May 11, 18. 
July 20, 27.. 
Aug. 3", 24. 
Sept. 7. 
Nov. 9, 16, 23, 30. 

1796. Jan. 11. 
Mar. 29. 
June 28. 
July 26. 



482 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

[Springfield] Hampshire Federalist, 1806-1812. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 7, 1806, by Thomas Dick- 
man, who purchased the " Federal Spy" and started the 
"Hampshire Federalist" with a new volume numbering. 
The last issue with this title was that of July 23, 1812, 
vol. 7, no. 30, after which it was changed to " Hampden 
Federalist," which see. 

Springfield City Lib. has Jan. 7-Nov. 26, Dec. 31, 1806; 
Jan. 7, 1807 -July 23, 1812. Boston Pub. Lib. has Jan. 
7, 1806-Dec. 28, 1809. Harvard has Jan. 7, Feb. 11, 
18, Apr. 22, 29, June 10-July 8, 29-Aug. 12, 26, Sept. 9, 
16, 30, Oct. 7, 1806; Jan. 7, Oct. 8, 1807. Essex Inst, 
has Apr. 1, July 15, 1806; Oct. 20, 27, 1808; Dec. 28, 1809. 
Forbes Lib., Northampton, has Jan. 21 -Apr. 8, 29, May 
6, Oct. 1, 1807; Jan. 7, 1808-Dec. 27, 1810; Feb. 28-Dec. 
26, 1811. Pocumtuck Valley Mem. Assoc, Deerfield, 
has June 18, 1807. Ct. Hist. Soc. has Nov. 14, 1811. 
N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 8, 1807 -Dec. 29, 1808. Lib. 
Cong, has Jan. 5-Dec. 28, 1809; Jan. 10, 1811. A. A. 
S. has: 

1806. Jan. 28. 
Feb. 25. 
Oct. 14, 21. 

1807. Feb. 11. 
July 30. 

1808. May 12. 
June 2. 
Oct. 20. 

1809. Nov. 16. 

1810. May 17, 31. 
July 5, 19, 26. 
Sept. 27. 

1811. Mar. 7, 21. 
Apr. 11, 25. 
May 23. 
June 6, 13. 

1812. Feb. 20. 
June 4. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 483 

[Springfield] Hampshire Herald, 1784- 1786. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of number- 
ing, of the " Massachusetts Gazette." The first issue 
with the title of "The Hampshire Herald; or, the Weekly 
Advertiser" was that of July 27, 1784, vol. 3, no. 116, 

published by Brooks and Russell ( Brooks and 

John Russell). With the issue of June 21, 1785, the 
partnership was dissolved and John Russell assumed 
sole proprietorship. In September, 1785, Russell ad- 
mitted Gad Stebbins to partnership, under the firm name 
of Stebbins and Russell. The title of the paper was 
shortened to "The Hampshire Herald" with the issue 
of either Nov, 1, 8, or 15, 1785. With the issue of Aug. 
1, 1786, the size of the paper was much reduced, because 
of the effects of the newspaper tax, and the title was 
shortened to "Hampshire Herald." The paper was 
discontinued with the issue of Sept. 26, 1786, vol. 5, 
no. 229. 

Berkshire Athenaeum, Pittsfield, has July 27, 1784- 
July 5, 1785. Boston Pub. Lib. has Aug. 31, Oct. 12, 
Nov. 30, Dec. 21, 28, 1784; Mar. 1, 22, July 5, Oct. 25, 
1785; May 29, Aug. 29, 1786. Mass. Hist. Soc. has Sept. 
21, Oct. 5, 1784; Jan. 4, 18, 25, Mar. 15, 29, Apr. 12, 1785; 
Sept. 26, 1786. Pocumtuck Valley Mem. Assoc, Deer- 
field, has Dec. 21, 1784; Nov. 29, 1785. Springfield 
City Lib. has Oct. 18, 1785; Aug. 15, 1786. N. Y. Hist. 
Soc. has Sept. 5, 19, 1786. A. A. S. has: 

1784. July 27. 
Aug. 3, 24, 31. 
Sept. 7, 28"'. 

Oct. 5", 12, 19-, 26-. 
Nov. 2-, 9-, 16-, 23-, 30-. 
Dec. 7-, 14-, 21, 28. 
Extraordinary: Dec. 28- 

1785. Jan. 4-, 11-, 18"', 25-. 
Feb. 8-, 15-, 22. 
Mar. 1, 8-, 15-, 22. 
Apr. 5, 12, 19. 



484 American Antiquarian Society. (Oct., 

May 3, 10»\ 24, 31. 
June 21. 
July 5, 19. 
Aug. 23, 30. 
Sept. 6. 
Oct. 4. 
Nov. 15, 22. 
1786. Jan. 3 to Sept. 26. 

Mutilated: Jan. 17, 24. 

Missing: Jan. 10, Feb. 21, 28, May 9, 16, 
July 18, Aug. 8, 22. 

[Springfield] Massachusetts Gazette, 1782-1784. 

Weekly. Established May 14, 1782, by Babcock and 
Haswell (Elisha Babcock and Anthony Haswell) with 
the title of "The Massachusetts Gazette, or the Spring- 
field and Northampton Weekly Advertiser." With the 
issue of Aug. 13, 1782, the title was shortened to "The 
Massachusetts Gazette, or the General Advertiser." 
The partnership was dissolved and with the issue of 
May 13, 1783, the paper was published by Elisha Bab- 
cock. With the issue of Sept. 9, 1783, the title was 
changed to "The Massachusetts Gazette, or General 
Advertiser." With the issue of May 11, 1784, Babcock 

sold out to Brooks and Russell ( Brooks and John 

Russell) who made a slight change in the punctuation 
of the title, to "The Massachusetts Gazette: or, General 
Advertiser." The last issue was that of July 20, 1784, 
vol. 3, no. 115. after which the title was changed to "The 
Hampshire Herald," which see. 

Springfield City Lib. has May 21, 1782-May 4, 1784. 
Boston Pub. Lib. has May 14, June 4, Sept. 24, Dec. 24, 
1782; Apr. 8, May 6, June 10, 1783; Apr. 27, 1784. 
Mass. Hist. Soc. has July 16, Sept. 3, 17-Oct. 15, 1782; 
May 20, Sept. 9, suppl., Dec. 23, 1783; Mar. 23, Apr. 20, 
27, 1784. Pocumtuck Valley Mem. Assoc, Deerfield, 
has Aug. 20, 1782. Berkshire Athenaeum, Pittsfield, 
has July 6-20, 1784. N. Y. Hist, Soc. has Oct. 29, 



1915.] Massachusetts. 485 

Nov. 12, Dec. 3, 1782; Apr. 22, Dec. 30, 1783; Mar. 2, 
23, Apr. 6, 27, May 11, 25, June 22, 1784. N. Y. Pub. 
Lib. has Apr. 22, 1783; May 11, 25, 1784. Lib. Cong, 
has May 14, 1782 -May 6, 1783; Jan. 13, 1784. A. A. S. 
has: 

1782. May 14 to Dec. 31. 

Mutilated: May 21, June 4. 
Missing: June 18, 25, Aug. 13, 20, 27, 
Sept. 3, Oct. 8, 15. Nov. 5, Dec. 31. 

1783. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

Mutilated: May 20, July 1. 

Missing: Jan. 7, 21, 28, Feb. 4, 25, Mar. 4, 

11, Apr. 22, 29, May 27, Aug. 26, Sept. 

2, 9, Oct. 28, Nov. 18, Dec. 2. 

1784. Jan. 6, 20, 27. 
Feb. 10, 24. 
Mar. 2, 9, 23. 
Apr. 6, 27. 
May 18. 
June 1, 22, 29. 

[Springfield] Republican Spy, 1803-1804. 

Weekly. Established June 14, 1803, by Timothy 
Ashley, with the title of "The Republican Spy." With 
the issue of Nov. 8, 1803, the title was changed to "Re- 
publican Spy." With the issue of June 11, 1804, vol. 2, 
no. 53, the paper was discontinued at Springfield and 
removed to Northampton. See under Northampton. 

Harvard has June 21, 1803-June 4, 1804, fair. Lib. 
Cong, has Aug. 30, Sept. 10, Oct. 4, 18, 25-Nov. 8, 22, 
1803; Jan. 3, 17, 1804. A. A. S. has: 

1803. June 14. 
. July 19. 

Aug. 2, 30. 

1804. Feb. 7*. 

[Stockbridge] Andrews's Western Star, see Western Star. 



486 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

(Stockbridge] Berkshire Herald, 1814-1815. 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of volume 
numbering, of the "Farmer's Herald." The earliest 
issue located with the title of " Berkshire Herald" is 
that of Dec. 22, 1814, vol. 7, no. 23, whole no. 335, pub- 
lished by Milo Smith & Co., and the change of title was 
made early in December, 1814. The last issue located is 
that of July 20, 1815, and the paper was discontinued in 
November, 1815, to be consolidated with "The Berk- 
shire Reporter" of Pittsfield, which was removed to 
Stockbridge and continued as the "Berkshire Star." 
Boston Pub. Lib. has Dec. 22, 29, 1814. Robert C. 
Rockwell, Pittsfield, has June 29, 1815. A. A. S. has: 
1815. July 6, 13, 20. 

IStockbridge] Berkshire Star, 1815- 1820+ . 

Weekly. A continuation, without change of volume 
numbering, of "The Berkshire Reporter" of Pittsfield, 
which was removed to Stockbridge, consolidated with the 
"Berkshire Herald" of that town, and continued as the 
"Berkshire Star." The first issue of the "Berkshire 
Star" was that of Nov. 30, 1815, vol. 25, no. 1352, printed 
by Milo Smith, for R[ichard] H. Ashley. At some time 
during the year 1916, this was changed to "published by 
R. H. Ashley & Co. " Ashley tried to sell out his interest 
in 1817, and beginning with the issue of Aug. 14, 1817, 
the imprint with his name was omitted. The firm was 
dissolved on Sept. 1, 1817, the advertisement being signed 
by R. H. Ashley and Charles Webster and with the issue 
of Sept. 18, 1817, the imprint became "published by 
Charles Webster. " It was so continued until after 1820. 
Berkshire Athenaeum, Pittsfield, has Jan. 2, 1817- 
Dec. 28, 1820. Mass. Hist. Soc. has Oct. 1, 1818. Lib. 
Cong, has Aug. 27, 1818; Aug. 12, 1819; Mar. 2, 16-30, 
1820. A. A. S. has: 
1815. Nov. 30. 

Dec. 7. 
1819. Apr. 22, 29. 
May 6. 



1915.] Massachusetts. 487 

[Stockbridge] Farmer's Herald, 1808-1814. 

Weekly. Established July 30, 1808, judging from the 
date of the earliest issue located, that of Oct. 1, 1808, 
vol. 1, no. 10, "The Farmer's Herald," published "for 
the Proprietors." The next issue located, that of Aug. 
26, 1809, vol. 2, no. 57, was printed by Edward P. Sey- 
mour up to the last issue located, that of Nov. 24, 1814, 
vol. 7, no. 19. In December, 1814, probably on Dec. 1, 
the title, without change of volume numbering, was 
changed to "Berkshire Herald," which see. 

Stockbridge Pub Lib. has Oct. 6, 20, 27, 1810; Dec. 28, 
1811; Jan. 14, Mar. 11, Nov. 11, 1813. Forbes Lib., 
Northampton, has Nov. 25, 1813/ Boston Pub. Lib. 
has May 2, 1812-Nov. 24, 1814. R. H. W. Dwight, 
Boston, has Sept. 7, 14, 1811. A. A. S. has: 

1808. Oct. 1. 

1809. Aug. 26. 

1810. Jan. 13. 
Mar. 31. 
Apr. 28. 
July 14, 28. 
Sept. 22. 
Oct. 6, 13, 20. 

1811. Jan. 5. 
Mar. 2, 16. . 
Apr. 6, 13, 20. 
May 18. 

Oct. 26. 
Nov. 2, 9. 

[Stockbridge] Political Atlas, 1807. 

Weekly. Established Feb. 14, 1807, by Cornelius 
Sturtevant, Jun., with the title of "The Political Atlas." 
The last issue located is that of Dec. 12, 1807, vol. 1, 
no. 44. 

Harvard has Feb. 14-28, Mar. 14-28, May 2, 30, 
June 13, 1807. Stockbridge Pub. Lib. has Sept. 26, 
1807. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Dec. 12, 1807. A. A. S. has: 



488 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

1807. Feb. 14, 28. 
Mar. 7, 28. 
Apr. 18. 
May 2, 23. 
July 4. 

[Stockbridge] Western Star, 1789- 1806. 

Weekly. Established Dec. 1, 1789, by Loring Andrews, 
with the title of " The Western Star. " The word "The " 
was removed from the title with the issue of Mar. 27, 
1792. With the issue of June 17, 1794, the title was 
changed to "Andrews's Western Star." With the issue 
of Feb. 27, 1797, Andrews conveyed the paper to Rosseter 
& Willard (Benjamin Rosseter and Heman Willard) 
who changed the title back to "The Western Star." 
With the issue of Aug. 7, 1798, the partnership was 
dissolved and the paper published by Benjamin Rosseter. 
With the issue of Aug. 19, 1799, Rosseter sold out the 
paper to a group of proprietors, and it was printed by 
H[eman] Willard, for Horatio Jones & Co. With the 
issue of Aug. 31, 1801, it was published by H. Willard 
& Co., and with the issue of Aug. 21 , 1802, by H. Willard. 
The last issue located with title of "The Western Star" 
is that of Nov. 8, 1806, vol. 17, no. 52 3 whole no. 880. 
In January, 1807, the paper was removed to Pittsfield 
and continued without change of volume numbering, 
under the title of "The Berkshire Reporter." See under 
Pittsfield. 

Harvard has Dec. 1, 1789- Dec. 29, 1800, good; Jan. 5, 
1801-Feb. 16, 1805, fair; Aug. 10, Oct. 19, 1805. Boston 
Pub. Lib. has Jan. 5, Dec. 15, 22, 1789; Jan. 5, 1790- 
May 24, 1791; Jan. 3, 1792; May 6, Dec. 23, 1794; Mar. 
17, 24, June30, July21, 28, Aug. 18-Sept. 1, 1795;May 17- 
31, July 12, 19, Aug. 9, 16, Sept. 5-19, Oct. 17-31, Nov. 
21, 28, Dec. 12, 26, 1796; Jan. 2, 23- Feb. 20, Mar. 6, 
20, 27, Apr. 17, 24, May 15, Oct. 16, 1797. Mass. Hist. 
Soc. has Feb. 21, Mar. 1-3, 1792. Boston Athenaeum 
has 1800-1802, scattering (not found 1916). Stockbridge 
Pub. Lib. has Jan. 12, 1790; June 17, 1794; Nov. 20, 1798; 



1915.] Massachusetts. 489 

Dec. 17, 31, 1799; Sept. 29, 1800; Sept. 4, Nov. 6, 1802; 
Jan. 1, 1803; Sept. 7-Oct. 5, 1805; Feb. 15, June 14, July 
12, 26, 1806. Pocumtuck Valley Mem. Assoc., Deer- 
field, has Aug.. 20, 1793; Feb. 13, 1802. Ct. Hist. Soc. 
has Jan. 15, 1798; Aug. 17, 1801. Yale has Dec. 24, 
1799; Jan. 7-May 13, 26-July 14, 1800. N. Y. Hist. 
Soc. has Oct. 12-Nov. 23, 1790; May 28, 1798; Mar. 25, 
June 29, Aug. 19, 26, 1799; Mar. 18, 25, Apr. 15-June 2, 
16, 23, Aug. 4, 1800; Mar. 20, 1802. N. Y. Pub. Lib. 
has Mar. 5, 1793; July 15, Sept. 30, 1794; Apr. 7-21, 
May 5, 1795, Dec. 5, 1796; Sept. 30, 1799. N. Y. State 
Lib. has Oct. 27, 1800- Aug. 1, 1802. Long. Id. Hist. 
Soc. has Jan. 12, 1801. Lib. Cong, has May 4, 1790; 
Nov. 29, 1791 ; Nov. 24, 1795; Dec. 31, 1799. Wis. Hist. 
Soc. has July 31, 1792; Dec. 9, 23, 1794; Mar. 24, Sept. 
15, 22, Dec. 13, 1795. A. A. S. has: 

1789. Dec. 15-, 22-, 29. 

1790. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated: Feb. 9, 23, Mar. 23, May 25, 
June 15, 22, 29, Aug. 3, 31, Sept. 7, 
Oct. 5, 12, Nov. 2, 9, 23, 30, Dec. 21, 28. 

1791. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 

Mutilated: Jan. 4, 11, 18, Feb. 8, 15, 
Mar. 22, Apr. 5, 12, May 24, 31, July 19, 
Aug. 9, Dec. 6, 13, 27. 

Missing: June 14, July 12, 26, Sept. 27, 
Oct. 18, Nov. 1, 22, Dec. 20. 

1792. Jan. 3 to Dec. 25. 

Mutilated: Mar. 6, Nov. 20. 

Missing: Jan. 3, Mar. 13, Apr. 10, 17, 24, 

May 29, June 19, Aug. 28, Nov. 13, 

Dec. 11. 

1793. Jan. 1, 15, 22, 29. 
Feb. 5, 12, 19, 26. 
Mar. 5-, 26. 
Apr. 2 m , 9. 

May 7, 14,21. 
June 4. 



490 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Oct. 22. 
Dec. 24 m . 

1794. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

Missing: Jan. 7, 14, 21, 28, Feb. 11, Mar. 
18, Apr. 1, 8, May 13, 27, June 3, 10, 
24, July 29, Aug. 26, Sept. 2, 23, 30. 

1795. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: Feb. 10. 

Missing: Jan. 13, Feb. 3, 17, Mar. 31, 
Apr. 7, May 19, June 2, Sept. 22, Oct. 

20, 27, Dec. 22. 

1796. Jan. 5 to Dec. 26. 

Missing: Apr. 5, 12. 

1797. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 
Supplement: Dec. 25*. 

Mutilated: May 1, June 5, July 17, Aug. 

21, Oct. 9, Nov. 27, Dec. 4, 25, 
Missing: May 22, 29, June 12, 19, July 3, 

24, Aug. 28, Sept. 4, Oct. 2, 30, Nov. 13, 
Dec. 11, 18. 

1798. Jan. 1", 8, 15, 22, 29. 
Feb. 5, 19. 

Mar. 12™. 

Apr. 9, 23*. 

May l m y 14*, 21*, 28. 





June 18 m . 




July 3, 24. 




Sept. 11. 




Oct. 30. 




Nov. 27*. 




Dec. 4, 11* 


1799. 


Jan. 15. 




Feb. 19. 




July 8'". 




Sept. 30*. 


1800. 


Mar. 18. 


1802. 


Jan. 9. 


1803. 


Oct. 1. 



18. 





Massachusetts. k 


Jan. 


14. 


Feb. 


25. 


Mar 


. 3, 17. 


Feb. 


9. 


Apr. 


13. 


July 20. 


Nov, 


.2. 


July 


26. 


Oct. 


4,11. 


Nov, 


, 8 m . 



1915.] Massachusetts. k 491 

1804. 

1805. 



1806. 



[Watertown] Boston Gazette, 1775-1776, see under Boston. 

[West Springfield] American Intelligencer, 1795-1797. 

Weekly. Established Aug. 18, 1795, by Richard 
Davison, with the title of "American Intelligencer." 
With the issue of Oct. 4, 1796, Davison transferred the 
paper to Edward Gray. The last issue located is that 
of Nov. 28, 1797, vol. 3, no. 120. 

Harvard has Feb. 23, Mar. 15, Apr. 26 -May 10, June 
28, July 12, 26, Aug. 9-30, Sept. 13-Oct. 11, 25-Nov. 8, 
Dec. 6-27 1796; Jan. 10-Mar. 7, 21, Apr. 4-25, May 
30-June 27, July 11, Sept. 5, Oct. 3, 10, Nov. 7, 14, 1797. 
N. Y. Pub. Lib. has Sept. 8, 1795; Mar. 29, 1796. A. A. 
S. has: 

1795. Aug. 25. 
Sept. 15, 22. 
Oct. 6"\ 
Nov. 17 m , 24. 

1796. Apr. 14. 

June 7-, 14, 28. 
iuly 5. 
Sept. 20. 
Oct. 4, 18, 25. 
Nov. 1, 8, 15, 22-. 
Dec. 6, 27. 

1797. Jan. 10, 17", 31. 
Feb. 21. 

Mar. 7. 



492 American Antiquarian Society. [Got., 

Apr. 4, 18, 25. 
June 6"\ 13, 27. 
July 18. 
Aug. 1, 22. 
Sept. 12, 19, 20. 
Oct. 3, 10, 24. 
Nov. 14, 21, 28. 

[Worcester] American Herald, 1785-1789. 

Weekly. A continuation of the " American Herald" 
of Boston. The paper was removed to Worcester, and 
established there with the issue of Aug. 21, 1788, vol. 8, 
no. 368, "The American Herald; and the Worcester 
Recorder," published by Edward Eveleth Powars. The 
last issue located, and probably the last published, was 
that of Oct. 8, 1789, vol. 8, no. 424. 

Boston Pub. Lib. has July 23, Oct. 8, 1789. A. A. S. 
has: 

1788. Aug. 21 to Dec. 25. 

1789. Jail. 1 to Oct. 8. 

Missing: July 2, 30, Aug. 6 (possibly not 
issued) . 

[Worcester] Haswell's Massachusetts Spy, see Massachusetts 
Spy. 

[Worcester] Independent Gazetteer, 1800-1801. 

Weekly. Established Jan. 7, 1800, by Mower & 
Greenleaf (Nahuin Mower and Daniel Greenleaf) with 
the title of "The Independent Gazetteer." With the 
issue of Oct. 7, 1800, the partnership was dissolved and 
the paper published by Daniel Greenleaf. It was dis- 
continued with the issue of Dec. 29, 1801, vol. 2, no. 104. 

Harvard has Jan. 7, Aug. 5, 12, 2(3, Sept. 16, Dec. 30, 
1800; Feb. 3, 10, 24, Mar. 24, May 20, Sept. 1, 8, 22, Oct. 
27-Dec. 29, 1801. Ct. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 7, 1800-Aug. 
11, 1801, fair. Lib. Cong, has Feb. 3, Mar. 17, Apr. 7, 
1801. Wis. Hist. Soc. has Nov. 11, 1800. A. A. S. has: 



1915.] Massachusetts. 493 

1800. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 
Extra: Jan. 28. 

Missing: June 17, Nov. 4, Dec. 9. 

1801. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 

[Worcester] Massachusetts Herald, 1783. 

Weekly. Established Sept. 6, 1783, by Isaiah Thomas, 
with the title of "The Massachusetts Herald: Or, Wor- 
cester Journal." It was of quarto size, and was largely 
an abridged edition of Thomas's other paper, the "Mass- 
achusetts Spy." It was discontinued with the issue of 
Sept. 27, 1783, vol. 1, no. 4. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has Sept. 20, 1783. A. A. S. has: 
1783. Sept. 6, 13, 20, 27. 

[Worcester] Massachusetts Spy, 1775-1820-f-. 

Weekly. A continuation of "The Massachusetts 
Spy" published at Boston. The first issue published at 
Worcester was that of May 3, 1775, vol. 5, no. 219, 
"The Massachusetts Spy Or, American Oracle of Lib- 
erty," published by Isaiah Thomas. Upon the copy 
of this issue owned by the American Antiquarian Society, 
Thomas has written "This News-paper is the first Thing 
ever printed in Worcester — Isaiah Thomas." With 
the issue of Aug. 16, 1775, the title was changed to 
"Thomas's Massachusetts Spy Or, American Oracle 
of Liberty. " There were no issues published on Feb. 23, 
Mar. 8 to Apr. 5, or Apr. 19, 1776. Thomas relinquished 
publication with the issue of May 31, 1776, and after 
an interval of two weeks, it was published by W[illiam] 
Stearns and D[aniel] Bigelow, who changed the title 
back to "The Massachusetts Spy Or, American Oracle 
of Liberty." There were various slight changes in the 
punctuation and arrangement of the title during the fol- 
lowing year. With the issue of Aug. 14, 1777, the paper 
was published by Anthony Haswell, who changed the 
title to "Harwell's Massachusetts Spy Or American 
Oracle of Liberty." During his management of nearly 



494 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

a year, Haswell continually altered the title, sometimes 
omitting his name and sometimes inserting it. With the 
issue of June 25, 1778, Isaiah Thomas resumed the pro- 
prietorship, changing the title to " Thomas's Massachu- 
setts Spy Or, American Oracle of Liberty." With the 
issue of May 24, 1781, the title was changed to "Thom- 
as's Massachusetts Spy Or, The Worcester Gazette." 
With the issues of Apr. 11, 1782, Mar. 11, 1784, and Jan. 
6, 1785, there were slight changes in the title. With the 
issue of Mar. 30, 1786, vol. 16, no. 782, Thomas dis- 
continued the publication as a newspaper, because of 
the state tax on advertisements, and established "The 
Worcester Magazine," in April, 1786. This was published 
weekly, octavo in size and paged. Although a magazine 
in name, it continued the same kind of news as had been 
printed in the newspaper, current intelligence, death 
and marriage notices, and advertisements, which being 
in a magazine were not subject to tax. The magazine 
was continued through March, 1788, vol. 4, no. 26, com- 
prising four volumes, each with a title-page. The tax 
was taken off in March, 1788, and on Apr. 3, 1788, 
Thomas revived the newspaper with the title of 
"Thomas's Massachusetts Spy: Or, The Worcester Ga- 
zette," vol. 17, no. 783. With the issue of Jan. 5, 1792, he 
admitted Leonard Worcester into partnership, the paper 
being published by Isaiah Thomas and Leonard Worces- 
ter. With the issue of Mar. 6, 1799, it was printed by 
Isaiah Thomas, Jun. for Isaiah Thomas and Son, but 
with the issue of June 10, 1801, Isaiah Thomas, Jun., 
became sole publisher. With the issue of Mar. 12, 1806, 
Isaac Sturtevant became associated with Thomas, and 
the paper was printed by him for Isaiah Thomas, Jun. 
With the issue of Oct. 17, 1810, James Elliot became the 
publisher, and the paper was printed by Isaac Sturte- 
vant for James Elliot, the title being changed to " The 
Massachusetts Spy, or Worcester Gazette." With the 
issue of Feb. 27, 1811, Isaiah Thomas, Jun., took the 
paper back, which was then printed by Isaac Sturtevant 
for Isaiah Thomas, Jun., changing the title to "Thomas's 



1915.] Massachusetts. 495 

Massachusetts Spy, or Worcester Gazette. " With the 
issue of Aug. 12, 1812, Isaac Sturtevant became sole 
publisher. With the issue of Oct. 26, 1814, William 
Manning became publisher. With the issue of Oct. 27, 
1819, George A. Trumbull was admitted to partnership 
and the paper published by Manning & Trumbull. It 
was so continued until after 1820. 

Mass. Hist. Soc. has May 3, 1775 -Dec. 26, 1776; 1777, 
scattering issues; Jan. 1, 1778-1820. Boston Pub. Lib. 
has Jan. 5, 1775- Feb. 16, 1776; Apr. 12, 26-May 31, 
June 21, July 5, 17, Aug. 21, 28, Sept. 11, 1776; July 21, 
Aug. 21, Sept. 25, Dec. 25, 1777; Jan. 1, Apr. 30, June 4, 
25-Aug. 13, Sept. 3-Dec. 31, 1778; 1779-1780, fair; 
Jan. 4, 11, 25, Feb. 1, May 10, 21, 31, Nov. 8, 1781; 
1782-1783, fair; 1784-1789, good; 1790, fair; 1791-1813, 
good; Jan. 5-Mar. 30, July 6, 1814-Dec. 27, 1820. 
Boston Athenaeum has Sept. 2, 9, 23, 1779; Mar. 25, 
June 15, 1780-1820. Harvard has May 3, 1775; Jan. 1, 
1776; Oct. 8, 1778; Dec. 16, 1779; Jan. 6, 1791-Jan. 11, 
1809, fair. Concord, Mass., Pub. Lib. has Apr. 4, 1793- 
Feb. 25, 1795. Worcester Pub. Lib. has 1792- 1820, with 
scattering issues from 1775 to 1791. Dartmouth has 
Feb. 26, 1784-Mar. 23, 1786, fair; Apr. 3, 1788-1793; 
1796-1808; 1810-1819. Ct. Hist. Soc. has Jan. 1, 
1784-June 16, 1785. Yale has Mar. 6, 1794-May 
13, 1795; 1796-1806, scattering; 1807-1820. N. Y. 
Pub. Lib. has July 26-Aug. 9, Sept. 29, Oct. 27-Dec. 15, 
29, 1775; Jan. 5-Feb. 2, 16, Apr. 26, 1776; Oct. 23, 30, 
1777; Jan. 29, 1778-Nov. 18, 1779, scattering; Jan. 17- 
Nov. 7, 1782, scattering; Apr. 17, 24, Oct. 16, 1783; 
Jan. 1, 1784-Dec. 29, 1785, scattering; Apr. 3, 1788- 
Dec. 31, 1800; June 10, 24, 1801; Mar. 3, 1802-Dec. 28, 
1803; Mar. 7-28, 1804. N. Y. Hist. Soc. has Mar. 7, 
1782; 1784-1786, imperfect; 1788-1820, incomplete file. 
N. Y. State Lib. has May 31, 1775-1783, a few scattering 
issues; 1784-1786, 1788, 1791-1808. Lib. Cong, has 
May 3, 1775-Feb. 16, 1776; Apr. 12, 22, 26, May 3, 18, 
31, July 5, 1776; Feb. 12, 1778-Dec. 10, 1779, fair; 1780- 
1781, scattering issues; Jan. 3-Nov. 21, 1782; Feb. 13- 



496 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Oct. 23, 1783, fair; Jan. 1, 1784-Dec. 28, 1808; Feb. 29- 
May 31, June 14, Oct. 18-Nov. 2, 29, Dec. 13, 27, 1809; 
1810-1819; Mar. 1, 8, Sept. 6, 1820. Wis. Hist. Soc. has 
Apr. 1780-Apr. 1782; Jan. 8, 1784-June 10, 1785; 
July 24-Nov. 26, 1788; 1789-1792; May, 1793-Nov., 
1794; 1796-1798; 1800-1820. British Museum has 
1784-1785; Apr. 3, 1788-Feb. 25, 1795; Apr. 20, 1790- 
1820. A. A. S. has: 

1775. May 3 to Dec. 29. 
Supplement: July 22. 

1776. Jan. 5 to Dec. 26. 
[Extra]: Apr. 22. 

Missing: Dec. 26. 

1777. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

Mutilated: Nov. 13. 

Missing: Mar. 6, Apr. 10, July 10, 17, 31. 
Aug. 7, Oct. 2. 

1778. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Supplement: Dec. 17. 

Mutilated: Sept. 24. 

1779. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

1780. Jan. 6 to Dec. 28. 

Mutilated: Mar. 16. 

1781. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 
Supplement: Sept. 20. 

1782. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 
Extraordinary: Mar. 28. 
Supplement: Mar. 28, May 16. 
Proposals for circulating in Boston, May. 

1783. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 
Extraordinary: Apr. 17. 

1784. Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 

1785. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 
Extraordinary: Apr. 21. 

1786. Jan. 5 to Mar. 30. 

Broadside announcement: Apr. 3. 
1786. (Worcester Magazine). 
Apr. to Dec. 



1915.] Massachusetts, 497 

1787. (Worcester Magazine). 
Jan. to Dec. 

1788. (Worcester Magazine). 
Jan. to Mar. 

1788. Apr. 3 to Dec. 25. 

1789. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Supplement: Apr. 9. 
Extraordinary; Sept. 17. 

1790. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 
Extraordinary: Apr. 1. 

1791. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 

1792. Jan. 5 to Dec. 27. 

1793. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 
Extraordinary: Mar. 7. 

1794. Jan. 2 to Dec. 31. 
Extraordinary: Jan. 2, Oct. 15. 

1795. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

Extra: Jan. 14, Feb. 18, July 8. 
Mutilated; July 22. 

1796. Jan. 6 to Dec. 28. 
Extraordinary: May 30. 

1797. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 

1798. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 
Extraordinary: Apr. 18. 

1799. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 
Extra: Feb. 20. 
Extraordinary: Dec. 4. 

1800. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Extraordinary: Jan. 8. 

Extra: Jan. 22, Feb. 1, Mar. 26, June 5, 
July 16, Sept. 3, Dec. 24. 

1801. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

Extra: Mar. 25, Sept. 2, Nov. 18, Dec. 9. 

1802. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 

1803. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 
Extra: Apr. 27. 

1804. Jan. 4 to Dec. 26. 
Extra: July 25. 



498 American Antiquarian Society. (Oct., 

1805. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 
[Extra]: Mar. 27, Dec. 12. 

1806. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 
Extra: Mar. 26. 

1807. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 
Extra: Apr. 22. 

1808. Jan. 6 to Dec. 28. 

1809. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 
Extra: Jan. 25, Mar. 29. 

1810. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 
Prospectus: [Oct. 10]. 

1811. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

Postscript Extraordinary: Feb. 20. 

1812. Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 
Supplement: Mar. 25, July 1. 

1813. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 

1814. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 

1815. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 
Extra: Jan. 11. 

1816. Jan. 3 to Dec. 25. 

1817. Jan. 1 to Dec. 31. 

1818. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

1819. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 

1820. Jan. 5 to Dec. 27. 
Extra: Oct. 11. 

[Worcester] National Aegis, 1801- 1820+ ■ 

Weekly. Established Dec. 2, 1801, with the title of 
"The National Aegis," edited by "Hector Ironside" 
(Francis Blake) and published by Robert Johnson. With 
the issue of Dec. 30, 1801, Sewall Goodridge replaced 
Johnson as publisher. With the issue of June 1, 1803, 
the editor's name was omitted from the imprint, the 
paper was published by Sewall Goodridge solely, and the 
title was slightly altered to "National Aegis." With 
the issue of Oct. 23, 1805, the paper was transferred to 
Samuel Cotting. Immediately after the issue of Dec. 
11, 1805, vol. 5, no. 211, the former editor, Francis Blake, 



1915.] Massachusetts. 499 

attached most of the printing apparatus, and it was not 
until Feb. 19, 1806, vol. 5, no. 212, that the paper was 
again able to make its appearance, when it was "Pub- 
lished by the Proprietors." With the issue of Mar. 12, 
1806, it appeared in new type and with the title "The 
National Aegis." With the issue of May 21, 1806, the 
name of Samuel Cotting appears in the imprint as publish- 
er. On July 6, 1806, Cotting broke up the forms of the 
next issue, took away some of the printing apparatus, and 
began printing on July 9 on a new press in another office 
a paper which he called "National Aegis," continuing 
the numbering of the regular paper. The proprietors 
of the regular Aegis were unable to publish a full sized 
issue on July 9, 1806, and brought out a single-page, 
or broadside, with the heading of "The National Aegis," 
published under the direction of a committee of the 
proprietors. The next issue, July 16, was "Printed for 
the Proprietors." There were therefore two papers 
published, both with the same volume numbering, one 
called "The National Aegis," printed for the Proprietors, 
and the other called "National Aegis" published by 
Samuel Cotting. During this period Levi Lincoln was 
evidently editor of "The National Aegis, "having suc- 
ceeded Samuel Brazer in that capacity, although the 
exact time of the change of editorship is not certain. 
The Republicans of Worcester County met, Sept. 4, 
1806, and resolved that the "Trustees' Aegis" was the 
genuine paper and that Cotting's paper was spurious. 
Cotting's "National Aegis" survived this vote onty a 
few weeks and was discontinued with the issue of Dec. 3, 
1806 (see "The National Aegis" of Dec. 17, 1806), but 
was revived with the issue of Feb. 18, 1807, and finally 
discontinued with the issue of Apr. 15, 1807. "The 
National Aegis" continued on, and with the issue of 
Dec. 31, 1806, was printed for the Proprietors by Samuel 
Nutting. With the issue of Mar. 11, 1807, the paper was 
printed and published by Henry Rogers. It was so con- 
tinued until after 1820. 



500 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Boston Pub. Lib. has 1801-1820, practically complete. 
Boston Athenaeum has Dec. 2, 1801 -Mar. 7, 18i0. 
Harvard has Dec. 9, 1801-Dec. 21, 1808, scattering file. 
Worcester Pub. Lib. has 1801-1809, good; 1810-1911, 
scattering. Dartmouth has 1802-1820, with 1806 im- 
perfect. Yale has Jan. 6, 1802-Dec. 11, 1805. Mass. 
Hist. Soc. and N. Y. Pub. Lib. have a few scattering 
issues. N. Y. State Lib. has 1803-1806, incomplete. 
Lib. Cong, has Dec. 2, 1801-Dec. 29, 1802; 1803-1804, 
scattering issues; 1805-1807, including also the " Cotting" 
file of 1806-1807; Mar. 2, 1808 -Oct. 25, 1809, fair; 1810- 
1818, a few scattering issues; 1819-1820, good. A. A. S 
has: 

1801. Dec. 2, 9, 16, 23, 30. 
Prospectus: Sept. 8. 

1802. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 

1803. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 

1804. Jan. 4 to Dec. 26. 
Extra: Nov. 16. 

1805. Jan. 2 to Dec. 11. 
Supplement: Mar. 27. 

Missing: Mar. 6. 

1806. Feb. 19 to Dec. 31. 
Extra: Apr. 5. 

1806. (Cotting's "National Aegis"). 
Sept. 3. 

1807. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 
Extra: Apr. 1. 

1807. (Cotting's "National Aegis"). 
Apr. 15. 

1808. Jan. 6 to Dec. 28. 
Extra: Mar. 30. 
Handbill: Mar. 31. 

1809. Jan. 4 to Dec. 27. 

1810. Jan. 3 to Dec. 26. 

1811. Jan. 2 to Dec. 25. 

1812. Jan. 1 to Dec. 30. 

1813. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 

1814. Jan. 5 to Dec. 28. 



1915.1 Massachusetts. 501 







Massachusetts. 


1815. 


Jan. 


5 to Dec. 27. 


1816. 


Jan. 


3 to Dec. 25. 


1817. 


Jan. 


1 to Dec. 31. 



[Supplement]: Mar. 26, Apr. 2, 9, 16, 30, 
May 7, 28, June 4, 11, 18. 

1818. Jan. 7 to Dec. 30. 

Supplement: Mar. 18, 25, Apr. 1, 8, 15, 22, 
May 13, 27. 

1819. Jan. 6 to Dec. 29. 

Mutilated: Sept. 22. 

1820. Jan. 5 to Dec. 27. 

Mutilated: Apr. 26. 
Missing: Sept. 20, Oct. 11. 

[Worcester] Scorpion, 1809. 

Weekly. Established July 26, 1809, with the title of 
"The Scorpion/' printed "for the Editors." It was a 
scurrilous paper, without current news, and produced 
solely to attack the proprietors of "The National Aegis, " 
and other Worcester Democrats. It was of quarto size, 
and according to a manuscript note in the issue of Aug. 9 
owned by the American Antiquarian Society, only three 
issues were published. 

A. A. S. has: 

1809. July 26, Aug. 2, 9. 

[Worcester] Thomas's Massachusetts Spy, see Massachusetts 
Spy. 



502 



American Antiquarian Society. 



INDEX 



Adams, Charles Francis, tributes 
to, 12, 300. 

Adams, John, 94, 345; on Oliver 
Ellsworth, 86; treaties, 348, 353, 
356. 

Adams, Mt., Indian name, 377; 
legend, 386, 388. 

Aiken, Alfred L., Worcester views 
deposited, 333. 

Alden, Ebenezer, Fund, 314; gift, 
legacy, 318. 

Allen, Katharine, gift, 319. 

Almanacs, Mass., Conn., R. I. 
and S. C. lists published, and 
Maine, N. H. and Vt. in prepara- 
tion, 8; proposed publications, 9; 
early Mass. reproduced, 9, 301; 
Check List of R. I. Almanacs, 
with introd. and notes, 19; sizes, 
22, 28, 65; first French in N. E., 
27; German almanacs, 59, 62, 
65; McCullock's gift of, 62; 
earliest illustrated, 63; "man of 
signs," 64; earliest copper plate, 
66; accessions, 327. 

American Antiquarian Society, 
meetings, members present, 1, 
295, and entertained, 2, 298; 
members elected, 2, 296; council 
reports, 3, 299; cost of building, 
income, 3, 302; tapestries in 
rotunda, 298; dome repaired, 299; 
grounds improved, 300; publica- 
tions, 302; enlarge stack, and 
funds needed, 304; contributors' 
list, 305, 317; treasurer's report, 
312, and fund accounts, 314; 
librarian's report, 320. 

"American Literary Magazine," on 
Oliver Ellsworth, 90. 

"American Weekly Mercury," re- 
produced, 10. 

Ames, Nathaniel, 9; Almanacs, 26, 
66, 327. 

Anderson, Alexander, 63. 

Anderson, John, Almanacs, 26, 28. 

Appleton, Nathan, gift, 317. 



Arber, Edward, "Stationer's Regis- 
ters, " 20. 
Armbuster, Gothard, Almanacs, 65. 
Atkins, Samuel, Almanac, 63. 



B. 



Bailey, Francis, printer, 61. 

Balch, Frederick H., 387. 

Balch, Thomas W., gift, 319. 

Baldwin, Abraham, 108. 

Baldwin, Simeon, 127. 

Baldwin, Simeon E., Franklin and 
the Rule of Free Ships, Free 
Goods, 298, 345; gift, 318. 

Bancroft, George, on Connecticut 
delegates, 80, 91; on Sherman, 
82, and Johnson, 84. 

Bancroft, Hubert H., 382. 

Bangs, Edward D., legacy, 317. 

Banister, John, described, 359. 

Banister, John, 359. 

Barlow, Joel, on federal govern- 
ment, 93. 

Barron, Samuel, 332. 

Barrows, Benjamin H., 378. 

Barry, J. Neilson, 391. 

Baxter, James P., Secretary for 
Foreign Correspondence, re- 
elected, 297; gift, 319. 

Beall. Thomas, 394. 

Belisle, Alexander, "L'Opinion 
Publique" deposited, 325. 

Beverley, Robert, [1], 361. 

Beverley, Robert described 361. 

Bey, Jacob, engraver, 68, 69. 

Bickerstaff, Isaac, Almanacs, 23, 
25, 28, 29. 

Bigelow, John P., legacy, 318. 

Billmeyer, Michael, 65. 

Bishop, B. B., 382. 

Bixby, William K, gift, 331. 

Blake, George S., letters of, ac- 
quired, 331. 

Blake, Harrison G. O., 332. 

Blake, Joshua, at Tripoli, 331. 

Blanchet, Francis N., 379. 

Bliss, Eugene, F. gift, 318. 



Index, 



503 



Boas, Franz, Indians of the North- 
west, 383, 384. 

Bolivia, newspapers acquired, 320. 

Bookbinding Fund, 314. 

Bookplates, gift, of, 335. 

Boston, list of newspapers, 193. 

"Boston News Letter," repro- 
duced, 10. 

Boulton, Matthew, founder of 
Soho Engineering Works, 364. 

Boutell, Lewis H., on Sherman, 83. 

Bowditch, Charles P., gift, 319. 

Bowen, Clarence VV., on nominat- 
ing committee, 296; Councillor, 
re-elected, 297. 

Boy den, W. Thane, certificate as 
accountant, 317. 

Boyle, Charles Earl of Orrery, 361. 

Boyle, Robert, 360, 361. 

Bradley, Philip B., 124. 

Breck, William, 332. 

Brigham, Clarence S., 4; Bibli- 
ography of American News- 
papers, Pt. Ill, 128; Librarian's 
report, 320, with list of donors, 
336; Bibliography of American 
Newspapers, Pt. IV, 396. 

Brinker, Josiah H., 326. 

Brooke, George M., 372. 

Brooke, John M., award as scien- 
tist, 372. 

Brown, Hugh H., printer, 24, 29. 

Brown, William G., on Oliver Ells- 
worth, 91. 

Bullock, Augustus G., Treasurer, 
re-elected, 297; report, 312; gift, 
318. 

Burr, Aaron, on Oliver Ellsworth, 
86. 

Burrall, Charles, 74, 80. 

Burton, Clarence M., gift, 319. 

Byrd, William, notice of, 361. 



C 



Caines, George, 351. 

Calhoun, John C, praise of Con- 
necticut delegates, 92. 

Campbell, Ebenezer, printer, 24. 

Carlile, John, printer, 24. 

Carr, Lucien, obituary of, 15. 

Carter, John, printer, 24, 25, 28. 

Casares, David", obituary of, 18. 

Catesby, Mark, in Virginia, 361. 

Centennial Fund, 314. 

Chace, Henry R., 20. 

Champlin, Christopher G., legacy, 
317. 



Chandler, George, Fund, 314, 330; 
gift, 318. 

Chapin, Howard M., Check List of 
Rhode Island Almanacs, 1643- 
1850, with introd. and notes, 2, 
8, 19. 

Chapman, H. D., 389. 

Chauncey, Charles, 79. 

Chinook, 379, 384. 

Clark, Samuel A., 386. 

Clayton, Sir John, 362. 

Clayton, John [2], 362. 

Clayton John [31, botanist, 362, 
364. 

Clayton, Rev. John, described, 359. 

Cleaveland, Moses, 124. 

Clough. Samuel, Almanac, 64. 

Cocke, Elizabeth, 361. 

Cocke, William, 361. 

Cogswell, De Etta, 389. 

Collection and Research Fund, 314. 

Columbia River, Indian names, 
379. 

Commerce, treaties of, Franklin 
and the Rule of Free Ships, Free 
Goods, 345. 

Condon, Thomas, 386. 

Connecticut Ratification of the 
Federal Constitution, 70; not 
represented at Annapolis Con- 
vention, 73; debates on election 
of delegates to Philadelphia Con- 
vention, 74, and election, 80; 
Congregational clergy support, 
106; affirmative and negative 
votes, 124, 125 

"Connecticut Courant," federal 
views, 95, 107. 

"Connecticut Journal," 98, 119. 

Constantinople, engraving of, 62. 

Constitution, Federal, Connecti- 
cut's Ratification, 70, 98; op- 
ponents, 100; broadside, 107; 
Massachusetts ratification, 127. 

Constitutional Convention of 1787, 
73; Connecticut delegates, 91. 

Cook, , on Oliver Ellsworth, 

- 90. 

Corey, Mrs. Deloraine P., gifts, 319. 

Council, reports, 3, 299; special 
meeting, 300. 

Cox, Ross, 380. 

Crandell, Lulu D., 394. 

Cristy, Austin P., gift, 318. 

Crown Point, engraving of, 62, 68. 

Cunningham, Henry W., Councillor 
re-elected, 297; gifts, 313, 318. 

Cur tin, Jeremiah, 384. 



504 



American Antiquarian Society, 



D 



Daggett, David, 92. 

Danforth, printer, 24. 

Dardanelles, engraving of, 62. 

Davenport, Samuel, 78. 

Davis, AndrewMc F., Vice-Presi- 
dent, re-elected, 297; gifts, 318. 

Davis, Charles H., gift, 318. 

Davis, Edward L., gifts, 318. 

Davis, Horace, gift, 318. 

Davis, Isaac, gifts, 317 and 318. 

Davis, Isaac and Edward L., Fund, 
314. 

Davis, John and Eliza, Fund, 314, 
330. 

Davis, John C. B., gift, 318. 

Dawkins, Henry, engraver, 66. 

Daye, Matthew, printer, 19. 

Deane, Silas, 347, 349. 

Deans, James, 392. 

Decatur, Stephen, 332. 

Dewey, Francis H., Fund, 314, 330; 
legacy, 318. 

Dewey, Francis H., Councillor, 
re-elected, 297; gift, 319. 

Dexter, Franklin P., gift, 319. 

Dexter, Gregory, printer, 19; no- 
tice of, 20. 

Dickinson, John, treaties, 348. 

Dodge, Eliza D., Fund, 314; legacy, 
318. 

Drake, F. V., 389. 

Draper, Henry, astronomer, 373. 

Draper, John W., 373. 

Dresser, Frank F., appointed teller, 
2. 

Dudley, Benjamin W., surgeon, 
368. 

Dunn, John, 381. 

Dwight, Timothy, on Oliver Ells- 
worth, 85. 

Dyer, Eliphalet, 124. 



E. 



Eames, Wilberf orce, 302. 

Edes, Henry H., appointed teller, 
296; gift, 319. 

Edes, Peter, printer, 27. 

Edwards, Morgan, on G. Dexter, 
19, 20. 

Edwards, Pierpont, 124; on Ells- 
worth's eloquence, 119. 

Eells, Edwin, 378, 394. 

Eells, Myron, 382, 385. 

Elizabeth, Queen, engraving of, 62. 

Elliott, John, 125. 



Ellis, George E., Fund, 314; legacy, 
318. 

Ellsworth, Oliver, 70, 124; delegate 
to Constitutional Convention, 
80; described, 85; R. . I. forced 
into Union by, 89; Calhoun on, 
92; letters on adoption of the 
Constitution, 98; Letters of a 
Landholder," 99, 107; efforts for 
Convention to ratify Constitu- 
tion, 103, and debates, 110, 113. 

England, engraving of arms, 64. 

Engraving, early Almanac cuts, 60, 
62, 63; earliest copper plate, 66; 
book illustrations, 67. 

Evans, Charles, "American Bibli- 
ography," 67. 

Everett, Edward, gift, 317. 



F. 



Farnsworth, Oliver, printer, 28. 

Farrand, Livingston, 384. 

Farwell, John W., elected a mem- 
ber, 2. 

Fauquier, Francis, notice of, 363. 

Field, Cyrus W., on M. F. Maury, 
370. 

Fitch, ■, 78. 

Fitch, John, 366. 

Flanders, Henry, on Oliver Ells- 
worth, 90. 

Fleeming, John, printer, 25. 

Folsom, George, gift, 317. 

Forbes, William T., 2, 298. 

Ford, Worthington C, Secretary 
for Domestic Correspondence, 
elected, 297. 

Forest, J. T., 389. 

Foster, Alfred D., 301. 

Foster, John, engraver, 63. 

Fowle, Daniel, printer, 327. 

Fox, Emanuel, 60. 

Fox, Justus ,A German Printer of 
the 18th Century, 55; apprentice 
to Christopher Sower, 58; versa- 
tility, 60, 68; engraver, 60, 62, 
63, 65, 67, 68. 

Frachtenberg, Leo J., 383. 

France, treaties, 347, 348, 352, 353. 

Franchere, Gabriel, Indian narra- 
tive, 380. 

Franklin, Ann, Almanacs, 21. 

Franklin, Benjamin, 68, 347; type 
founder, 60; Almanacs, 62, 64, 
65, 327; Free Ships, Free Goods, 
345; treaties, 348; on privateer- 
ing, 351; college degree, 363. 



Index. 



505 



Franklin, James, printer, Poor 
Robins' Almanac, 21. 

Franklin, James, Jr., printer, Poor 
Job's Almanac, 22, 28. 

Frederic III, King of Prussia, en- 
gravings of, 62, 66. 

Free trade, Franklin and the Rule 
of Free Ships, Free Goods, 345. 

Freebetter, Daniel, Almanacs, 27. 

French, Charles E., legacy, 318. 

French, Edwin D., bookplates, 335. 

Frye, William P., sinking of, 345. 



Gage, Homer, Auditor, 298; report, 

317. 
Gage, Thomas H., appointed teller, 

296. 
Gans, Jacob, printer, 57. 
Garver, Austin S., gift, 319. 
Gaston, Joseph, 391. 
Gates, Horatio, 365. 
Gatling, Richard J., 372. 
Gatschet, Albert S., 384. 
Geiger, William, 385. 
Germantown, settlement, 57. 
Germany, violation of treaty with 

U. S., 345. 
Gerry, Elbridge, 107; Ellsworth's 

attack, 102, 103. 
Geyer, Frederick, 69. 
Gibbs, George, 382, 386. 
Gill, John, 393. 
Glover, Joseph, 19. 
Goddard, Sarah, printer, 24, 25. 
Goddard, William, printer, 23. 
Granger, Amos, 76. 
Green, Andrew H., legacy, 318. 
Green, John, gift, 317. 
Green, Samuel, printer, 19. 
Green, Samuel A., 63; Vice-Presi- 
dent, re-elected, 297; gift, 319. 
Green, Samuel S., 1: Councillor, 

re-elected, 297; on C. F. Adams, 

300; gift, 319. 
Greene, A. Crawford, printer, 24. 
Green way, James, botanist, 368. 
Griffin, John S., 385. 
Griswold, Matthew, 124. 
Gronovius, Joannes F., 362 , 
Guyer, John J., 391. 
Gwydir, R. D., 394. 

H. 

Hall, Granville Stanley, Councillor, 

re-elected, 297. 
Hall, Samuel, printer, 26. 



Halsey, Jeremiah, 124. 
Hammond, Otis G., 329. 
Harmon, Daniel W., 383 
Harrison, Benjamin, 347; treaties, 

348. 
Hart, Samuel, elected a member, 2. 
Hartford, convention of 1780, 70; 

convention, ratification of Con- 
stitution, 1788, 109, 120. 
Harvard Club, Boston, 2. 
Haven, Frances W., Fund, 314, 

330; legacy, 318. 
Haven, Samuel F., Fund, 314; 

legacy, 318. 
Haynes, George H., Publication 

Committee, 297. 
Heartman, Chas. F., "Bibliography 

of N. E. Primers/ ' 327. 
Henry, Patrick, on Sherman, 82. 
Hibbs, J. N., 389. 
Hildeburn, Charles R., 65, 67. 
Hill, Benjamin T., Auditor, 298; 

report, 317. 
Himes, George H., 394. 
Hinman, Benjamin, 124. 
Hoar, George F., on Sherman, 83. 
Hobday, John, 364. 
Hoffman, Samuel V., gift, 319. 
Holland, 347, 353. 
Hollingsworth, Valentine, 301. 
Hollis, Ira N., elected a member, 2. 
Hollister, Gideon H., on Oliver 

Ellsworth, 87. 
Holmberg, Henrik J., 383. 
Hood, Mt., Indian name, 377; leg- 
end, 386, 388. 
Hopkins, Samuel, 79. 
Horner, John B., 389. 
Hoyt, Albert H., death announced, 

300; obituary of, 308. 
Humishuma, or Morning Dove, 

Indian, 392. 
Humphrey, Hosea, 76. 
Hunnewell, James F., Fund, 314; 

gift, 318. 
Hunt, Claire, 394. 
Huntington, Henry E., 301, 302; 

member, elected, 2. 
Huntington, Isaac, 124. 
Huntington, Jedidiah, 124; on 

general government, 75. 
Huntington, Samuel, 74, 98, 107, 

124; debate on Constitution, 120. 
Himi, Nathaniel, 335. 
Hutohins, John N., Almanac, 66. 
Hylcbos, Rev., 378, 394. 



506 



American Antiquarian Society. 



I. 

Indian Myths of the Northwest, 
375; names of Mts., 377, and 
rivers, 378, and God, 379; ally 
of Ten Lost Tribes, 382; bibli- 
ography, 383. 

Ironclads, inventor, 371. 

Irving, Washington, "Astoria," 
380. 



Jackson, Robert J., 389. 

Jackson, William, 333. 

Jacobs, Nancy O., 394. 

Jay, John, 348, 353. 

Jay treaty, 89; 

Jefferson, Thomas, mss., 331; trea- 
ties, 345, 353, 355; on W. Small, 
363; genius, 366. 

Jenkins, Lawrence W., elected a 
member, 2. 

Johnson, Reverdy, 118. 

Johnson, William S., 70, 89, 108, 
119, 124, 347; delegate to Con- 
stitutional Convention, 80; de- 
scribed, 84; on ratification of 
Constitution, 112. 

Johnston, Alexander, on Connec- 
ticut delegates, 92. 

Jordan, John W., member, elected, 
296. 

Journalism, books acquired, 330. 

Judson, Katherine, 395. 

K. 

Kautz, Augustus, Indian, 394. 
Kautz, Nugent, Indian, 394. 
Kerr, Mark B., 389. 
Kinnicutt, Lincoln N., gifts, 319, 

331. 
Kittredge. George L., 9. 
Knapp, Snepherd, appointed teller, 

296. 
Knox, Henry, on Connecticut's 

ratification, 126. 
Kurtz, Henry, printer, 58, 62. 
Kuykendall, G. B., Indian legends, 

389. 



Langdon, Samuel, "Excellency of 

the Word," 329. 
Lanza y Lanza, Donato, library of, 

322. 
Law, Richard, 82, 124; on adoption 

of Constitution, 123. 
Lawrence, William, gift, 319. 
Lee, Arthur, 347, 349. 



Lee, Richard H., 102, 348. 

Leeds, Daniel, Almanac, 21, 22. 

Leeds, Titan, Almanacs, 64. 

Lenox, James, gift, 317. 

Librarian, report, 320. 

Librarian's and General Fund, 314. 

Library Building Fund, 314. 

Library of Congress, photostat 
almanacs, 301. 

Library of the Society, accessions 
how acquired, 4; superior col- 
lections, 7, 9; clearing house for 
American newspapers, 10; U. S. 
documents, 303, 326, and notable 
newspapers acquired, 303, 320; 
assistants desired, 303; R. H. S. 
duplicates, 321; accessions of 
American imprints, 326, geneal- 
ogies, 330, and printing and 
journalism, 330. 

Lichtenstein, Walter, South Ameri- 
can newspaper expedition, 322. 

Life Membership Fund, 314. 

Lincoln, Levi, Legacy Fund, 314; 
gift, legacy, 317. 

Lincoln, Nancy, gift, legacy, 318. 

Lincoln, Waldo, presides, 1, 295; 
Council report, 296, 299; Presi- 
dent, re-elected, 296; entertains 
members of Society, 298; re- 
marks on C. F. Adams, 300; 
deaths announced of A. H. Hoyt, 
F. W. Putnam, G. E. Littlefield, 
301; gift, 319. 

Lincoln, William, "History of Wor- 
cester," continued, 332. 

Linnaeus, Carl von, 362. 

Linton, William J., on Thomas' and 
Franklin's wood cuts, 63, 65. 

Little, Charles C, gift, 317. 

Littlefield, George E., 19; death 
announced, 301; obituary of, 
308. 

Livingston, Luther S., obituary of, 
16. 

Livingston, Robert R., 352. 

Lockley, Fred, 389. 

Lodge, Henry C, 326. 

Lombard, Herbert E., gift of book- 
plates, 335. 

Lopez, Moses, Almanac, 28. 

"L'Opinion Publique," deposit of 
file, 325. 

Lord, Arthur, on nominating com- 
mittee, 296. 

Lyman, Horace S., 384. 

Lyman, William D., Indian Myths 
of the Northwest, 298, 375. 



Index. 



507 



M. 

McAdie, Alexander G., member, 
elected, 296. 

McBeth, Kate, 379, 382, 391. 

Maccarty, Nathaniel, legacy, 317. 

McCaw, Samuel, Indian, 394. 

McClurg, James, 363. 

McCormick, Cyrus H., inventor, 
369. 

McCormick, Robert, 369. 

McCullock, William, printer, 65, 
67, 68; corrections of Thomas' 
"History of Printing," 56, 62; 
gifts, 62. 

McDermott, Louisa, 384. 

McDowell, Ephraim, surgeon, 368. 

McFarland, William, legacy, 317. 

McKay, William C, 393. 

McMorris, Louis, 394. 

MeWhorter, Lucullus, Indian le- 
gends, 392. 

Madison, James, Bishop, notice of, 
367. 

Madison, James, 126, 367; to Jeffer- 
son, 73; on Ellsworth, 86; on Con- 
necticut's ratification, 108, 124. 

Manufactures, promotion, 104, 116, 
364. 

Manuscripts, additions, 331. 

Markistan, James T., 389. 

Marsh, Henry A., obituary of, 16; 
gift, 318. 

Martin, Luther, Ellsworth on, 104. 

Mary, Queen, engravings of, 62, 64. 

Maryland, list of newspapers of, 
130. 

Mason, George, 102, 107. 

Massachusetts, almanacs repro- 
duced, 9, 301, and newspapers, 
10, 11,; bibliography of news- 
papers, 193, 396. 

Massachusetts Historical Society, 
photostat Almanacs, 301. 

Mather, Cotton, "Repeated Warn- 
ings, " 326. 

Maury, Matthew F., scientist, 
notice of . 370. 

Maury, Richard, 370. 

Maxwell, Samuel, Almanac, 21. 

Meek, Joseph, L., 385. 

Meeker, Ezra, 394. 

Meeker, Jerry, Indian, 394. 

Mein. John, printer, 25. 

Merrick, Pliny, gift, 317. 

Merrimac, 372. 

Merriman, Daniel, legacy, 319. 

Mettauer, John P., surgeon, 369. 

Miller, Joaquin, 387. 



Miller, Peter, printer, Almanac, 62. 
Minto, John, 392. 
Mitchell, John, botanist, 362. 
Mitchell, Stephen M., 1?,4. 
Montreal, engraving of, 62. 
Moore, Benjamin F., Almanac, 29. 
More, Roger, Almanac, 66. 
Morris, Robert, 347. 
Morris, Robert, treaties, 348. 

N. 

New Hampshire, first issues of 
press, 327. 

"New Hampshire Gazette," 328. 

"New Haven Gazette," on federal 
government, 74. 

"Newport Mercury," census of, 6; 
reproduced, 10; Almanac, 29. 

Newspapers, progress of bibliog- 
raphy, 5, 304, and proposed pub- 
lication to follow, 5; S. Amer. ac- 
cessions, 7, 322; reproduced, 10, 
11; Bibliography of Amer. News- 
papers, Pt. Ill, 128, and Pt. IV, 
396; large acquisitions, 303, 320, 
and fund required, 304; general 
use, 305. 

New York, Public Library, photo- 
stat almanacs, 301. 

Nez Perces, 379, 382, 391. 

Niagara, Fort, engraving, 62. 

Nichols, Charles L., 21, 25; early 
Mass. almanacs reproduced, 9, 
301; Justus Fox a German 
Printer of the 18th Century, 55; 
Recording Secret airy, and Pub- 
lication Committee, re-elected, 
297; gifts, 318, 327; on N. H. 
press first issues, 327. 

Norcross, Grenville II., appointed 
teller, 2; nominating committee, 
296 

O 

Oregon Indians, mythology, 375. 
"Oregon Native Son," 387. 

P. 

Page, John, 363; scientific investi- 
gations, 364; called "John Part- 
ridge, "364. 

Paine, Nathaniel, Councillor, re- 
elected, 297. 

Paine, R. T., Almanac, 23. 

Paltsits, Victor H., 9. 

Parker, Samuel, 381. 

Parsons, Jonathan, "Good News," 
329. 



508 



American Antiquarian Society. 



Parsons, Usher D., gift, 317. 

Partridge, Copernicus, pseud, of 

Bennett Wheeler, 27. 
Partridge, John, Almanac maker, 

364. 
Paterson, William, Calhoun's praise 

of, 92. 
Pefley, C. W., 389. 
Pembrook, Elkana, 21. 
Pennsylvania, first printed book, 

63. 
Perkins, Daniel, 77, 125. 
Perry, Amos, 26. 
Phelps, Noah, 125. 
Philadelphia, convention of 1787, 

see Constitutional Convention. 
Phillips, Nathaniel, printer, 27, 28. 
Phillips, Walter S., Indian legends, 

390. . 
Pitt, Charlie, Indian, 394. 
Photography, mechanical, for copy- 
ing historical material, 8, 9, 10. 
Pierce, William, on W. S. Johnson, 

85. 
Pitkin, Elisha, 124. 
"Popish Cruelty Displayed," 329. 
Porter, John L., inventor of iron 

vessels, 371. 
Porter, Joseph, 371. 
Primers, New England, acquired, 

327; bibliography, 327. 
Printing, books on, 330. 
Privateering, Franklin on, 350, 356; 

abolition, 355. 
Providence, newspaper files, 320. 
"Providence Journal," Almanac, 

29. 
Prussia, treaties with U. S., 345, 

353, 355, 356. 
Purchasing Fund, 314. 
Putnam, Frederick W., death an- 
nounced, 301; obituary of, 310. 

Q. 

Quebec, engraving of, 67. 
It. 

Rainier, Mt., Indian name, 377. 

Reed, Walter C, yellow fever dis- 
covery, 373. 

Revere, Paul, almanac engraving, 
66; engravings acquired, 332; 
bookplates, 335. 

Rhode Island, Check List of Al- 
manacs of, with introd. and 
notes, 19; gap in issuance, 22; 
French almanac, 27; sheet alma- 
nacs, 28, earliest cuts, Jewish, 28; 



newspaper almanacs, 29; forced 
into Union, 89; hostility toward, 
97, 111; duplicate newspaper 
files, 320. 

"Rhode Island Gazette," repro- 
duced, 10. 

Rhode Island Historical Society, 
deposit of duplicate newspapers. 
320. 

Rice, Franklin P., Publication 
Committee, 297. 

Rogers. Patrick K., 368. 

Rogers, William B., founder Mass. 
Instit. of Technology, 368. 

Rorapacker, Rufus C, 389. 

Ross, Alexander, 380. 

Ruffin, Edmund, Editor, "Farm- 
ers' Register," 369. 

Rugg, Arthur P., Councillor, re- 
elected, 297. 

Rumsey, James, first American 
boat, 365; eulogized by B. Rush, 
366. 

Rumsey Society, 365. 

Rush, Benjamin, on J. Rumsey, 
366. 

Russell, Nodiah, Almanac, 64. 

Russia, neutral trade, 352. 

Rutledge, John, 89. 



8. 



St. Helen's, Mt., Indian name, 377; 
legend, 386, 387, 388. 

Salisbury, Stephen, gifts, 306, 317; 
legacy, 318. 

Salisbury, Stephen, Jr., gifts, 306, 
318; legacies, 318. 

Sapir, Edward, 383. 

Saylor, Fred A., Indian legends, 
387, 389. 

Science, Virginia's Contribution to, 
358. 

Sedgwick, Theodore, on Sherman, 
82. 

Seward, William H., on McCor- 
mick's reaper, 370. 

Seymour, Thomas, 76, 80. 

Shaw, Dr., 391. 

Shays's Rebellion, 93; mss. deposit- 
ed, 331. 

Sherman, Roger, 9, 70, 119, 120, 
124; delegate to Constitutional 
Convention, 80; described, 81; 
Calhoun on, 92; letters on adop- 
tion of Constitution, 98, 104, 
126, and opposes amendments, 
127. 



Index. 



509 



Ships, Franklin and the Rule of 
Free Ships, Free Goods, 345. 

Shuksan, Mt., 378. 

Sicade, Henry, Indian, 394. 

Small, William, eulogized, 363, 367. 

Smith, E. L., 393. 

Smith, Justin H., gift, 319. 

Smith, Silas, 385. 

Smith, Solomon, 385. 

Society of Arts in London, ad- 
dressed by Rumsey, 366. 

South America, newspapers, 7, 322. 

Southwick, Henry C, printer, 26. 

Southwick, Remington, Almanac, 
28. 

Southwick, Solomon, printer, 26. 

Sower, Christopher, printer, 57; 
paper mill, 59; type founder, 60; 
Almanacs, 62, 64, 66; engraver, 
65. 

Sower, Christopher, 2d, printer, 
59, 68; type for German Bible, 
60; reverses, 61; Almanacs, 62. 

Sower, Samuel, 61. 

Sparks, Jared, on Roger Sherman, 
82. 

Spaulding, Eliza, 394. 

Special Gifts Fund, 314. 

Spenceley, Joseph W., bookplates, 
335. 

Spinden, Herbert J., 384. 

Splawn, A. J., 393. 

Stafford, Joseph, Almanac, 21. 

Stauffer, David McN., 63. 

Steam boats, first of an American, 
365. 

Steam engine, development, 364. 

Stearns, Ezra S., obituary of, 17. 

Steiner, Bernard C, Connecticut's 
Ratification of the Federal Con- 
stitution, 70. 

Stiles, Ezra, on Dexter 19, and 
Sherman, 82. 

Strong, Jedidiah, 124. 

Stuart, James, 391. 

Swan, James G., 382, 391. 

Sweden, treaty with U. S., 352. 

T. 

Tacullies, 383. 

Taft, Jane A., legacy, 319. 

Taylor, Charles H. Jr., gift of 

books on printing and journalism, 

330. 
Teit, James, 383. 384. 
Tenney, Joseph A., Fund, 314; 

legacy, 318. 



Thayer, Nathaniel, gift, 317. 

Thomas, Benjamin F., 56; Fund, 
314, 330; gift, legacy, 317, 318. 

Thomas, Isaiah, 10, 19, 20; "His- 
tory of Printing," annotated, 
and reprinted, 55, 56; Hiero- 
glyphic Bible, 63; Almanacs, 66; 
gifts, 306; legacy, 317; on N. H. 
press, 328. 

Thomas, Robert B., 9; Almanacs, 
29, 66. 

Thomas, William, gift, 317. 

Thornton, Elisha, Almanacs, 27. 

Thunderstorms, Clayton on, 361. 

Tiffany, P. Dexter, gift, 317 

Tobler, John, Almanacs, 59, 66. 

Torpedoes invention, 371. 

Torrey, Ebenezef, gift, 318. 

Treasurer, report, 312. 

Trevelyan, Sir George Otto, foreign 
member, elected, 296. 

Tripoli, 331. 

Trumbull, John, on W. S. Johnson, 
84. 

Trumbull, Jonathan, 70, 71; on 
national government, 72; on 
Conn, ratification, 125. 

Tulley, John, Almanacs, 64. 

Turkey, treaty, 347. 

Turner, James, engraver, 66, 68. 

Tuttle, Julius H., appointed teller, 
296; Publication Committee, 297. 

Tyler, Lyon G., Virginia's Contri- 
bution to Science, 298, 358. 

U. 

United States, Government Docu- 
ments acquired, 303, 326; treaties 
of commerce, 345. 

Utley, Samuel, obituaries of L. 
Carr, 15, L. S. Livingston, H. A. 
Marsh, 16, E. S. Stearns, 17; 
Councillor, re-elected, 297; obit- 
uaries of A. H. Hoyt, G. E. Little- 
field, 308, F. W. Putnam, 310; 
gift, 319. 

V. 

Van Santvoord, George, on Ells- 
worth, 87. 

Verplanck, Gulian C, on Ells- 
worth, 90. 

Virginia, Contribution to Science, 
358; "Flora Virginica," 362; 
industries, 364, 369. 

Virginia, Philosophical Society, 374. 

Virginia Society for the Promotion 
of Useful Knowledge, 361. 



510 



American Antiquarian Society. 



Virginia, University of, W. B. 

Rogers on freedom of, 369. 
Virginia, 372. 

W. 

Wadsworth, James, opposition to 
Constitution, 113, 125, 126. 

Wadsworth, Jeremiah, 77. 

Walker, C. H., 394. 

Walker, John, 363. 

Wain, Robert, Jr., on Sherman, 120. 

Ward, Andrew, 125. 

Washburn, Charles F., Fund, 314. 

Washburn, Charles G., tribute to 
C. F. Adams, 12, 300; Councillor, 
re-elected, 297; gifts, 318, 326. 

Washburn, Henry B., member, 
elected, 2. 

Washington, George, 94, 97, 98, 
102, 108. 

Waterston, Robert C. [1], legacy, 
318. 

Waterston, Robert C, [2], gift, 
318. 

Watkinson Library, photostat al- 
manacs, 301. 

Watson, R. A., 389. 

Watt, James, steam engine, 364. 

Weatherwise, Abraham, Almanacs, 

23. 24, 25, 28, 29, 66, 327. 
Webb, Joseph, 333. 

Webster, Daniel, on Ellsworth, 119. 
Webster, Noah, on national gov- 
ernment, 73. 
Weeden, William B., gift, 318. 
Welch, Samuel, 333. 
Welton, John, 79. 
West, Benjamin, Almanacs, 23, 

24, 25, 27, 28; original Bicker- 
staff, 25. 

Wheeler, Bennett, printer, 25, 26, 

28. 
Wheeler, Leonard, member, elected, 

2. 
Whitefield, Nathaniel, Almanac, 

22; notice of, 23. 
Whitin, Albert II., gift, 319. 



Whitney, James L., Fund, 314; 
legacy, 319. 

Whittemore, Nathaniel, Almanacs, 
21, 64. 

Wickersham, James, 389. 

Wilkes, Charles, 381. 

Wilkes, John, portrait, 28, 327. 

Wilkinson, Eliab, printer, 24. 

William and Mary College, 363, 
367, 368. 

Williams, John H., 394. 

Williams, Roger, on Dexter, 20; 
"Key," 20. 

Williams, William, 103n, 124; on 
Constitution, 113. 

Williamsburg, Va., manufactures, 
364. 

Wilson, — — , printer, 24. 

Wilson, James, 348. 

Wilton, William, Indian, 394. 

Winans, W. P., 394. 

Winship, George P., Council re- 
port, 3; obituary of D. Casares, 
18; appointed teller, 296; Coun- 
cillor, re-elected, 297. 

Winslow, Samuel E., 326. 

Winthrop, Theodore, "Canoe and 
Saddle," 378, 381. 

Wolcott, Erastus, declined election 
to Constitutional Convention, 
80; on Ellsworth, 86. 

Wolcott, Oliver, 124; debate on 
Constitution, 122. 

Wolfe, James, engraving of, 67. 

Wood, Charles E. S., 389. 

Woodward, Samuel B., gift, 319. 

Worcester, views and maps de- 
posited, 333. 

Worcester County Probate Office, 
deposit of Shays's Rebellion 
documents, 331. 

Wyllus, George, 80. 



Yellow fever, scientific discovery, 

373. 
Yellow Wolf, Indian, 392. 




m 



/* Oif^oioS 



Vol. 25 



New Series 



Part 1 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



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Vol. 25 



New Series 



Part 2 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



fimsrttan Pttttqimrtan ^btxtfy 






1 AT THE 

ANNUAL MEETING HELD IN WORCESTER 

OCTOBER 20, 1915 





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mm 



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